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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541648/expert-consensus-survey-on-medication-adherence-in-psychiatric-patients-and-use-of-a-digital-medicine-system
#1
Ainslie Hatch, John P Docherty, Daniel Carpenter, Ruth Ross, Peter J Weiden
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need to objectively assess adherence problems that are a common cause of unexplained or unexpected suboptimal outcome. A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to address this need in patients with serious mental illness. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a quantitative expert consensus survey to (1) assess relative importance of causes of suboptimal outcomes, (2) examine modalities used to assess adherence, (3) provide guidance on when and how to use the DMS in clinical practice once available, and (4) suggest interventions for specific reasons for nonadherence...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526611/alcohol-induces-input-specific-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-dorsomedial-striatum
#2
Tengfei Ma, Britton Barbee, Xuehua Wang, Jun Wang
Accumulated evidence suggests that the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of the basal ganglia plays an essential role in pathological excessive alcohol consumption. The DMS receives multiple glutamatergic inputs. However, whether and how alcohol consumption distinctly affects these excitatory afferents to the DMS remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively activate the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs in DMS slices, and measured the effects of alcohol consumption on glutamatergic transmission in these corticostriatal and amygdalostriatal circuits...
May 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511696/variant-effect-prediction-tools-assessed-using-independent-functional-assay-based-datasets-implications-for-discovery-and-diagnostics
#3
Khalid Mahmood, Chol-Hee Jung, Gayle Philip, Peter Georgeson, Jessica Chung, Bernard J Pope, Daniel J Park
BACKGROUND: Genetic variant effect prediction algorithms are used extensively in clinical genomics and research to determine the likely consequences of amino acid substitutions on protein function. It is vital that we better understand their accuracies and limitations because published performance metrics are confounded by serious problems of circularity and error propagation. Here, we derive three independent, functionally determined human mutation datasets, UniFun, BRCA1-DMS and TP53-TA, and employ them, alongside previously described datasets, to assess the pre-eminent variant effect prediction tools...
May 16, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511016/structural-and-biochemical-insights-into-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-cleavage-by-cofactor-bound-dddk-from-the-prolific-marine-bacterium-pelagibacter
#4
Nicholas J Schnicker, Saumya M De Silva, Jonathan D Todd, Mishtu Dey
Enormous amounts of the organic osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are produced in marine environments where bacterial DMSP lyases cleave it yielding acrylate and the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans and they play a key role in DMSP catabolism. An important environmental factor affecting DMS generation via DMSP lyases is the availability of metal ions since they are essential cofactors for many of these enzymes...
May 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502123/novel-method-for-the-depletion-of-cariogenic-bacteria-using-dextranomer-microspheres
#5
Lauren Mashburn-Warren, Jennifer S Downey, Steven D Goodman
Streptococcus mutans is recognized as one of the key contributors to the dysbiotic state that results in dental caries. While existing treatment strategies reduce the incidence of tooth decay, they also eliminate both the cariogenic and beneficial microbes. Here we introduce a novel treatment alternative using Sephadex, cross-linked dextranomer microspheres (DMs), typically used for gel filtration chromatography. In addition DM beads can be used for affinity purification of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) from S...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489407/high-yield-synthesis-of-janus-dendritic-mesoporous-silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde-nanoparticles-a-competing-growth-mechanism
#6
Lili Qu, Huicheng Hu, Jiaqi Yu, Xiaoya Yu, Jian Liu, Yong Xu, Qiao Zhang
Recently, Janus nanostructures that possess two or more different surface functions have attracted enormous attention because of their unique structures and promising applications in diverse fields. In this work, we present that Janus structured dendritic mesoporous silica @ resorcinol-formaldehyde (DMS@RF) nanoparticles can be prepared through a simple one-pot colloidal method. The Janus DMS@RF nanoparticle shows a bonsai-like morphology which is consisted of a dendritic mesoporous silica part and a spherical RF part...
May 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485454/chemical-differentiation-of-three-dmsp-lyases-from-the-marine-roseobacter-group
#7
Immo Burkhardt, Lukas Lauterbach, Nelson L Brock, Jeroen S Dickschat
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) catabolism of marine bacteria plays an important role in marine and global ecology. The genome of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a model organism from the Roseobacter group, harbours no less than three genes for different DMSP lyases (DddW, DddP and DddQ) that catalyse the degradation of DMSP to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylate. Despite their apparent similar function these enzymes show no significant overall sequence identity. In this work DddQ and DddW from R. pomeroyi and the DddP homolog from Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 were functionally characterised and their substrate scope was tested using several synthetic DMSP analogues...
May 23, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469605/evolution-of-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-metabolism-in-marine-phytoplankton-and-bacteria
#8
REVIEW
Hannah A Bullock, Haiwei Luo, William B Whitman
The elucidation of the pathways for dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) synthesis and metabolism and the ecological impact of DMSP have been studied for nearly 70 years. Much of this interest stems from the fact that DMSP metabolism produces the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the primary natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere. DMSP plays many important roles for marine life, including use as an osmolyte, antioxidant, predator deterrent, and cryoprotectant for phytoplankton and as a reduced carbon and sulfur source for marine bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467439/comparison-of-the-spatial-cognitive-functions-of-dorsomedial-striatum-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-mice
#9
Tine Pooters, Annelies Laeremans, Ilse Gantois, Ben Vermaercke, Lutgarde Arckens, Rudi D'Hooge
Neurons in anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) project to dorsomedial striatum (DMS) as part of a corticostriatal circuit with putative roles in learning and other cognitive functions. In the present study, the spatial-cognitive importance of aCC and DMS was assessed in the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM). Brain lesion experiments that focused on areas of connectivity between these regions indicated their involvement in spatial cognition. MWM learning curves were markedly delayed in DMS-lesioned mice in the absence of other major functional impairments, whereas there was a more subtle, but still significant influence of aCC lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#10
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457231/disease-management-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-who-have-universal-access-to-health-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Ofra Kalter-Leibovici, Dov Freimark, Laurence S Freedman, Galit Kaufman, Arnona Ziv, Havi Murad, Michal Benderly, Barbara G Silverman, Nurit Friedman, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe, Elad Asher, Avishay Grupper, Dorit Goldman, Miriam Amitai, Shlomi Matetzky, Mordechai Shani, Haim Silber
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of disease management programs in improving the outcome of heart failure patients remains uncertain and may vary across health systems. This study explores whether a countrywide disease management program is superior to usual care in reducing adverse health outcomes and improving well-being among community-dwelling adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic heart failure who have universal access to advanced health-care services and technologies. METHODS: In this multicenter open-label trial, 1,360 patients recruited after hospitalization for heart failure exacerbation (38%) or from the community (62%) were randomly assigned to either disease management or usual care...
May 1, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451710/thalamic-inputs-to-dorsomedial-striatum-are-involved-in-inhibitory-control-evidence-from-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-in-rats
#12
Jasjot Saund, Daniel Dautan, Claire Rostron, Gonzalo P Urcelay, Todor V Gerdjikov
RATIONALE: Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. OBJECTIVES: Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats...
April 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449980/the-effect-of-submandibular-gland-preservation-during-level-1b-neck-dissection-on-postoperative-xerostomia
#13
Jeff D Markey, William G Morrel, Steven J Wang, William R Ryan
OBJECTIVE: Compare the presence and degree of postoperative xerostomia following preservation or excision of the submandibular gland (SMG) during level IB neck dissection (ND) without adjuvant radiation. METHODS: Retrospective review with patient questionnaire administered to patients with pT1-2N0 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent resection and ND with SMG preservation or SMG excision without postoperative radiation from 2011 to 2015. We analyzed an additional control group that was age and gender-matched and had not undergone oral resection or SMG excision...
April 24, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432653/analyzing-glycopeptide-isomers-by-combining-differential-mobility-spectrometry-with-electron-and-collision-based-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
J Larry Campbell, Takashi Baba, Chang Liu, Catherine S Lane, J C Yves Le Blanc, James W Hager
Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) has been employed to separate isomeric species in several studies. Under the right conditions, factors such as separation voltage, temperature, the presence of chemical modifiers, and residence time can combine to provide unique signal channels for isomeric species. In this study, we examined a set of glycopeptide isomers, MUC5AC-3 and MUC5AC-13, which bear an N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) group on either threonine-3 or threonine-13. When analyzed as a mixture, the resulting MS and MS/MS spectra yield fragmentation patterns that cannot discern these convolved species...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430039/distractor-resistant-stm-is-supported-by-transient-changes-in-neural-stimulus-representations
#15
Jan Derrfuss, Matthias Ekman, Michael Hanke, Marc Tittgemeyer, Christian J Fiebach
Goal-directed behavior in a complex world requires the maintenance of goal-relevant information despite multiple sources of distraction. However, the brain mechanisms underlying distractor-resistant working or STM are not fully understood. Although early single-unit recordings in monkeys and fMRI studies in humans pointed to an involvement of lateral prefrontal cortices, more recent studies highlighted the importance of posterior cortices for the active maintenance of visual information also in the presence of distraction...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418991/effect-of-legal-status-on-the-early-treatment-outcomes-of-migrants-beginning-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-at-an-outpatient-clinic-in-milan-italy
#16
Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Letizia Oreni, Paolo Vassalini, Chiara Resnati, Giorgio Bozzi, Laura Milazzo, Spinello Antinori, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Galli
OBJECTIVE: In a setting of free access to HIV care, we compared the early treatment outcomes of HIV-infected undocumented migrants (UMs), documented migrants (DMs) and Italian subjects. METHODS: The clinical data of 640 Italians and 245 migrants who started combined ART (cART) at an HIV clinic in Milan, Italy, were reviewed. The migrants were mainly Latin Americans (83 DMs and 56 UMs) or sub-Saharan Africans (52 DMs and 11 UMs), but a minority were of other origin (33 DMs and 10 UMs)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403330/dental-management-survey-brazil-dms-br-creation-and-validation-of-a-management-instrument
#17
Paola Sampaio Gonzales, Ismar Eduardo Martins, Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic, Paulo Roberto da Silva, Edgard Michel-Crosato
Questionnaires for the assessment of knowledge and self-perception can be useful to diagnose what a dentist knows about management and administration. The aim of the present study was to create and validate the Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR) scale, based on meetings with experts in the field. After having elaborated the first version, 10 audits were performed in dental offices in order to produce the final version, which included nine dimensions: location, patient, finance, marketing, competition, quality, staff, career, and productivity...
April 10, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403180/amplification-of-a-transgene-within-a-long-array-of-replication-origins-favors-higher-gene-expression-in-animal-cells
#18
Kiwamu Ohsaki, Yusuke Ohgaki, Noriaki Shimizu
Plasmids with both a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a matrix attachment region (MAR) are spontaneously amplified in transfected cells, and generate extrachromosomal double minute (DM) or chromosomal homogeneously staining region (HSR). We previously isolated the shortest core IR (G5) required for gene amplification. In this study, we ligated the G5 DNA to create direct or inverted repeats, mixed the repeats with an expression plasmid, and transfected the mixture into human COLO 320DM or hamster CHO DG44 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381808/dissolving-microneedles-as-skin-allergy-test-device
#19
Yukako Ito, Kengo Matsumoto, Noriyuki Osakama, Ryosuke Yoshioka, Shinji Kobuchi, Toshiyuki Sakaeda, Kanji Takada
The possibility of using dissolving microneedles (DMs) as a skin allergy test device was studied in rats. Poly-L-arginine was used as a model allergen. Dextran was used to prepare three kinds of DM array chips containing different doses of poly-L-arginine: 17.1±0.5 µg (low-dose DM), 42.2±0.8 µg (medium-dose DM), and 87.4±1.1 µg (high-dose DM); each 1.0 cm(2) chip contained 300 DMs. The mean lengths of the low-, medium-, and high-dose DM were 489±3, 485±3, and 492±1 µm and mean diameters of the base were 301±2, 299±1, and 299±2 µm, respectively...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375310/wavefront-correction-by-a-low-cost-deformable-mirror-group-in-a-small-aperture-beam-fiber-laser
#20
Lei Huang, Chenlu Zhou, Xingkun Ma, Meng Yan, Junbiao Fan
A low-cost deformable mirror (DM) group for wavefront correction in a small-aperture-beam fiber laser is reported in this paper. The DM group consists of nine single-actuator DMs and could act as a "virtual" 9-actuator DM arranged in a 3×3 array. The equivalent distance between two adjacent actuators could reach as small as 3 mm, which can lead to a relatively high lateral resolution. Reflection mirrors in the DM group can be individually polished and high-damage-threshold coated. The unique manufacture flexibility will ensure the particularly low cost of the DM group...
March 10, 2017: Applied Optics
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