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Shenghua Ding, Rongrong Wang, Yang Dan, Gaoyang Li, Shiyi Ou
BACKGROUND: Pectin is relative to fruit maturation and loss of flesh firmness. In this research, changes in pectin characteristics, including pectin content, neutral sugar compositions, molecular weight (Mw ) distribution, and degree of methyl esterification (DM), in six different growth stages (S1-S6) of jujube fruit were assessed. RESULTS: The growth of jujube fruit corresponded to an increase in water-soluble pectin (WSP), and a decrease in Na2 CO3 -soluble pectin (SSP)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Matthias Baldus, Rüdiger Klie, Xi De, Frank-Juergen Methner
During malt kilning, significant amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidize leading to the formation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a precursor of DMS during fermentation. Yet, knowledge regarding reaction mechanisms of DMSO formation during malt production is limited. The role of thiols in sulfide oxidation is unclear as they possess sulfoxide reducing ability as well as pro- and antioxidative properties. This study investigated the effects of the thiol L-cysteine (Cys), molecular oxygen, transition metal ions and EDTA on DMS oxidation in aqueous model solutions...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vladimir G Tyuterev, Roman V Kochanov, Sergey A Tashkun
Ab initio dipole moment surfaces (DMSs) of the ozone molecule are computed using the MRCI-SD method with AVQZ, AV5Z, and VQZ-F12 basis sets on a dense grid of about 1950 geometrical configurations. The analytical DMS representation used for the fit of ab initio points provides better behavior for large nuclear displacements than that of previous studies. Various DMS models were derived and tested. Vibration-rotation line intensities of (16)O3 were calculated from these ab initio surfaces by the variational method using two different potential functions determined in our previous works...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Chang Liu, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W Arnold, Thomas R Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn
In recent years, the direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and mass spectrometry (MS) has shown its great potential to improve limits of quantitation, accelerate analysis throughput, and diminish potential matrix effects when compared to direct injection to MS. In this study, we introduce the open port probe (OPP) as a robust interface to couple biocompatible SPME (Bio-SPME) fibers to MS systems for direct electrospray ionization. The presented design consisted of minimal alterations to the front-end of the instrument and provided better sensitivity, simplicity, speed, wider compound coverage, and high-throughput in comparison to the LC-MS based approach...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Andrew R J Curson, Ji Liu, Ana Bermejo Martínez, Robert T Green, Yohan Chan, Ornella Carrión, Beth T Williams, Sheng-Hui Zhang, Gui-Peng Yang, Philip C Bulman Page, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Jonathan D Todd
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is one of the Earth's most abundant organosulfur molecules, a signalling molecule(1), a key nutrient for marine microorganisms(2,3) and the major precursor for gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS, another infochemical in signalling pathways(4), is important in global sulfur cycling(2) and affects the Earth's albedo, and potentially climate, via sulfate aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei production(5,6). It was thought that only eukaryotes produce significant amounts of DMSP(7-9), but here we demonstrate that many marine heterotrophic bacteria also produce DMSP, probably using the same methionine (Met) transamination pathway as macroalgae and phytoplankton(10)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Maite de Blas, Marino Navazo, Lucio Alonso, Gotzon Gangoiti, José Antonio García, Estíbaliz Sáez de Cámara, Verónica Valdenebro, Estíbaliz García-Ruiz, Nicolás García-Borreguero
Odour complaints are frequent nowadays, particularly nearby industrial facilities emitting odorous compounds. Among all compounds susceptible of causing odour annoyance, reduced sulphur compounds (RSC) were studied, due to their unpleasant odour and low odour threshold. RSC ambient air mixing ratios, meteorological conditions and population complaints were analysed in an area of complex topography in order to identify their potential sources. Mixing ratios of three compounds, dimethyl sulphide (DMS), carbon disulphide (CDS) and dimethyl disulphide (DMDS), were continuously monitored using an online gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC-MSD), which was placed in a mobile air quality monitoring unit...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Q Cao, G M Li, H Xu, Q Shen, L Sun, X Y Fang, H M Liu, W Guo, Y H Zhai, B B Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical manifestation and molecular characteristics of COQ6 mutation induced nephrotic syndrome, and to evaluate efficacy of CoQ(10) therapy. Method: Clinical data of the case with infantile nephrotic syndrome was summarized, including clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and family investigation. The patient received CoQ(10) 30 mg/(kg·d) therapy. Urine protein/creatinine ratio, serum albumin and creatinine were detected to assess the efficacy of the therapy. Result: (1) The 10 months old boy was presented with nephrotic level proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Jacquelyn M Evans, Rooksana E Noorai, Kate L Tsai, Alison N Starr-Moss, Cody M Hill, Kendall J Anderson, Thomas R Famula, Leigh Anne Clark
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a chronic inflammatory myopathy and vasculopathy driven by genetic and environmental influences. Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of an analogous, spontaneous disease of dogs also termed dermatomyositis (DMS). As in JDM, we observed a significant association with a haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (DLA-DRB1*002:01/-DQA1*009:01/-DQB1*001:01), particularly in homozygosity (P-val = 0.0001). However, the high incidence of the haplotype among healthy dogs indicated that additional genetic risk factors are likely involved in disease progression...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
Intae Kim, Doshik Hahm, Keyhong Park, Youngju Lee, Jung-Ok Choi, Miming Zhang, Liqi Chen, Hyun-Cheol Kim, SangHoon Lee
We investigated horizontal and vertical distributions of DMS in the upper water column of the Amundsen Sea Polynya and Pine Island Polynya during the austral summer (January-February) of 2016 using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) onboard the Korean icebreaker R/V Araon. The surface water concentrations of DMS varied from <1 to 400nM. The highest DMS (up to 300nM) were observed in sea ice-polynya transition zones and near the Getz ice shelf, where both the first local ice melting and high plankton productivity were observed...
January 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lulu Zhang, Wei Tan, Jiang Zhou, Ming Xu, Gu Yuan
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cells, and has been shown to be a susceptibility factor for breast cancer. In this study, we found that the G-rich sequences in the FGFR2 promoter region can form G-quadruplexes, which could be the target and inhibitor of the FGFR2 gene. METHODS: Initially, the formation of G-quadruplexes was confirmed by ESI-MS and CD, and DMS footprinting experiments gave the folding pattern of the G-quadruplexes...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Daniele Caprioli, Marco Venniro, Michelle Zhang, Jennifer M Bossert, Brandon L Warren, Bruce T Hope, Yavin Shaham
: We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sean A Fischer, Edoardo Aprà, Niranjan Govind, Wayne P Hess, Patrick Z El-Khoury
Recent developments in nanophotonics have paved the way for achieving significant advances in the realm of single-molecule chemical detection, imaging, and dynamics. In particular, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that is now routinely used to identify the chemical identity of single molecules. Understanding how nanoscale physical and chemical processes affect single-molecule SERS spectra and selection rules is a challenging task and is still actively debated. Herein, we explore underappreciated chemical phenomena in ultrasensitive SERS...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Qianqian Du, Yujing Mu, Chenglong Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Chengtang Liu
Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was intensively studied in the water from the Aohai Lake of Beijing city. The lake water was found to be highly supersaturated with COS, CS2 and DMS, with their initial concentrations of 0.91±0.073nmol/L, 0.55±0.071nmol/L and 0.37±0.062nmol/L, respectively. The evident photochemical production of COS and CS2 in the lake water under irradiation of 365nm and 302nm indicated that photochemical production of them might be the reason for their supersaturation...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yun-Fu Liu, Jing-Ming Guo
Digital multitoning is an extension of halftoning for rendering more than two tones at each pixel for higher image quality. Although a lot of effort have been put in generating dispersed dots previously, the blue-noise feature can hardly be achieved for those printers utilizing the electrophotography (EP) process to avoid the physically unstable isolated dots. To overcome this issue, Chandu et al. proposed a screening method for yielding green-noise dot clusters, yet noisy multitone texture was accompanied...
April 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Dong Song, Brian Robinson, Robert Hampson, Vasilis Marmarelis, Sam Deadwyler, Theodore Berger
In order to build hippocampal prostheses for restoring memory functions, we build sparse multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear dynamical models of the human hippocampus. Spike trains are recorded from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epileptic patients performing a variety of memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Using CA3 and CA1 spike trains as inputs and outputs respectively, sparse generalized Laguerre-Volterra models are estimated with group lasso and local coordinate descent methods to capture the nonlinear dynamics underlying the CA3-CA1 spike train transformations...
August 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Uria Alcolombri, Lei Lei, Diana Meltzer, Assaf Vardi, Dan S Tawfik
Atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS) is massively produced in the oceans by bacteria, algae, and corals. To enable identification of DMS sources, we developed a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of the algal Alma dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase family that does not inhibit known bacterial lyases. Its application to coral holobiont indicates that DMS originates from Alma lyase(s). This biochemical profiling may complement meta-genomics and transcriptomics to provide better understanding of the marine sulfur cycle...
20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Sang-Ahm Lee, Byung-In Lee
PURPOSE: In spite of the fact that epilepsy is a concealable stigmatized identity, there is little evidence pertaining to disclosure management in adults living with epilepsy. We determined the factors contributing to disclosure management strategies in adults living with well-controlled epilepsy. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. Korean adults whose seizures had remitted for at least one year participated in this study. Using statistical analyses, we determined whether disclosure management behaviors measured using the Disclosure Management Scale (DMS) were related to demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Lipeng Hou, Weichang Zhou, Bingsuo Zou, Yu Zhang, Junbo Han, Xinxin Yang, Zhihong Gong, Jingbo Li, Sishen Xie, Li-Jie Shi
For their spintronic applications the magnetic and optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been studied widely. However, the exact relationships between the magnetic interactions and optical emission behaviors in DMS are not well understood yet due to their complicated microstructural and compositional characters from different growth and preparation techniques. Manganese (Mn) doped ZnSe nanoribbons with high quality were obtained by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method...
March 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
Fei Liu, Srinivas Somarowthu, Anna Marie Pyle
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important for gene expression, but little is known about their structures. RepA is a 1.6-kb mouse lncRNA comprising the same sequence as the 5' region of Xist, including A and F repeats. It has been proposed to facilitate the initiation and spread of X-chromosome inactivation, although its exact role is poorly understood. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of RepA and Xist, we determined a complete phylogenetically validated secondary-structural map of RepA through SHAPE and DMS chemical probing of a homogeneously folded RNA in vitro...
March 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Martin C M Bricknell, M Nadin
This paper provides the definitive record of the UK Defence Medical Services (DMS) lessons from the organisation of medical services in support of Operation (Op) TELIC (Iraq) and Op HERRICK (Afghanistan). The analysis involved a detailed review of the published academic literature, internal post-operational tour reports and post-tour interviews. The list of lessons was reviewed through three Military Judgement Panel cycles producing the single synthesis 'the golden thread' and eight 'silver bullets' as themes to institutionalise the learning to deliver the golden thread...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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