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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049857/local-therapy-to-distant-metastatic-sites-in-stage-iv-rhabdomyosarcoma
#1
Arvind C Mohan, Rajkumar Venkatramani, M Fatih Okcu, Jed G Nuchtern, Sanjeev A Vasudevan, Anita Mahajan, Nino C Rainusso, Wendy Allen-Rhoades, Murali Chintagumpala, Arnold C Paulino
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of surgery and/or radiation therapy on distant metastatic sites (DMS) in children with stage IV rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients with stage IV RMS at Texas Children's Hospital from 1992 to 2012. Data analyzed included age, gender, primary site, histologic subtype, number and sites of metastases, treatment including local therapy to DMS, and Oberlin score. RESULTS: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 20% and 25%...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048467/identification-of-copy-number-variations-and-translocations-in-cancer-cells-from-hi-c-data
#2
Abhijit Chakraborty, Ferhat Ay
Motivation: Eukaryotic chromosomes adapt a complex and highly dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structure, which profoundly affects different cellular functions and outcomes including changes in epigenetic landscape and in gene expression. Making the scenario even more complex, cancer cells harbor chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations) altering their genomes both at the sequence level and at the level of 3D organization. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques (e...
October 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047964/laboratory-demonstration-of-a-cryogenic-deformable-mirror-for-wavefront-correction-of-space-borne-infrared-telescopes
#3
Aoi Takahashi, Keigo Enya, Kanae Haze, Hirokazu Kataza, Takayuki Kotani, Hideo Matsuhara, Tomohiro Kamiya, Tomoyasu Yamamuro, Paul Bierden, Steven Cornelissen, Charlie Lam, Michael Feinberg
This paper demonstrates a cryogenic deformable mirror (DM) with 1020 actuators based on micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Cryogenic space-borne infrared telescopes can experience a wavefront error due to a figure error of their mirror surface, which makes the imaging performance worse. For on-orbit wavefront correction as one solution, we developed a MEMS-processed electro-static DM with a special surrounding structure for use under the cryogenic temperature. We conducted a laboratory demonstration of its operation in three cooling cycles between 5 K and 295 K...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036619/the-effects-of-dna-supercoiling-on-g-quadruplex-formation
#4
Doreen A T Sekibo, Keith R Fox
Guanine-rich DNAs can fold into four-stranded structures that contain stacks of G-quartets. Bioinformatics studies have revealed that G-rich sequences with the potential to adopt these structures are unevenly distributed throughout genomes, and are especially found in gene promoter regions. With the exception of the single-stranded telomeric DNA, all genomic G-rich sequences will always be present along with their C-rich complements, and quadruplex formation will be in competition with the corresponding Watson-Crick duplex...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035873/multi-task-transfer-learning-deep-convolutional-neural-network-application-to-computer-aided-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-on-mammograms
#5
Ravi K Samala, Heang-Ping Chan, Lubomir M Hadjiiski, Mark A Helvie, Kenny Cha, Caleb Richter
Transfer learning in deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) is an important step in its application to medical imaging tasks. We propose a multi-task transfer learning DCNN with the aims of translating the 'knowledge' learned from non-medical images to medical diagnostic tasks through supervised training and increasing the generalization capabilities of DCNNs by simultaneously learning auxiliary tasks. We studied this approach in an important application: classification of malignant and benign breast masses...
October 16, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031302/fast-quantitation-of-opioid-isomers-in-human-plasma-by-differential-mobility-spectrometry-mass-spectrometry-via-spme-open-port-probe-sampling-interface
#6
Chang Liu, Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Bradley B Schneider, J C Yves Le Blanc, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W Arnold, Thomas R Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn
Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative approaches typically require a thorough sample clean-up and a decent chromatographic step in order to achieve needed figures of merit. However, in most cases, such processes are not optimal for urgent assessments and high-throughput determinations. The direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) to MS has shown great potential to shorten the total sample analysis time of complex matrices, as well as to diminish potential matrix effects and instrument contamination...
October 23, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994459/neural-network-dose-models-for-knowledge-based-planning-in-pancreatic-sbrt
#7
Warren G Campbell, Moyed Miften, Lindsey Olsen, Priscilla Stumpf, Tracey Schefter, Karyn A Goodman, Bernard L Jones
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic cancer requires a skillful approach to deliver ablative doses to the tumor while limiting dose to the highly sensitive duodenum, stomach, and small bowel. Here, we develop knowledge-based artificial neural network dose models (ANN-DMs) to predict dose distributions that would be approved by experienced physicians. METHODS: Arc-based SBRT treatment plans for 43 pancreatic cancer patients were planned, delivering 30-33 Gy in five fractions...
October 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984655/mixed-versus-pure-variants-of-desmoplastic-melanoma-the-cleveland-clinic-experience
#8
Ruzica Z Conic, Jennifer Ko, Sherihan H Allam, Natasha Atanaskova-Mesinkovska, Ivanka Kovalyshyn, Wilma Bergfeld, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a subvariant of spindle cell melanoma, accounting for less than 4% of all cutaneous melanomas. It occurs later in life and is associated with chronic sun exposure. Desmoplastic melanoma prognosis is considered more favorable than other variants, with lower rates of metastasis and higher survival. Recently, DM has been further subclassified into pure and mixed, calling into question surgical management and patient outcomes as well as viability of current nationwide databases without this distinction...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978481/dms-seq-for-in%C3%A2-vivo-genome-wide-mapping-of-protein-dna-interactions-and-nucleosome-centers
#9
Taichi Umeyama, Takashi Ito
Protein-DNA interactions provide the basis for chromatin structure and gene regulation. Comprehensive identification of protein-occupied sites is thus vital to an in-depth understanding of genome function. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is a chemical probe that has long been used to detect footprints of DNA-bound proteins in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a genomic footprinting method, dimethyl sulfate sequencing (DMS-seq), which exploits the cell-permeable nature of DMS to obviate the need for nuclear isolation...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976945/activation-of-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neurons-during-fear-extinction-prevents-the-renewal-of-fear
#10
Courtney A Bouchet, Megan A Miner, Esteban C Loetz, Adam J Rosberg, Holly S Hake, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Nathan Gray, Benjamin N Greenwood
Manipulations that increase dopamine (DA) signaling can enhance fear extinction, but the circuits involved remain unknown. DA neurons originating in the substantia nigra (SN) projecting to the dorsal striatum (DS) are traditionally viewed in the context of motor behavior, but growing data implicate this nigrostriatal circuit in emotion. Here we investigated the role of nigrostriatal DA in fear extinction. Activation of SN DA neurons with designer Gq-coupled receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (Gq-DREADD) during fear extinction had no effect on fear extinction acquisition, but enhanced fear extinction memory and blocked the renewal of fear in a novel context; a pattern of data paralleled by cFos expression in the central amygdala...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966679/dynamical-differential-networks-and-modules-inferring-disrupted-genes-associated-with-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Zhengling Wang, Xinling Yan, Chenghua Zhao
In order to understand the pathogenic factors that initiate the processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a method of inference of multiple differential modules (iMDM) to conduct analysis was performed on the gene expression profile of AD. A total of 11,089 genes and 588,391 interactions were gained based on the gene expression profile and protein-protein interaction network. Subsequently, three differential co-expression networks (DCNs) were constructed with the same nodes but different interactions, and eight multiple differential modules (M-DMs) were identified...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957715/oxidative-damage-of-18s-and-5s-ribosomal-rna-in-digestive-gland-of-mussels-exposed-to-trace-metals
#12
Georgia G Kournoutou, Panagiota C Giannopoulou, Eleni Sazakli, Michel Leotsinidis, Dimitrios L Kalpaxis
Numerous studies have shown the ability of trace metals to accumulate in marine organisms and cause oxidative stress that leads to perturbations in many important intracellular processes, including protein synthesis. This study is mainly focused on the exploration of structural changes, like base modifications, scissions, and conformational changes, caused in 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to 40μg/L Cu, 30μg/L Hg, or 100μg/L Cd, for 5 or 15days...
September 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955140/association-among-internet-usage-body-image-and-eating-behaviors-of-secondary-school-students
#13
Natthakarn Kaewpradub, Komsan Kiatrungrit, Sirichai Hongsanguansri, Chosita Pavasuthipaisit
BACKGROUND: Presently, the internet plays a big role in daily life, especially for adolescents. In this age group, they are more concerned about their face and body shape. Despite the numerous studies on the effect traditional media has on body image, very few have focused on the effect of newer forms of media (e.g. online media). And almost none have looked at the relationship between time spent online and body image. AIM: To study the associations between time spent on the internet, body image satisfaction and eating behaviors of students grades 7 to 12 in the Thai educational system...
August 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944287/detection-of-pentosidine-cross-links-in-cell-secreted-decellularized-matrices-using-time-resolved-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#14
Debika Mitra, Hussain Fatakdawala, Michael Nguyen-Truong, Amy Creecy, Jeffry Nyman, Laura Marcu, J Kent Leach
Hyperglycemia-mediated, nonenzymatic collagen cross-links such as pentosidine (PENT) can have deleterious effects on cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Present techniques to quantify PENT are limited, motivating the need for improved methods to study the accumulation and contribution of PENT toward diabetic clinical challenges such as impaired bone healing. Current methods for studying PENT are destructive, laborious, and frequently employ oversimplified collagen films that lack the complexity of the native ECM...
September 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919252/mutation-in-the-peroxin-coding-gene-pex22-contributing-to-high-malate-production-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Hiroaki Negoro, Mitsuru Sakamoto, Atsushi Kotaka, Kengo Matsumura, Yoji Hata
Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces organic acids such as succinate, acetate, and malate during alcoholic fermentation. Since malate contributes to the pleasant taste of sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage), various methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeast strains have been developed. Here, a high-malate-producing yeast strain F-701H was isolated. This mutant was sensitive to dimethyl succinate (DMS) and harbored a nonsense mutation in the peroxin gene PEX22, which was identified as the cause of high malate production by comparative genome analysis...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918604/symptom-experience-of-multiple-myeloma-symmex-patients-treated-with-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-following-high-dose-melphalan-a-descriptive-longitudinal-study
#16
Matthias Naegele, Monika Kirsch, Gabriele Ihorst, Katharina Fierz, Monika Engelhardt, Sabina De Geest
PURPOSE: High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are associated with high symptom burden. This study aimed to explore multiple myeloma (MM) patients' experience of symptom frequency, intensity, and distress during therapy. METHODS: This descriptive longitudinal study enrolled 29 MM patients who completed the 43-item PROVIVO questionnaire, measuring symptom experience across the dimensions of frequency, intensity, and distress at four assessment points: hospital admission (T0), leucocyte nadir (T1), discharge (T2), and 30 days post discharge (T3)...
September 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912680/fyn-signaling-is-compartmentalized-to-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-dorsal-medial-striatum
#17
Khanhky Phamluong, Emmanuel Darcq, Su Wu, Samuel A Sakhai, Dorit Ron
The tyrosine kinase Fyn plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here we report that Fyn is activated in response to 15 min D1 receptor (D1R) but not D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation specifically in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice but not in the other substriatal regions, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Once activated Fyn phosphorylates its substrate GluN2B, and we show that GluN2B is phosphorylated only in the DMS but not in the other striatal regions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911115/the-ires5-utr-of-the-dicistrovirus-cricket-paralysis-virus-is-a-type-iii-ires-containing-an-essential-pseudoknot-structure
#18
Lauriane Gross, Quentin Vicens, Evelyne Einhorn, Audrey Noireterre, Laure Schaeffer, Lauriane Kuhn, Jean-Luc Imler, Gilbert Eriani, Carine Meignin, Franck Martin
Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) is a dicistrovirus. Its positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome contains two internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) IRES5'UTR mediates translation of non-structural proteins encoded by ORF1 whereas the well-known intergenic region (IGR) IRESIGR is required for translation of structural proteins from open reading frame 2 in the late phase of infection. Concerted action of both IRES is essential for host translation shut-off and viral translation...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905987/novel-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-targeted-therapy-enhances-the-anti-tumour-effects-of-cisplatin-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Jennifer L Bryant, Roben G Gieling, Suzanne L Meredith, Tiffany-Jayne Allen, Leanne Walker, Brian A Telfer, Claudiu T Supuran, Kaye J Williams, Anne White
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has an extremely poor prognosis and methods of improving chemotherapeutic intervention are much sought after. A promising approach lies in inhibiting the tumour-associated enzyme, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), which supports tumour cell survival. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CA IX inhibition using 4-(3'-(3″,5″-dimethylphenyl)ureido)phenyl sulfamate (S4), for the treatment of human SCLC alone and in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy. Treating SCLC cell lines (DMS 79 and COR-L24) with 100µM S4 reduced viability in vitro and enhanced cell death when combined with 7µM cisplatin, most prominently under hypoxic conditions (0...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902856/effect-of-vital-dyes-on-human-corneal-endothelium-and-elasticity-of-descemet-s-membrane
#20
Isabell P Weber, Mrinal Rana, Peter B M Thomas, Ivan B Dimov, Kristian Franze, Madhavan S Rajan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of vital dyes on human Descemet's membranes (DMs) and endothelia. DMs of 25 human cadaveric corneas with research consent were treated with dyes routinely used in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), 0.05% Trypan blue (TB) or a combination of 0.15% Trypan blue, 0.025% Brilliant blue and 4% Polyethylene glycol (commercial name Membrane Blue Dual; MB). The effects of these two dyes on (i) endothelial cell viability, (ii) DM mechanical properties as assessed by atomic force microscopy, and iii) qualitative DM dye retention were tested for two varying exposure times (one or four minutes)...
2017: PloS One
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