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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945231/insulin-fine-tunes-self-renewal-pathways-governing-naive-pluripotency-and-extra-embryonic-endoderm
#1
Kathryn G V Anderson, William B Hamilton, Fabian V Roske, Ajuna Azad, Teresa E Knudsen, Maurice A Canham, Lesley M Forrester, Joshua M Brickman
Signalling downstream of Activin/Nodal (ActA) and Wnt can induce endoderm differentiation and also support self-renewal in pluripotent cells. Here we find that these apparently contradictory activities are fine-tuned by insulin. In the absence of insulin, the combination of these cytokines supports endoderm in a context-dependent manner. When applied to naive pluripotent cells that resemble peri-implantation embryos, ActA and Wnt induce extra-embryonic primitive endoderm (PrE), whereas when applied to primed pluripotent epiblast stem cells (EpiSC), these cytokines induce gastrulation-stage embryonic definitive endoderm...
October 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676094/cultured-epidermal-stem-cells-in-regenerative-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Catherine J Jackson, Kim Alexander Tønseth, Tor Paaske Utheim
Transplantation of cultured epidermal cell sheets (CES) has long been used to treat patients with burns, chronic wounds, and stable vitiligo. In patients with large area burns this can be a life-saving procedure. The ultimate goal, however, is to restore all normal functions of the skin and prevent scar formation. Increased focus on the incorporation of epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) within CES transplants may ultimately prove to be key to achieving this. Transplanted EpiSCs contribute to restoring the complete epidermis and provide long-term renewal...
July 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630002/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-iwr1-induces-expression-of-foxd3-to-promote-mouse-epiblast-stem-cell-self-renewal
#3
Kuisheng Liu, Yuanyuan Sun, Dahai Liu, Shoudong Ye
Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling facilitates the derivation of mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), as well as dramatically promotes EpiSC self-renewal. The specific mechanism, however, is still unclear. Here, we showed that IWR1, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, allowed long-term self-renewal of EpiSCs in serum medium in combination with ROCK inhibitor Y27632. Through transcriptome data analysis, we arrived at a set of candidate transcription factors induced by IWR1. Among these, Forkhead box D3 (Foxd3) was most abundant...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591647/the-art-of-capturing-pluripotency-creating-the-right-culture
#4
REVIEW
Qi-Long Ying, Austin Smith
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a unique tool for genetic perturbation of mammalian cellular and organismal processes additionally in humans offer unprecedented opportunities for disease modeling and cell therapy. Furthermore, ESCs are a powerful system for exploring the fundamental biology of pluripotency. Indeed understanding the control of self-renewal and differentiation is key to realizing the potential of ESCs. Building on previous observations, we found that mouse ESCs can be derived and maintained with high efficiency through insulation from differentiation cues combined with consolidation of an innate cell proliferation program...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541773/induction-of-salivary-gland-like-cells-from-dental-follicle-epithelial-cells
#5
Q L Xu, A Furuhashi, Q Z Zhang, C M Jiang, T-H Chang, A D Le
The dental follicle (DF), most often associated with unerupted teeth, is a condensation of ectomesenchymal cells that surrounds the tooth germ in early stages of tooth development. In the present study, we aim to isolate epithelial stem-like cells from the human DF and explore their potential differentiation into salivary gland (SG) cells. We demonstrated the expression of stem cell-related genes in the epithelial components of human DF tissues, and these epithelial progenitor cells could be isolated and ex vivo expanded in a reproducible manner...
August 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537488/capturing-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency-in-the-embryo-and-in-the-dish
#6
Ludovic Zimmerlin, Tea Soon Park, Elias T Zambidis
Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first derived almost 20 years ago, it was only recently acknowledged that they share closer molecular and functional identity to postimplantation lineage-primed murine epiblast stem cells than to naïve preimplantation inner cell mass-derived mouse ESCs (mESCs). A myriad of transcriptional, epigenetic, biochemical, and metabolic attributes have now been described that distinguish naïve and primed pluripotent states in both rodents and humans. Conventional hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) appear to lack many of the defining hallmarks of naïve mESCs...
August 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455373/chip-seq-analysis-of-genomic-binding-regions-of-five-major-transcription-factors-highlights-a-central-role-for-zic2-in-the-mouse-epiblast-stem-cell-gene-regulatory-network
#7
Kazunari Matsuda, Tomoyuki Mikami, Shinya Oki, Hideaki Iida, Munazah Andrabi, Jeremy M Boss, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Hisato Kondoh
To obtain insight into the transcription factor (TF)-dependent regulation of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), we performed ChIP-seq analysis of the genomic binding regions of five major TFs. Analysis of in vivo biotinylated ZIC2, OTX2, SOX2, POU5F1 and POU3F1 binding in EpiSCs identified several new features. (1) Megabase-scale genomic domains rich in ZIC2 peaks and genes alternate with those rich in POU3F1 but sparse in genes, reflecting the clustering of regulatory regions that act at short and long-range, which involve binding of ZIC2 and POU3F1, respectively...
June 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343982/single-cell-5-formylcytosine-landscapes-of-mammalian-early-embryos-and-escs-at-single-base-resolution
#8
Chenxu Zhu, Yun Gao, Hongshan Guo, Bo Xia, Jinghui Song, Xinglong Wu, Hu Zeng, Kehkooi Kee, Fuchou Tang, Chengqi Yi
Active DNA demethylation in mammals involves ten-eleven translocation (TET) family protein-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC). However, base-resolution landscapes of 5-formylcytosine (5fC) (an oxidized derivative of 5mC) at the single-cell level remain unexplored. Here, we present "CLEVER-seq" (chemical-labeling-enabled C-to-T conversion sequencing), which is a single-cell, single-base resolution 5fC-sequencing technology, based on biocompatible, selective chemical labeling of 5fC and subsequent C-to-T conversion during amplification and sequencing...
May 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097777/activin-a-in-combination-with-erk1-2-mapk-pathway-inhibition-sustains-propagation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Yuhei Ashida, May Nakajima-Koyama, Akira Hirota, Takuya Yamamoto, Eisuke Nishida
The Activin/Nodal/TGF-β signaling pathway plays a major role in maintaining mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). The EpiSC-maintaining medium, which contains Activin A and bFGF, induces differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to EpiSCs. Here, we show that Activin A also has an ability to efficiently propagate ESCs without differentiation to EpiSCs when combined with a MEK inhibitor PD0325901. ESCs cultured in Activin+PD retained high-level expression of naive pluripotency-related transcription factors...
February 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049804/episc-fgf2-medium
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049796/episc-medium
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049783/derivation-and-culture-of-epiblast-stem-cell-episc-lines
#12
Peter Rugg-Gunn
This protocol describes the derivation and culture of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) from early postimplantation epiblasts. EpiSCs can be maintained in an undifferentiated state and retain the ability to generate tissues from all three germ layers in vitro and to form teratomas in vivo. However, they seem unable to form chimeras. Whether this is due to differences in developmental status or a cellular incompatibility (e.g., cell adhesion) between EpiSCs and the host inner cell mass (ICM) is currently unclear...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999597/construction-of-a-dual-fluorescence-reporter-system-to-monitor-the-dynamic-progression-of-pluripotent-cell-differentiation
#13
Wu-Sheng Sun, Ju-Lan Chun, Jeong-Tae Do, Dong-Hwan Kim, Jin-Seop Ahn, Min-Kyu Kim, In-Sul Hwang, Dae-Jin Kwon, Seong-Soo Hwang, Jeong-Woong Lee
Oct4 is a crucial germ line-specific transcription factor expressed in different pluripotent cells and downregulated in the process of differentiation. There are two conserved enhancers, called the distal enhancer (DE) and proximal enhancer (PE), in the 5' upstream regulatory sequences (URSs) of the mouse Oct4 gene, which were demonstrated to control Oct4 expression independently in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We analyzed the URSs of the pig Oct4 and identified two similar enhancers that were highly consistent with the mouse DE and PE...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996082/activin-smad-signaling-is-required-for-maintenance-of-porcine-ips-cell-self-renewal-through-upregulation-of-nanog-and-oct4-expression
#14
Fan Yang, Ning Wang, Yaxian Wang, Tong Yu, Huayan Wang
Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) retain the enormous potential for farm animal reproduction and translational medicine, and have been reported by many laboratories worldwide. Some piPSC lines were bFGF-dependence and showed mouse EpiSC-like morphology; other lines were LIF-dependence and showed mouse ESC-like morphology. Metastable state of piPSC line that required both LIF and bFGF was also reported. Because bona fide pig embryonic stem cells were not available, uncovering piPSC state-specific regulatory circuitries was the most important task...
August 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983978/o-glcnac-is-required-for-the-survival-of-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-their-reversion-to-the-na%C3%A3-ve-state
#15
Taichi Miura, Shoko Nishihara
"Naïve" mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from pre-implantation embryos and possess pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body. "Primed" mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are also pluripotent but are derived from post-implantation embryos. ESC-derived EpiSCs (ESD-EpiSCs) are "primed" pluripotent stem cells and can revert to naïve reverted ESCs (rESCs). O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is a posttranslational modification in the cytoplasm and nucleus...
November 25, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868040/inhibition-of-mll1-histone-methyltransferase-brings-the-developmental-clock-back-to-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency
#16
COMMENT
Stefan Muller, Arnab Nayak
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the post-implantation epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) portray two different states of pluripotency. They differ with respect to epigenetic signatures, dependency of growth factor signaling circuit and cell morphology. They are interconvertible, however, with poor reconversion efficiency. This is indicative of existence of other unknown regulatory pathways govern developmental stage transition. Zhang and colleagues have recently demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of MLL1 histone methyltransferase is casually linked to efficient reprogramming of EpiSCs to developmentally competent ESCs...
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814480/inhibition-of-apoptosis-overcomes-stage-related-compatibility-barriers-to-chimera-formation-in-mouse-embryos
#17
Hideki Masaki, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Yusuke Takahashi, Ayumi Umino, Hideyuki Sato, Keiichi Ito, Ayaka Yanagida, Toshinobu Nishimura, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takumi Era, Kyle M Loh, Sean M Wu, Irving L Weissman, Hiromitsu Nakauchi
Cell types more advanced in development than embryonic stem cells, such as EpiSCs, fail to contribute to chimeras when injected into pre-implantation-stage blastocysts, apparently because the injected cells undergo apoptosis. Here we show that transient promotion of cell survival through expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 enables EpiSCs and Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors to integrate into blastocysts and contribute to chimeric embryos. Upon injection into blastocyst, BCL2-expressing EpiSCs contributed to all bodily tissues in chimeric animals while Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors specifically contributed in a region-specific fashion to endodermal tissues...
November 3, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586544/cripto-is-essential-to-capture-mouse-epiblast-stem-cell-and-human-embryonic-stem-cell-pluripotency
#18
Alessandro Fiorenzano, Emilia Pascale, Cristina D'Aniello, Dario Acampora, Cecilia Bassalert, Francesco Russo, Gennaro Andolfi, Mauro Biffoni, Federica Francescangeli, Ann Zeuner, Claudia Angelini, Claire Chazaud, Eduardo J Patriarca, Annalisa Fico, Gabriella Minchiotti
Known molecular determinants of developmental plasticity are mainly transcription factors, while the extrinsic regulation of this process has been largely unexplored. Here we identify Cripto as one of the earliest epiblast markers and a key extracellular determinant of the naive and primed pluripotent states. We demonstrate that Cripto sustains mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal by modulating Wnt/β-catenin, whereas it maintains mouse epiblast stem cell (EpiSC) and human ESC pluripotency through Nodal/Smad2...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476976/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-accelerates-the-initial-differentiation-of-primed-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Tara TeSlaa, Andrea C Chaikovsky, Inna Lipchina, Sandra L Escobar, Konrad Hochedlinger, Jing Huang, Thomas G Graeber, Daniel Braas, Michael A Teitell
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can self-renew or differentiate from naive or more differentiated, primed, pluripotent states established by specific culture conditions. Increased intracellular α-ketoglutarate (αKG) was shown to favor self-renewal in naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The effect of αKG or αKG/succinate levels on differentiation from primed human PSCs (hPSCs) or mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) remains unknown. We examined primed hPSCs and EpiSCs and show that increased αKG or αKG-to-succinate ratios accelerate, and elevated succinate levels delay, primed PSC differentiation...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292645/loss-of-the-otx2-binding-site-in-the-nanog-promoter-affects-the-integrity-of-embryonic-stem-cell-subtypes-and-specification-of-inner-cell-mass-derived-epiblast
#20
Dario Acampora, Daniela Omodei, Giuseppe Petrosino, Arcomaria Garofalo, Marco Savarese, Vincenzo Nigro, Luca Giovanni Di Giovannantonio, Vincenzo Mercadante, Antonio Simeone
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the inner cell mass (ICM)-derived epiblast exhibit naive pluripotency. ESC-derived epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) and the postimplantation epiblast exhibit primed pluripotency. Although core pluripotency factors are well-characterized, additional regulators, including Otx2, recently have been shown to function during the transition from naive to primed pluripotency. Here we uncover a role for Otx2 in the control of the naive pluripotent state. We analyzed Otx2-binding activity in ESCs and EpiSCs and identified Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 as direct targets...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
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