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Cerebral oxygenation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051728/exacerbation-of-brain-injury-by-post-stroke-exercise-is-contingent-upon-exercise-initiation-timing
#1
Fengwu Li, Xiaokun Geng, Hajra Khan, John T Pendy, Changya Peng, Xiaorong Li, Jose A Rafols, Yuchuan Ding
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050872/manf-promotes-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-progenitor-cells-with-potential-neural-regenerative-effects-in-stroke
#2
Kuan-Yin Tseng, Jenni E Anttila, Konstantin Khodosevich, Raimo K Tuominen, Maria Lindahl, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs die shortly after injury or are unable to arrive at the infarct boundary. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endogenous mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects NSCs against oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced injury and has a crucial role in regulating NPC migration...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050062/-cerebral-emergency-important-anesthesiological-aspects
#3
Martin Schott, Klaus-Peter Stein, Martin Bauer
The anesthesiological management of cerebral emergency represents a great challenge for action under pressure and under time pressure and requires smooth interprofessional cooperation. The exact knowledge of the pathophysiological and pharmacological relationships is the basis for rapid identification of therapeutic influences and possible disturbing factors. In the acute situation, paCO2 and MAP are the central determinants for the anesthetist to ensure cerebral perfusion and the resulting cerebral oxygenation...
October 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049834/percutaneous-left-atrial-unloading-to-prevent-pulmonary-oedema-and-to-facilitate-ventricular-recovery-under-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-therapy
#4
Alexander M Bernhardt, Mathias Hillebrand, Yalin Yildirim, Samer Hakmi, Florian M Wagner, Stefan Blankenberg, Hermann Reichenspurner, Edith Lubos
OBJECTIVES: Left-sided unloading during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is crucial to prevent pulmonary oedema and facilitate ventricular recovery. We present the case of a 55-year-old man under ECMO therapy with pre-existing left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation and in need of ventricular unloading. METHODS: We implanted a 21-Fr TandemHeart Protek Solo trans-septal cannula into the left atrium using a trans-septal approach via the femoral vein...
September 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046349/differential-regulation-of-the-rac1-gtpase-activating-protein-gap-bcr-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#5
Katharine R Smith, Dipen Rajgor, Jonathan G Hanley
Brain ischemia causes oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neurons, triggering a cascade of events leading to synaptic accumulation of glutamate. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitotoxicity and delayed cell death in vulnerable neurons. Following global cerebral ischemia, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are more vulnerable to injury than their cortical counterparts, but the mechanisms that underlie this difference are unclear. Signalling via Rho-family small GTPases, their upstream Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) and GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) is differentially dysregulated in response to OGD/ischemia in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043600/effects-of-ultrasound-guided-stellate-ganglion-block-on-sleep-and-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-in-patients-undergoing-breast-cancer-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#6
Feng Jin, Xiao-Qian Li, Wen-Fei Tan, Hong Ma, Bo Fang, A-Yong Tian, Huang-Wei Lu
Numerous factors could contribute to sleep disturbances in women with breast cancer. We hypothesized that stellate ganglion block (SGB) during surgery would preserve sleep after surgery and increase intraoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) on the blocked side in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. A randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University from January 2016 to September 2016. Ninety-six patients who underwent radical breast cancer surgery requiring general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of two study groups: a control group that received a saline SGB and a block group that received a 0...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043564/the-ucp2-866g-a-polymorphism-could-be-considered-as-a-genetic-marker-of-different-functional-prognosis-in-ischemic-stroke-after-recanalization
#7
I Díaz-Maroto Cicuéndez, E Fernández-Díaz, J García-García, J Jordán, I Fernández-Cadenas, J Montaner, G Serrano-Heras, T Segura
Recent studies based on experimental animal models of stroke have suggested that uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is thought to regulate energy metabolism and reduce reactive oxygen species generation, provides protection against reperfusion damage. We aimed to investigate whether -866G/A polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP2 gene, which enhances its transcriptional activity, is associated with functional prognosis in patients with embolic ischemic stroke after early recanalization...
October 17, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042253/calcium-uptake-and-cytochrome-c-release-from-normal-and-ischemic-brain-mitochondria
#8
Alexander Andreyev, Pratistha Tamrakar, Robert E Rosenthal, Gary Fiskum
At abnormally elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake may compromise mitochondrial electron transport activities and trigger membrane permeability changes that allow for release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic proteins into the cytosol. In this study, a clinically relevant canine cardiac arrest model was used to assess the effects of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity, Ca(2+) uptake-mediated inhibition of respiration, and Ca(2+)-induced cytochrome c release, as measured in vitro in a K(+)-based medium in the presence of Mg(2+), ATP, and NADH-linked oxidizable substrates...
October 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041920/intraoperative-continuous-cerebral-microcirculation-measurement-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-preliminary-data-on-the-early-administration-of-magnesium-sulfate
#9
Bjoern Sommer, Cornelia S Weidinger, Dennis Wolf, Michael Buchfelder, Hubert Schmitt
BACKGROUND: In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), vasospasm remains one of the major complications. The application of intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been under discussion to prevent cerebral ischemia. Our aim was to examine the impact of early MgSO4 administration on local cerebral microcirculation during microsurgical clipping of SAH-related aneurysms. METHODS: The non-invasive laser-Doppler spectrophotometry system "Oxygen-to-See (O2C)" was used in 14 consecutive patients (11 female, 3 male, median age 56...
October 17, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040883/veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-va-ecmo-for-emergency-cardiac-support
#10
Terri Sun, Andrew Guy, Amandeep Sidhu, Gordon Finlayson, Brian Grunau, Lillian Ding, Saida Harle, Leith Dewar, Richard Cook, Hussein D Kanji
PURPOSE: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) may provide benefit to patients in refractory cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock. We aim to summarize our center's 6-year experience with resuscitative VA-ECMO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review (April 2009 to 2015) was performed on consecutive non-cardiotomy patients who were managed with VA-ECMO due to refractory in- or out-of-hospital cardiac (IHCA/OHCA) arrest (E-CPR) or refractory cardiogenic shock (E-CS) with or without preceding cardiac arrest...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039534/apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-ape1-contributes-to-resveratrol%C3%A2-induced-neuroprotection-against-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-re%C3%A2-oxygenation-injury-in-ht22-cells-involvement-in-reducing-oxidative-dna-damage
#11
Jiao-Ying Jia, Zhi-Gang Tan, Min Liu, Yu-Gang Jiang
Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, exhibits a neuroprotective role in models of central nervous system diseases, including cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a multifunctional enzyme that contributes to base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage and redox activation of transcription factors, associated with neuronal survival against hypoxic‑ischemic injury. It was hypothesized that resveratrol protects HT22 cells against oxygen‑glucose deprivation and re‑oxygenation (OGD/R)‑induced injuries through upregulation of APE1...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039513/birc5-is-a-novel-target-of-peroxisome-proliferator%C3%A2-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-in-brain-microvascular-endothelium-cells-during-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Mingjing Xu, Xianli Yang, Qing Zeng, He He, Pengcheng Lu, Guozhi Huang
Cerebral ischemia is a leading cause of ischemic stroke, which may lead to severe disability and mortality worldwide. There are some key factors concerned in cardioprotection, such as peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a ligand binding transcription factor involved in various biological functions including atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction and hypertension, and baculoviral IAP repeat‑containing 5 (BIRC5), which may protect human brain endothelial cells from ischemia‑induced apoptosis...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039497/edaravone-protects-the-retina-against-ischemia-reperfusion%C3%A2-induced-oxidative-injury-through-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#13
Yi-Pin Xu, Fang Han, Jian Tan
Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur as a result of a number of ocular diseases or ischemic events in the brain, leading to possible vision loss if not treated properly. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species is important in the process of I/R injury. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, has been demonstrated to have a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia; however, its effect against retinal I/R injury remains to be fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of edaravone on the oxidative parameters, retinal inflammation and apoptosis induced by I/R injury, and treated photoreceptor‑derived 661W cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and edaravone to examine the underlying mechanism...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038746/influence-of-exercise-duration-on-cardiorespiratory-responses-energy-cost-and-tissue-oxygenation-within-a-6-hour-treadmill-run
#14
Hugo A Kerhervé, Scott McLean, Karen Birkenhead, David Parr, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ([Formula: see text]) and the energy cost of running (Cr ) during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenation. METHODS: Eight trained ultramarathon runners (three women; mean ± SD; age 37 ± 7 yr; maximum [Formula: see text] 60 ± 15 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) completed a 6 hr treadmill run (6TR), which consisted of four modules, including periods of moderate (3 min at 10 km h(-1), 10-CR) and heavy exercise intensities (6 min at 70% of maximum [Formula: see text], HILL), separated by three, 100 min periods of self-paced running (SP)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038061/structural-and-functional-brain-changes-at-early-and-late-stages-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#15
Mahsa Shokouhi, Collin Clarke, Patricia Morley-Forster, Dwight E Moulin, Karen Davis, Keith St Lawrence
Brain plasticity is demonstrated in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although it is unclear how it modulates at different stages of CRPS. The observation that symptoms can progress over time suggests that the pattern of brain changes might also evolve. We measured structural and functional changes as well as sensorimotor integration at early and late stages (ES and LS) of CRPS. Twelve ES patients, sixteen LS patients, and sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gray matter (GM) volume was estimated using voxel-based morphometry...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037241/the-potassium-channel-kca3-1-constitutes-a-pharmacological-target-for-astrogliosis-associated-with-ischemia-stroke
#16
Mengni Yi, Tianjiao Wei, Yanxia Wang, Qin Lu, Gaoxian Chen, Xiaoling Gao, Herbert M Geller, Hongzhuan Chen, Zhihua Yu
BACKGROUND: Reactive astrogliosis is one of the significantly pathological features in ischemic stroke accompanied with changes in gene expression, morphology, and proliferation. KCa3.1 was involved in TGF-β-induced astrogliosis in vitro and also contributed to astrogliosis-mediated neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration disease. METHODS: Wild type mice and KCa3.1(-/-) mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to evaluate the infarct areas by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride staining and neurological deficit...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036811/sildenafil-improves-vascular-and-metabolic-function-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Yang Li, Harshan Ravi, Shin-Lei Peng, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Michael D Devous, Kyle B Womack
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of degenerative dementia in the aging population. Patients with AD have alterations in cerebral hemodynamic function including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate. Therefore, improved cerebrovascular function may be an attractive goal for pharmaceutical intervention in AD. OBJECTIVE: We wished to observe the acute effects of sildenafil on cerebrovascular function and brain metabolism in patients with AD...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036615/monitoring-of-cerebral-oximetry-during-head-up-tilt-test-in-adults-with-history-of-syncope-and-orthostatic-intolerance
#18
E Bachus, H Holm, V Hamrefors, O Melander, R Sutton, M Magnusson, A Fedorowski
Aims: We applied near-infrared-spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure absolute frontal cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) during head-up tilt test (HUT) in patients investigated for unexplained syncope. Methods and results: Synchronized non-invasive beat-to-beat haemodynamic monitoring, ECG, SctO2 (NIRS; normal range: 60-80%), and peripheral oxygen saturation (left hand, SpO2) were applied during HUT in a random sample of patients with unexplained syncope. Tracings of 54 patients (mean-age: 55 ± 19 years, 39% male) with negative HUT, vasovagal syncope (VVS), or orthostatic hypotension (OH) were analysed...
September 28, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034783/cerebral-and-limb-tissue-oxygenation-during-peripheral-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support
#19
Nousjka P A Vranken, Anouk A M A Lindelauf, Antoine P Simons, Marcel J H Ariës, Jos G Maessen, Patrick W Weerwind
Femoral access in extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been associated with regional variations in arterial oxygen saturation, potentially predisposing the patient to ischemic tissue damage. Current monitoring techniques, however, are limited to intermittent bedside evaluation of capillary refill among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess whether cerebral and limb regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) values reflect changes in various patient-related parameters during venoarterial ECLS (VA-ECLS)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030876/reproducibility-of-cmro2-determination-using-dynamic-17-o-mri
#20
Sebastian C Niesporek, Reiner Umathum, Jonathan M Lommen, Nicolas G R Behl, Daniel Paech, Peter Bachert, Mark E Ladd, Armin M Nagel
PURPOSE: To assess the reproducibility of (17) O MRI-based determination of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2 ) in healthy volunteers. To assess the influence of image acquisition and reconstruction parameters on dynamic quantification of functional parameters such as CMRO2 . METHODS: Dynamic (17) O MRI data were simulated and used to investigate influences of temporal resolution (Δt) and partial volume correction (PVC) on the determination of CMRO2 ...
October 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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