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Cerebral oxygenation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651234/pathophysiology-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Weimin Ren, Xiaobo Yang
Stroke is a neurological disease with high disability and fatality rates, and ischemic stroke accounts for 75% of all stroke cases. The underlying pathophysiologic processes of ischemic stroke include oxidative stress, toxicity of excitatory amino acids, excess calcium ions, increased apoptosis and inflammation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may participate in the regulation of the pathophysiologic processes of ischemic stroke as indicated by altered expression of lncRNAs in blood samples of acute ischemic stroke patients, animal models of focal cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) cell models...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649792/comparison-of-different-compression-to-ventilation-ratios-2-1-3-1-and-4-1-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-porcine-model-of-neonatal-asphyxia
#2
Matteo P Pasquin, Po-Yin Cheung, Sparsh Patel, Min Lu, Tze-Fun Lee, Michael Wagner, Megan O'Reilly, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND: High-quality chest compression is essential during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the optimal compression to ventilation ratio (C:V) that should be used during neonatal CPR to optimize coronary and cerebral perfusion while providing adequate ventilation remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that different C:V ratios (e.g., 2: 1 or 4: 1) will reduce the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in severely asphyxiated piglets...
April 12, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644151/trans-cranial-doppler-as-an-ancillary-study-supporting-irreversible-brain-injury-in-a-post-cardiac-arrest-patient-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#3
Naresh Mullaguri, Aarti Sarwal, Nakul Katyal, Premkumar Nattanamai, Pravin George, Christopher R Newey
Obtaining neuroimaging in patients on cardiopulmonary support devices such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be challenging, given the complexities in monitoring, instrumentation, and associated hemodynamic lability. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is used as an ancillary test for the assessment of cerebral circulatory arrest, but its use in non-pulsatile blood flow in venoarterial (VA) ECMO is not well described. We report the use of TCD in a patient on VA ECMO post-cardiac arrest for evaluation of death by neurological criteria...
February 6, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643256/critical-role-of-flavin-and-glutathione-in-complex-i-mediated-bioenergetic-failure-in-brain-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Anja Kahl, Anna Stepanova, Csaba Konrad, Corey Anderson, Giovanni Manfredi, Ping Zhou, Costantino Iadecola, Alexander Galkin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic brain injury is characterized by 2 temporally distinct but interrelated phases: ischemia (primary energy failure) and reperfusion (secondary energy failure). Loss of cerebral blood flow leads to decreased oxygen levels and energy crisis in the ischemic area, initiating a sequence of pathophysiological events that after reoxygenation lead to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain damage. Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are known to be early events in I/R injury...
April 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629959/baseline-cerebral-metabolic-rate-is-a-critical-determinant-of-the-cerebral-vasodilating-potency-of-volatile-anesthetic-agents
#5
John C Drummond
Halothane is commonly viewed as a more potent cerebral vasodilator than isoflurane. It was speculated that the lesser vasodilation caused by isoflurane might be the result of the greater reduction in cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) that it causes, and that the relative vasodilating potencies of halothane and isoflurane would be similar if the two agents were administered in a situation that precluded volatile-agent-induced depression of CMR. To test this hypothesis, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) were measured in two groups of rabbits before and after the administration of 0...
April 9, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628544/anesthetic-considerations-for-carotid-endarterectomy-a-postgraduate-educational-review
#6
REVIEW
Ahmed Yousef A Al Sultan, Abdulrahman Mawadh A Alsubhi
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has shown a significant benefit in preventing ipsilateral stroke when it is compared to conservative management. Surgical morbidity and mortality must be kept to a minimum to achieve this benefit. Neurological status of the CEA patients can be monitored easily during regional anesthesia depending on the awake testing (neurocognitive assessment) method of the CEA patients. In addition, specific parameters can help us to monitor and to predict the neurological status of the CEA patients during the procedures such as regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) changes...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627876/naringin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-inhibiting-peroxynitrite-mediated-mitophagy-activation
#7
Jinghan Feng, Xingmiao Chen, Shengwen Lu, Wenting Li, Dan Yang, Weiwei Su, Xijun Wang, Jiangang Shen
Excessive autophagy/mitophagy plays important roles during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Peroxynitrite (ONOO- ), a representative reactive nitrogen species, mediates excessive mitophagy activation and exacerbates cerebral I/R injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that naringin, a natural antioxidant, could inhibit ONOO- -mediated mitophagy activation and attenuate cerebral I/R injury. Firstly, we demonstrated that naringin possessed strong ONOO- scavenging capability and also inhibited the production of superoxide and nitric oxide in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 10 h oxygen-glucose-deprivation plus 14 h of reoxygenation or ONOO- donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine conditions...
April 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626267/different-ventilation-techniques-and-hemodynamic-optimization-to-maintain-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-rsco-2-during-laparoscopic-bariatric-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-interventional-study
#8
Osama M Asaad
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 ) in response to different ventilation strategies: inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2 ), end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2 ), and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in addition to optimizing mean arterial pressure (MAP) in obese patients subjected to laparoscopic bariatric surgery in the reverse trendelenburg position. METHODS: 50 obese patients were randomly assigned into one of two groups...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625260/protective-effects-of-polygonum-multiflorum-on-ischemic-stroke-rat-model-analysed-by-1-h-nmr-metabolic-profiling
#9
Ming-Hui Li, Ling-Yu Ruan, Cheng Chen, Yue-Xiao Xing, Wei Hong, Rong-Hui Du, Jun-Song Wang
Stroke is the third most common cause of death in most industrialized countries. Polygonum multiflorum (He-Shou-Wu, HSW) is one of the traditional Chinese medicines with multiple pharmacological activities which is widely used in Chinese recipe. This study aims to explore the protective effect of HSW on ischemic stroke rat model and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The mortality rate, neurological deficit, cerebral infarct size, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, biochemical parameters, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to access the treatment effects of HSW on ischemic stroke...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625150/nimodipine-represses-ampk-phosphorylation-and-excessive-autophagy-after-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#10
Yan Chen, Zihu Tan
Chronic cerebral hypofusion (CCH) after bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2VO) causes cognitive damage and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 area, and influences the oxygen and glucose supply in the brain which often results in metabolic alterations and oxidative stress. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, a sensor of cellular energy status that directs metabolic adaptation to support cellular growth and survival after CCH. Autophagy is also likely to be involved in metabolic adaptation and play an important role in neuronal deterioration and cognitive decline after CCH...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624520/inhibition-of-microrna-429-attenuates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-neuronal-injury-by-promoting-expression-of-gata-binding-protein-4
#11
Jie Xiao, Ranran Kong, Jingye Hu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been documented as critical regulators in ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal death. A better understanding of miRNA-mediated molecular mechanisms in ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal death may provide therapeutic targets for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. A growing body of evidence suggests that miR-429 is a apoptosis-related miRNA that is also induced by hypoxia. However, whether miR-429 is involved in regulating neuronal apoptosis during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unclear...
April 5, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622770/tnf-%C3%AE-induces-human-neural-progenitor-cell-survival-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-by-activating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#12
Miri Kim, Kwangsoo Jung, Il-Sun Kim, Il-Shin Lee, Younhee Ko, Jeong Eun Shin, Kook In Park
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has been shown to be beneficial in the ischemic brain. However, the low survival rate of transplanted NPCs in an ischemic microenvironment limits their therapeutic effects. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is one of the proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of various injuries. On the other hand, several studies have shown that TNF-α influences the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of NPCs. Our study investigated the effect of TNF-α pretreatment on human NPCs (hNPCs) under ischemia-related conditions in vitro...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620280/melatonin-protects-brain-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-attenuating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#13
Yu Wen Lin, Tsung Ying Chen, Chia Yang Hung, Shih Huang Tai, Sheng Yang Huang, Che Chao Chang, Hsin Yi Hung, E Jian Lee
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in mediating ischemic reperfusion damage in brain. In this study, we evaluated whether melatonin inhibits ER stress in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with melatonin (5 mg/kg) or control at reperfusion onset after transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 90 min. Brain infarction and hemorrhage within infarcts were measured...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620183/puerarin-regulates-neovascular-glaucoma-through-pigment-epithelium%C3%A2-derived-growth-factor%C3%A2-induced-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#14
Hui-Yu Wei, Ya-Jie Zhang, Shao-Zhen Zhao
Neovascular glaucoma is an ophthalmic disease and a potentially blinding secondary glaucoma caused by the formation of abnormal new blood vessels on the iris, which can prevent the normal drainage of water from the anterior segment of the eye. Evidence from China has suggested that puerarin benefits many diseases including myocardial infarction, stable angina, cerebral ischemia and glaucoma in a clinical setting. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the efficacies of puerarin on neovascular glaucoma in a mouse model...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620149/thromboxane-a2-receptor-antagonist-sq29548-attenuates-sh%C3%A2-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cell-impairments-induced-by-oxidative-stress
#15
Gaoyu Cai, Aijuan Yan, Ningzhen Fu, Yi Fu
Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) serves a vital role in numerous neurological disorders. Our previous study indicated that SQ29548, an antagonist of TXA2R, attenuated the induced neuron damage in cerebral infarction animals; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Certain studies revealed a new role of TXA2R in the regulation of oxidative stress, which is one of the basic pathological processes in neurological disorders. Thus, the present study attempted to examine whether the inhibition of TXA2R with SQ29548 helped to protect the nerve cells against oxidative stress...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619785/compression-stockings-reduce-the-incidence-of-hypotension-but-not-that-of-cerebral-desaturation-events-in-the-beach-chair-position-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Jae Hee Woo, Youn Jin Kim, Ji-Sun Jeong, Ji Seon Chae, Young Rong Lee, Jin Young Chon
BACKGROUND: The beach-chair position (BCP) results in decreases in venous return, cardiac output, and cerebral perfusion pressure. In this randomized, prospective study, we investigated whether applying thigh-high compression stockings affected the maintenance of regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) in the BCP. METHODS: Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the BCP under general anesthesia were included and assigned randomly to the control or the compression stocking group...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618992/fronto-temporal-connectivity-predicts-ect-outcome-in-major-depression
#17
Amber M Leaver, Benjamin Wade, Megha Vasavada, Gerhard Hellemann, Shantanu H Joshi, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is arguably the most effective available treatment for severe depression. Recent studies have used MRI data to predict clinical outcome to ECT and other antidepressant therapies. One challenge facing such studies is selecting from among the many available metrics, which characterize complementary and sometimes non-overlapping aspects of brain function and connectomics. Here, we assessed the ability of aggregated, functional MRI metrics of basal brain activity and connectivity to predict antidepressant response to ECT using machine learning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618282/neuroprotective-effect-of-citrus-kawachiensis-kawachi-bankan-peels-a-rich-source-of-naringin-against-global-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#18
Satoshi Okuyama, Kana Yamamoto, Hirotomo Mori, Atsushi Sawamoto, Yoshiaki Amakura, Morio Yoshimura, Arisa Tamanaha, Yuu Ohkubo, Kuniaki Sugawara, Masahiko Sudo, Mitsunari Nakajima, Yoshiko Furukawa
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory responses. Numerous studies have demonstrated that naringin (NGIN) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We previously reported that Citrus kawachiensis contains a large quantity of NGIN in its peel. In the present study, we orally (p.o.) administered dried peel powder of C. kawachiensis to mice of a transient global ischemia model and found in the hippocampus region that it 1) suppressed neuronal cell death, 2) reversed the reduction in the level of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, 3) had the tendency to reverse the reduction in the level of glutathione, and 4) blocked excessive activation of microglia and astrocytes...
April 4, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617791/beating-heart-aortic-arch-surgery-in-neonates-and-infants
#19
Juan-Miguel Gil-Jaurena, María-Teresa González-López, Ana Pita, Ramón Pérez-Caballero, Mónica Herviás, Dorotea Blanco
OBJECTIVES: Aortic arch repair has been shifted from deep hypothermia plus circulatory arrest to cerebral perfusion at tepid temperatures. A step forward is a simultaneous brain-coronary perfusion, allowing beating-heart arch surgery. METHODS: A 'Y' cannula from the arterial line delivers oxygenated blood to brain and heart. The arch is repaired on a beating heart at 25°C. Intracardiac repair is performed after running cardioplegia through the root line. Fifty patients are classified into 3 groups: A, Norwood (8 neonates); B, aortic arch (14 children) and C, aortic arch plus intracardiac repair (28 patients)...
April 2, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616521/the-relationship-between-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-and-quantitative-metrics-of-neurological-function-after-coronary-bypass-surgery-a-feasibility-study
#20
Joanna S Semrau, Stephen H Scott, Andrew G Hamilton, Dimitri Petsikas, Darrin M Payne, Gianluigi Bisleri, Tarit Saha, J Gordon Boyd
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery may experience neurological dysfunction following their operation. However, the nature of this dysfunction has not been properly quantified. Furthermore, the relationship between post-operative impairment and cerebral oxygen saturation during surgery has remained unclear. This study aims to define the feasibility of using robotic technology to quantify post- CABG neurocognitive function, and to correlate these objective metrics with intraoperative brain tissue oxygen...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
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