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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150995/efficacy-and-safety-of-extracranial-vein-angioplasty-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Paolo Zamboni, Luigi Tesio, Stefania Galimberti, Luca Massacesi, Fabrizio Salvi, Roberto D'Alessandro, Patrizia Cenni, Roberto Galeotti, Donato Papini, Roberto D'Amico, Silvana Simi, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Graziella Filippini
Importance: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord. Whether this condition is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is beneficial in persons with MS and CCSVI is controversial. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of venous PTA in patients with MS and CCSVI. Design, Setting, and Participants: We analyzed 177 patients with relapsing-remitting MS; 62 were ineligible, including 47 (26...
November 18, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150992/accelerated-aging-and-aging-process-in-the-brain
#2
Nickolay K Isaev, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Maria V Oborina, Elena V Stelmashook
One of the approaches to the research of the problem of aging is the study of genetic pathologies leading to accelerated aging, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Down syndrome. Probably, this approach can be used in an attempt to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal and pathological brain aging. The analysis of the current state of scientific knowledge about these pathologies shows that in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndrome, the rate of brain aging is significantly lower than the rate of whole body aging, whereas in Down syndrome, the brain ages faster than other organs due to amyloid-beta accumulation and chronic oxidative stress in the brain tissue...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150982/visualization-within-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-a-micro-focus-x-ray-study
#3
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a non-destructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#4
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150951/inflammasome-its-role-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Keywan Mortezaee, Neda Khanlarkhani, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are pathological events that lead to neuropathological conditions which have in consequence the initiation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the secondary phase of both TBI and SCI after initial cell death. Activation of cytoplasmic inflammasome complexes is regarded as the essential step of neuroinflammation and a key trigger for neuronal death called pyroptosis. Inflammasome complexes are involved in activation of caspase-1 which catalyzes the cleavage of pro-interleukins into their active forms (including interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1β)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150919/a-focus-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-alpha-synuclein-and-a-re-appraisal-of-synucleinopathies
#6
Larisa Ryskalin, Carla L Busceti, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Francesco Fornai
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owing an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations)...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150901/expression-of-the-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-in-the-brain-controls-the-circadian-organization-of-food-intake-and-locomotor-activity-but-not-daily-variations-of-energy-metabolism
#7
Satish Sen, Stéphanie Dumont, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Sophie Reibel, Paul de Goede, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and thought to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle, we studied mice with global (GKO) or brain (BKO) deletion of Rev-erbα. Mice were studied both in a light-dark cycle and constant darkness, and 24-h variations of Respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure, as well as the temporal patterns of rest-activity and feeding behavior were recorded...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150900/genetic-overlap-between-epilepsy-and-schizophrenia-evidence-from-cross-phenotype-analysis-in-hong-kong-chinese-population
#8
Hongsheng Gui, Miaoxin Li, Pak C Sham, Larry Baum, Patrick Kwan, Stacey S Cherny
Epilepsy and schizophrenia are common and typical neurological or mental illness respectively, and sometimes they comorbid in the same patients, however the underlying genetic relationship between the two brain diseases is still not fully understood. To investigate the possible genetic contribution to their comorbidity, we performed polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses and genetic correlation estimation so as to identify the overall genetic overlap between the two diseases. The global schizophrenia PRS is strongly associated with schizophrenia phenotype in Hong Kong population (odds ratio = 1...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150884/directional-local-field-potentials-a-tool-to-optimize-deep-brain-stimulation
#9
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Ines Debove, Andreas Nowacki, Syed Ahmar Shah, Kathleen Seidel, Huiling Tan, John-Stuart Brittain, Katrin Petermann, Lazzaro di Biase, Markus Oertel, Claudio Pollo, Peter Brown, Michael Schuepbach
BACKGROUND: Although recently introduced directional DBS leads provide control of the stimulation field, programing is time-consuming. OBJECTIVES: Here, we validate local field potentials recorded from directional contacts as a predictor of the most efficient contacts for stimulation in patients with PD. METHODS: Intraoperative local field potentials were recorded from directional contacts in the STN of 12 patients and beta activity compared with the results of the clinical contact review performed after 4 to 7 months...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150873/survival-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-after-deep-brain-stimulation-or-medical-management
#10
Frances M Weaver, Kevin T Stroupe, Bridget Smith, Beverly Gonzalez, Zhiping Huo, Lishan Cao, Dolores Ippolito, Kenneth A Follett
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation has been shown to have a significant long-term beneficial effect on motor function. However, whether it affects survival is not clear. In this study, we compared survival rates for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) with those who were medically managed. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data of veterans with PD who received DBS and were propensity score matched to a cohort of veterans with PD who did not receive DBS between 2007-2013...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150860/quality-of-life-outcomes-after-subthalamic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-depends-on-age
#11
Haidar S Dafsari, Paul Reker, Lisa Stalinski, Monty Silverdale, Alexandra Rizos, Keyoumars Ashkan, Michael T Barbe, Gereon R Fink, Julian Evans, Julia Steffen, Michael Samuel, Till A Dembek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Angelo Antonini, K Ray-Chaudhuri, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Lars Timmermann
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how quality of life outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) depends on age. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 120 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we investigated the PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Unified PD Rating Scale-III, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 months follow-up...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#12
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150829/brain-metastasis-of-penile-angiosarcoma
#13
Ozgur Kardes, Fatih Aydemir, Halil Ibrahim Suner, Emre Durdag, Soner Civi, Kadir Tufan, Fazilet Kayaselcuk
Angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy originating from vascular endothelial cells. Brain metastasis of aniosarcomas are uncommon up to the literature. Penile angiosarcomas are also seldom among all anjiosarcomas. A case with penile angiosarcoma with confirmed brain metastasis is aimed to be reported and contribute to the literature for similar cases.
November 16, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150777/glibenclamide-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-have-comparable-effect-on-attenuating-global-cerebral-edema-following-experimental-cardiac-arrest
#14
Shin Nakayama, Noriko Taguchi, Yumi Isaka, Takako Nakamura, Makoto Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema is one of the major causes of mortality following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A subunit of the sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential M4 (Sur1-TRPM4) channel has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-evoked cerebral edema. In this study, we examined whether glibenclamide (GBC), a Sur1-TRPM4 channel inhibitor, attenuates cerebral edema following CA/CPR and further examined the efficacy of GBC combined with therapeutic hypothermia...
November 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150776/hyperpyrexia-as-the-presenting-symptom-of-intracranial-hypotension
#15
Omar Hussein, Michel Torbey
INTRODUCTION: Hyperpyrexia is a severely elevated core body temperature secondary to an elevated hypothalamic set thermo-regulatory threshold. Hyperthermia is an elevated core body temperature beyond the normal hypothalamic set thermo-regulatory threshold. Intracranial hypotension can present with a wide variety of symptoms ranging from orthostatic headache up to coma. We report a rare case of hyperpyrexia associated with intracranial hypotension. METHODS: A case report of a 55-year-old female patient with a history of angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage status post-ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement six years prior to admission who suddenly developed encephalopathy and high fever...
November 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150743/differential-response-of-neural-cells-to-trauma-induced-swelling-in-vitro
#16
A R Jayakumar, M Taherian, K S Panickar, N Shamaladevi, M E Rodriguez, B G Price, M D Norenberg
Brain edema and the associated increase in intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that accounts for most early deaths after TBI. We recently showed that acute severe trauma to cultured astrocytes results in cell swelling. We further examined whether trauma induces cell swelling in neurons and microglia. We found that severe trauma also caused cell swelling in cultured neurons, whereas no swelling was observed in microglia. While severe trauma caused cell swelling in both astrocytes and neurons, mild trauma to astrocytes, neurons, and microglia failed to cell swelling...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150726/tspo-imaging-using-the-novel-pet-ligand-18-f-ge-180-quantification-approaches-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Lena Vomacka, Nathalie Lisa Albert, Simon Lindner, Marcus Unterrainer, Christoph Mahler, Matthias Brendel, Larissa Ermoschkin, Astrid Gosewisch, Anika Brunegraf, Christopher Buckley, Tania Kümpfel, Rainer Rupprecht, Sibylle Ziegler, Martin Kerschensteiner, Peter Bartenstein, Guido Böning
BACKGROUND: PET ligands targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) represent promising tools to visualise neuroinflammation. Here, we analysed parameters obtained in dynamic and static PET images using the novel TSPO ligand [(18)F]GE-180 in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and an approach for semi-quantitative assessment of this disease in clinical routine. Seventeen dynamic [(18)F]GE-180 PET scans of RRMS patients were evaluated (90 min). A pseudo-reference region (PRR) was defined after identification of the least disease-affected brain area by voxel-based comparison with six healthy controls (HC) and upon exclusion of voxels suspected of being affected in static 60-90 min p...
October 26, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150710/computed-tomography-perfusion-is-a%C3%A2-useful-adjunct-to-computed-tomography-angiography-in-the-diagnosis-of-brain-death
#18
M Sawicki, J Sołek-Pastuszka, K Chamier-Ciemińska, A Walecka, J Walecki, R Bohatyrewicz
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of brain death (BD), computed tomography angiography (CTA) results in some cases show intracranial filling, leading to diagnostic confusion. Because cerebral circulatory arrest commences at the capillary level, we hypothesized that computed tomography perfusion (CTP) would be a more sensitive approach than CTA; therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the sensitivities of CTP and CTA in the diagnosis of BD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Whole brain CTP was performed in patients in the intensive care unit diagnosed with BD and CTA was derived from CTP datasets...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150679/dynamics-of-high-frequency-brain-activity
#19
Steven X Moffett, Sean M O'Malley, Shushuang Man, Dawei Hong, Joseph V Martin
Evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) activity extends far beyond the traditional frequency range. Much of the prior study of >120 Hz EEG is in epileptic brains. In the current work, we measured EEG activity in the range of 200 to 2000 Hz, in the brains of healthy, spontaneously behaving rats. Both arrhythmic (1/f-type) and rhythmic (band) activities were identified and their properties shown to depend on EEG-defined stage of sleep/wakefulness. The inverse power law exponent of 1/f-type noise is shown to decrease from 3...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150648/shedding-light-on-the-neonatal-brain-probing-cerebral-hemodynamics-by-diffuse-optical-spectroscopic-methods
#20
Parisa Farzam, Erin M Buckley, Pei-Yi Lin, Katherine Hagan, P Ellen Grant, Terrie Eleanor Inder, Stefan A Carp, Maria Angela Franceschini
Investigating the cerebral physiology of healthy term newborns' brains is important for better understanding perinatal brain injuries, of which the most common etiologies are hypoxia and ischemia. Hence, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation are important biomarkers of brain health. In this study, we employed a hybrid diffuse optical system consisting of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) to measure hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and indices of cerebral blood flow and metabolism...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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