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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#1
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915463/the-our-hope-approach-for-ethics-and-communication-about-neonatal-neurological-injury
#2
REVIEW
Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Barbara Farlow, Steven Miller, Antoine Payot, Lisa Anne Rasmussen, Michael I Shevell, Donna Thomson, Pia Wintermark
Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915431/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices-application-of-ct-guided-biopsy-sampling
#3
Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations in forensic toxicology provides several pitfalls such as missing information on tolerance, analyte stability, or postmortem redistribution (PMR). Recently, it had been shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsies using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable strategy for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Using this technique, time-dependent PMR of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in 12 cases. At admission to the institute (t1), femoral and heart blood (right ventricle) as well as biopsies from the right lung, the right kidney, liver, spleen, and muscle tissue were collected...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915429/high-risk-pml-patients-switching-from-natalizumab-to-alemtuzumab-an-observational-study
#4
Simona Malucchi, Marco Capobianco, Marianna Lo Re, Maria Malentacchi, Alessia di Sapio, Manuela Matta, Francesca Sperli, Antonio Bertolotto
INTRODUCTION: The choice of therapy in patients withdrawing from natalizumab treatment is still an open question and neurologists need strategies to manage this group of patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate if alemtuzumab is able to control the disease when used in patient who have stopped natalizumab. METHODS: 16 patients stopped natalizumab treatment after a median number of 20 infusions (range 12-114); all the patients were responders to natalizumab (neither clinical nor radiological activity during natalizumab therapy) and the reason for stopping was the risk of PML for all of them...
December 3, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#5
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915397/age-and-gender-interactions-in-white-matter-of-schizophrenia-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-compared-to-non-psychiatric-controls-commonalities-across-disorders
#6
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Natasha Radhu, David Rotenberg, Stephanie Ameis, Felicity A Backhouse, Mawahib Semeralul, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are psychiatric disorders with abnormalities in white matter structure. These disorders share high comorbidity and family history of OCD is a risk factor for SCZ which suggests some shared neurobiology. White matter was examined using diffusion tensor imaging in relativity large samples of SCZ (N = 48), OCD (N = 38) and non-psychiatric controls (N = 45). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated and tract based spatial statistics were used to compare groups...
December 3, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915393/role-of-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-pcc-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-positive-cta-spot-sign-an-institutional-experience-at-a-regional-and-state-designated-stroke-center
#7
Razia Rehmani, Angela Han, Jawaad Hassan, Jeffrey Farkas
PURPOSE: Our objective is to identify the effect of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) by evaluating intraparenchymal hematoma expansion between initial and follow-up head CT at 5-24 h, in those with positive CTA spot sign (CTASS). CTASS is an independent predictor of hematoma growth (1). Acute ICH, regardless of etiology, can present with quick mental status decline often resulting in irreversible brain damage. Hematoma expansion appears to be a modifiable predictor of clinical outcome and an appropriate target for medical therapy...
December 3, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#8
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915378/mother-infant-interactions-and-regional-brain-volumes-in-infancy-an-mri-study
#9
Vaheshta Sethna, Inês Pote, Siying Wang, Maria Gudbrandsen, Anna Blasi, Caroline McCusker, Eileen Daly, Emily Perry, Kerrie P H Adams, Maria Kuklisova-Murgasova, Paula Busuulwa, Sarah Lloyd-Fox, Lynne Murray, Mark H Johnson, Steven C R Williams, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig, Grainne M McAlonan
It is generally agreed that the human brain is responsive to environmental influences, and that the male brain may be particularly sensitive to early adversity. However, this is largely based on retrospective studies of older children and adolescents exposed to extreme environments in childhood. Less is understood about how normative variations in parent-child interactions are associated with the development of the infant brain in typical settings. To address this, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relationship between observational measures of mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3- to 6-month-old infants (N = 39)...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915368/touch-contingent-visual-motion-perception-tactile-events-drive-visual-motion-perception
#10
Ryo Teraoka, Wataru Teramoto
It has recently been demonstrated that the brain rapidly forms an association between concurrently presented sound sequences and visual motion. Once this association has been formed, the associated sound sequence can drive visual motion perception. This phenomenon is known as "sound-contingent visual motion perception" (SCVM). In the present study, we addressed the possibility of a similar association involving touch instead of audition. In a 9-min exposure session, two circles placed side by side were alternately presented to produce apparent motion in a horizontal direction...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#11
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915350/rapid-brain-shift-with-remote-site-haemorrhage-after-arachnoid-cyst-excision-treatment-dilemmas
#12
Girish M Ramachandran, Rajesh P Nair, Lakshman I Kongwad, G Shanthakumar
Sylvian arachnoid cysts pose considerable management dilemmas. Surgical options include cyst fenestration, either endoscopically or microsurgically, and cysto-peritoneal shunt. One of the rare complications after rapid decompression of the arachnoid cysts is haemorrhage in the surrounding brain as well as in remote areas. We describe a case of multiple remote-site intra-parenchymal haemorrhage as a rare complication after surgical decompression of a sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst.
December 3, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915340/2q33-1q34-deletion-in-a-girl-with-brain-anomalies-and-anorectal-malformation
#13
Luisa Ronzoni, Antonio Novelli, Giulia Brisighelli, Angela Peron, Fabio Triulzi, Vera Bianchi, Ernesto Leva, Maria F Bedeschi
2q33 deletions are considered to constitute a distinct clinical entity (Glass syndrome or 2q33 microdeletion syndrome) with a characteristic phenotype. Most patients have moderate to severe developmental delay, speech delay, a particular behavioural phenotype, feeding problems, growth restriction, a typical facial appearance, thin and sparse hair, tooth abnormalities, and skeletal anomalies. Here, we report on a patient with a 2q33.1q34 deletion spanning 8.3 Mb of genomic DNA. Although her clinical features are very reminiscent of the 2q33 microdeletion syndrome, she also presented with brain and anorectal malformations...
December 3, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915242/distinct-mechanisms-of-mutant-huntingtin-toxicity-in-different-yeast-strains
#14
Genrikh V Serpionov, Alexander I Alexandrov, Michael D Ter-Avanesyan
Expansion of polyglutamine stretches in several proteins cause neurodegenerative amyloidoses, including Huntington disease. In yeast, mutant huntingtin (mHtt) with a stretch of 103 glutamine residues (HttQ103) forms toxic aggregates. A range of yeast strains have been used to elucidate the mechanisms of mHtt toxicity, and have revealed perturbations of various unrelated processes. HttQ103 aggregates can induce aggregation of cellular proteins, many of which contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions, including Sup35 and Def1...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915238/pontine-changes-in-metabolites-and-axonal-fibres-of-rats-following-four-week-alcohol-exposure-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-7-0-t
#15
Jianming Luo, Zhiwei Shen, Guang Chen, Dian Wang, Xiaojun Yu
AIMS: We characterized the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine, in vivo, using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner following chronic alcohol administration to explore new indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the EtOH and control groups (water group)...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915236/alcohol-and-alzheimer-s-disease-does-alcohol-dependence-contribute-to-beta-amyloid-deposition-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Ashwin Venkataraman, Nicola Kalk, Gavin Sewell, Craig W Ritchie, Anne Lingford-Hughes
AIMS: To investigate the underlying neurobiology between alcohol use, misuse and dependence and cognitive impairment, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Review of the literature using searches of Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and meeting abstracts and presentations. RESULTS: The role of alcohol as a risk factor and contributor for cognitive decline associated with AD has received little attention. This is despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, the potential reversibility of a degree of cognitive impairment and the global burden of AD...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915226/subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-and-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-not-always-fruitful-relationship
#17
REVIEW
Giovanni Cossu, Massimiliano Pau
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides efficient treatment for the alleviation of motor signs in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but its specific effects on gait is sometimes less successful as it may even lead to an aggravation of freezing of gait. To better understand when axial symptoms can be expected to improve and when they may worsen or be resistant to STN-DBS, we propose here a narrative review that considers the recent literature evidences based on instrumental gait analysis data...
November 27, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#18
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single and dual task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4 x 4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915186/role-of-the-purinergic-signaling-in-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Marek Cieślak, Andrzej Wojtczak, Michał Komoszyński
Adenine nucleotides and adenosine are signaling molecules that activate purinergic receptors P1 and P2. Activation of A1 adenosine receptors has an anticonvulsant action, whereas activation of A2A receptors might initiate seizures. Therefore, a significant limitation to the use of A1 receptor agonists as drugs in the CNS might be their peripheral side effects. The anti-epileptic activity of adenosine is related to its increased concentration outside the cell. This increase might result from the inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915164/can-the-cerebral-regional-oxygen-saturation-be-a-perfusion-parameter-in-shock
#20
Ashraf Al Tayar, Amr Abouelela, Khaja Mohiuddeen
INTRODUCTION: Shock, defined as a state of tissue hypoperfusion and the tissues reperfusion, is the main goal of management of shock. Increase in central venous saturation (CvSo2) and decrease in blood lactate level are useful in assessment of adequacy of tissue perfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive way to observe real-time changes in regional cerebral saturation and has been used in patients with different brain diseases. There is a small body of literature suggesting that cerebral regional oxygen saturation (CrSo2) monitoring added a value in assessment and management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
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