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Amanda Lucena Fernandes, Jefferson Patrício Nascimento, Adelina Pinheiro Santos, Clascídia Aparecida Furtado, Luis Alberto Romano, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa, José Maria Monserrat, Juliane Ventura-Lima
Graphene has been shown to induce toxicity in mammals and marine crustaceans; however, information regarding oxidative stress in fish is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of graphene toxicity in different tissues of Danio rerio, considering different parameters of stress. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 μL of suspensions containing different graphene concentrations (5 and 50 mg/L); the gills, intestine, muscle and brain were analysed 48 h later. There was no significant difference in the expression of the gclc (glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) and nrf2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) genes after exposure...
July 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Martín Estrada Valencia, Clara Herrera-Arozamena, Lucía de Andrés, Concepción Pérez, José A Morales-García, Ana Pérez-Castillo, Eva Ramos, Alejandro Romero, Dolores Viña, Matilde Yáñez, Erik Laurini, Sabrina Pricl, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco
In this work we describe neurogenic and neuroprotective donepezil-flavonoid hybrids (DFHs), exhibiting nanomolar affinities for the sigma-1 receptor (σ1 R) and inhibition of key enzymes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and monoamine oxidases (MAOs). In general, new compounds scavenge free radical species, are predicted to be brain-permeable, and protect neuronal cells against mitochondrial oxidative stress. N-(2-(1-Benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxamide (18) is highlighted due to its interesting biological profile in σ1 R, AChE, 5-LOX, MAO-A and MAO-B...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dominique Belpomme, Lennart Hardell, Igor Belyaev, Ernesto Burgio, David O Carpenter
Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Punitha Subramaniam, Jadwiga Rogowska, Jennifer DiMuzio, Melissa Lopez-Larson, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been on the rise. MJ use has been reported to impact several brain regions, including frontal regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The OFC is involved in emotion regulation and processing and has been associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Therefore, we hypothesized that adolescent MJ users would show disruptions in OFC connectivity compared with healthy adolescents (HC) which would be associated with symptoms of mood and anxiety...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Dennis Chan, Meredith Shafto, Rogier Kievit, Fiona Matthews, Molly Spink, Michael Valenzuela, Rik N Henson
This study tested the hypothesis that mid-life intellectual, physical, and social activities contribute to cognitive reserve (CR). Two hundred five individuals (196 with magnetic resonance imaging) aged 66-88 years from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience ( were studied, with cognitive ability and structural brain health measured as fluid IQ and total gray matter volume, respectively. Mid-life activities (MAs) were measured using the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression found that MAs made a unique contribution to late-life cognitive ability independent of education, occupation, and late-life activities...
July 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Luise Weinrich, Mandy Sonntag, Thomas Arendt, Markus Morawski
The human auditory brainstem, especially the cochlear nucleus (CN) and the superior olivary complex (SOC) are characterized by a high density of neurons associated with perineuronal nets (PNs). PNs build a specific form of extracellular matrix surrounding the neuronal somata, proximal dendrites and axon initial segments. They restrict synaptic plasticity and control high-frequency synaptic activity, a prominent characteristic of neurons of the auditory brainstem. The distribution of PNs within the auditory brainstem has been investigated in a number of mammalian species...
July 10, 2018: Hearing Research
Chloe Laurencin, Solveig Montaut, Christophe Vial, Lorraine Bernard, Sylvie Bin, Lucie Rascle, Gustavo Polo, Patrick Mertens, Teodor Danaila, Stephane Thobois
BACKGROUND: Off state toe dystonia (TD) is a symptom frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about its evolution after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and the evolution of TD in PD patients candidate to STN-DBS. METHODS: Individual data of consecutive 130 PD patients who underwent STN-DBS between 2010 and 2015 were collected. RESULTS: Data were successfully collected in 95 patients...
July 12, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Marco Spangaro, Elena Mazza, Sara Poletti, Roberto Cavallaro, Francesco Benedetti
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) alterations have been consistently described in patients with schizophrenia and correlated with the severity of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Obesity has been reported in over 40% of patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive deficits, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic alterations, and overall mortality. Moreover, studies among healthy subjects and subjects at risk for psychosis reported an influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) on structural connectivity...
July 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sarah B Mulkey, Srinivas Kota, Christopher B Swisher, Laura Hitchings, Marina Metzler, Yunfei Wang, G Larry Maxwell, Robin Baker, Adre J du Plessis, Rathinaswamy Govindan
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are vulnerable to destructive brain injury and disturbed neurological development. Prematurity may alter maturation of the central autonomic nervous system (ANS). AIMS: To compare ANS function (using heart rate variability; HRV) between preterm infants with normal neuroimaging at term equivalent age and low-risk term controls. Study design, subjects. We performed a case-control study of preterm infants born ≤28 weeks gestational age that had normal brain imaging and archived continuous EKG data at term equivalent age...
July 16, 2018: Early Human Development
Antonín Bednařík, Stefan Bölsker, Jens Soltwisch, Klaus Dreisewerd
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) visualizes the distribution of phospho- and glycolipids in tissue sections. However, C=C (db) positional isomers generally cannot be distinguished. Here we introduce an on-tissue Paternò-Büchi (PB) derivatization protocol that exploits benzaldehyde as MALDI-MSI-compatible reagent. Laser-induced postionization (MALDI-2) was used to boost the yields of protonated PB products. Collision-induced dissociation of these species generated characteristic ion pairs, indicative of C=C position, for numerous singly and polyunsaturated phospho- and glycosphingolipids in mouse brain tissue...
July 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Philip J Sanders, Benjamin Thompson, Paul M Corballis, Michael Maslin, Grant D Searchfield
Long-term potentiation is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to play an important role in learning and memory. Recently non-invasive methods have been developed to induce and measure activity similar to long-term potentiation in humans. Sensory tetani (trains of quickly repeating auditory or visual stimuli) alter the electroencephalogram in a manner similar to electrical stimulation that results in long-term potentiation. This review briefly covers the development of long-term potentiation research before focusing on in vivo human studies that produce long-term potentiation-like effects using auditory and visual stimulation...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Stevie van der Mierden, Sergey A Savelyev, Joanna IntHout, Rob B M de Vries, Cathalijn H C Leenaars
Microdialysis is a method to study the extracellular space in vivo, based on the principle of diffusion. It can be used to measure various small molecules including the neuroregulator adenosine. Baseline levels of the compounds measured with microdialysis vary over studies. We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate the full range of reported baseline concentrations of adenosine and AMP in microdialysates. We performed a meta-regression analysis to study the influence of flow rate, probe membrane surface area, species, brain area, and anaesthesia versus freely behaving, on the adenosine concentration...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Muhammad A Spocter, Ashraf Uddin, Johnny C Ng, Edmund Wong, Victoria X Wang, Cheuk Tang, Bridget Wicinski, Jordan Haas, Kathleen Bitterman, Mary Ann Raghanti, Rachel Dunn, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Jelena Jovanovik, Clare Rusbridge, Paul R Manger
All domesticated mammals exhibit marked reductions in overall brain size, however, it is unknown whether the corpus callosum, an integral white matter fiber pathway for interhemispheric cortical communication, is affected by domestication differentially or strictly in coordination with changes in brain size. To answer this question, we used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to compare the mid-sagittal cross-sectional areas of the corpus callosum in 35 carnivore species, including eight wild canids and 13 domestic dogs...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Merve Inanc Tekin, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Canan Demirtas, Kemal Tekin, Sibel Doguizi, Serdar Bayraktar, Pelin Yilmazbas
Purpose: To determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in serum and aqueous humor (AH) and to assess the relationship between BDNF levels and retinal layer thicknesses in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: A total of 48 AMD patients (AMD group) that was composed of twenty-three nonexudative and 25 exudative patients and 26 control subjects (control group) were included in the study. Serum and AH BDNF levels were assessed by ELISA method...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hsiu-Mei Huang, Chao-Ching Huang, Meng-Han Tsai, Yi-Chieh Poon, Ying-Chao Chang
Purpose: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury causes significant damages in the immature retina. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor is well known for its neuroprotective role but has limited clinical applications. A selective agonist of tyrosine kinase receptor B, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), is a powerful therapeutic tool, when administered systemically. However, it remains unclear whether DHF treatment can protect the immature retinas against HI injury. Methods: Postnatal (P) day 7 rat pups were intraperitoneally injected with DHF or vehicle 2 hours before and 18 hours after being subjected to HI injury...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jeong A Choi, Yoon Jeon Kim, Bo-Ra Seo, Jae-Young Koh, Young Hee Yoon
Purpose: We investigated whether zinc dyshomeostasis, a known mechanism of cell death in acute brain injury, contributes to the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and photoreceptor cell death in experimental retinal detachment (RD). Methods: RD was induced in mice by subretinal injection of 1:1 mixture of balanced salt solution and 1% sodium hyaluronate. On days 1 and 3 post RD, eyeballs were sectioned and examined for cell death (TUNEL staining), the degree of hypoxic insult (Hypoxyprobe staining), free zinc levels (TFL-Zn staining), and MMP-2 and -9 activity (gelatin zymography)...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Cirous Dehghani, Shaun Frost, Rajiv Jayasena, Colin L Masters, Yogesan Kanagasingam
Globally, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing health and economic challenge that has no effective cure. Recent clinical trials indicate that preclinical treatment may be required but a routine screening tool for AD has been elusive. Hence, a simple, yet sensitive biomarker for preclinical AD, when the disease is most likely to be amenable to treatment, is lacking. Due to several features, the eye has been explored for this purpose and, among the ocular tissues, the retina has received the most attention. Currently, major works investigating the potential AD diagnosis by detecting amyloid-β (Aβ) signatures in the retinal tissue are underway, while the anterior eye is more accessible for in vivo imaging and examination...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hua-Wei Huang, Li-Mei Yan, Yan-Lin Yang, Xuan He, Xiu-Mei Sun, Yu-Mei Wang, Guo-Bin Zhang, Jian-Xin Zhou
Postoperative agitation frequently occurs after general anesthesia and may be associated with serious consequences. However, studies in neurosurgical patients have been inadequate. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for early postoperative agitation in patients after craniotomy, specifically focusing on the association between postoperative pneumocephalus and agitation. Adult intensive care unit admitted patients after elective craniotomy under general anesthesia were consecutively enrolled...
2018: PloS One
Antonio Prieto, Julia Mayas, Soledad Ballesteros
Behavioral and neurophysiological findings in vision suggest that perceptual grouping is not a unitary process and that different grouping principles have different processing requirements and neural correlates. The present study aims to examine whether the same occurs in the haptic modality using two grouping principles widely studied in vision, spatial proximity and texture similarity. We analyzed behavioral responses (accuracy and response times) and conducted an independent component analysis of brain oscillations in alpha and beta bands for haptic stimuli grouped by spatial proximity and texture similarity, using a speeded orientation detection task performed on a novel haptic device (MonHap)...
2018: PloS One
Richard L Mah, John F Connolly
Generally, prognostication of coma outcome currently combines behavioral, reflex, and possibly neuroimaging tests that are interpreted by an attending physician. Electroencephalography, particularly, event-related brain potentials (ERP) have received attention due to evidence demonstrating the positive predictive value of certain ERP including the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the P3a, for coma emergence. We describe a set of ERP paradigms designed to require and reflect increasing levels of cognitive processing with the added objective of determining the influence of each paradigm's context strength on its ability to elicit ERPs...
2018: PloS One
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