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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182770/biochemical-and-biophysical-investigations-of-the-interaction-between-human-glucokinase-and-pro-apoptotic-bad
#1
Alix Rexford, Diego A R Zorio, Brian G Miller
The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176959/a-systematic-literature-review-on-the-efficacy-effectiveness-gap-comparison-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-observational-studies-of-glucose-lowering-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt, Erpur Adalsteinsson, Rolf Hh Groenwold, M Sanni Ali, Olaf H Klungel
AIM: To identify a potential efficacy-effectiveness gap and possible explanations (drivers of effectiveness) for differences between results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies investigating glucose-lowering drugs. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in English language articles published between 1 January, 2000 and 31 January, 2015 describing either RCTs or observational studies comparing glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs (GLP-1) with insulin or comparing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) with sulfonylurea, all with change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as outcome...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176886/assessment-of-channeling-bias-among-initiators-of-glucose-lowering-drugs-a-uk-cohort-study
#3
Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt, Brian L Thorsted, Rolf Hh Groenwold, Erpur Adalsteinsson, M Sanni Ali, Olaf H Klungel
BACKGROUND: Channeling bias may occur when a newly marketed drug and an established drug, despite similar indications, are prescribed to patients with different prognostic characteristics (ie, confounding). AIM: To investigate channeling bias and its impact on relative effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs versus basal insulin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) versus sulfonylurea. METHODS: In the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, patients with type 2 diabetes initiating treatment between 2006 and 2015 were included...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174179/s100b-impairs-glycolysis-via-enhanced-poly-adp-ribosyl-ation-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-in-rodent-muscle-cells
#4
Kaori Hosokawa, Yoji Hamada, Atsushi Fujiya, Masatoshi Murase, Ryuya Maekawa, Yasuhiro Niwa, Takako Izumoto, Yusuke Seino, Shin Tsunekawa, Hiroshi Arima
S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. To clarify the role of S100B in insulin action and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of S100B on glycolysis in myoblast and myotube cells. Rat myoblast L6 cells were treated with recombinant mouse S100B to examine glucose consumption, lactate production, glycogen accumulation, glycolytic metabolites and enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166192/insulin-like-signalling-to-the-maternal-germline-controls-progeny-response-to-osmotic-stress
#5
Nicholas O Burton, Tokiko Furuta, Amy K Webster, Rebecca E W Kaplan, L Ryan Baugh, Swathi Arur, H Robert Horvitz
In 1893 August Weismann proposed that information about the environment could not pass from somatic cells to germ cells, a hypothesis now known as the Weismann barrier. However, recent studies have indicated that parental exposure to environmental stress can modify progeny physiology and that parental stress can contribute to progeny disorders. The mechanisms regulating these phenomena are poorly understood. We report that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can protect itself from osmotic stress by entering a state of arrested development and can protect its progeny from osmotic stress by increasing the expression of the glycerol biosynthetic enzyme GPDH-2 in progeny...
February 6, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163246/triphenyl-phosphate-enhances-adipogenic-differentiation-glucose-uptake-and-lipolysis-via-endocrine-and-noradrenergic-mechanisms
#6
German Cano-Sancho, Anna Smith, Michele A La Merrill
The use of triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) as a flame retardant or plasticizer has increased during the last decade, resulting in widespread human exposure without commensurate toxicity assessment. The main objectives of this study were to assess the in vitro effect of TPhP and its metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, as well as glucose uptake and lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TPhP increased pre-adipocyte proliferation and subsequent adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, coinciding with increased transcription in the CEBP and PPARG pathway...
February 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148491/glucose-elicits-cephalic-phase-insulin-release-in-mice-by-activating-k-atp-channels-in-taste-cells
#7
John I Glendinning, Yonina G Frim, Ayelet Hochman, Gabrielle S Lubitz, Anthony J Basile, Anthony Sclafani
The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the orosensory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647 or a non-metabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139971/evaluation-of-drug-prescribing-patterns-based-on-the-who-prescribing-indicators-at-outpatient-clinics-of-five-hospitals-in-jordan-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study%C3%A2
#8
Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Mohammad Shawaqfeh, Majed M Masadeh
BACKGROUND: Irrational drug prescribing is considered one of the major challenges for the healthcare sectors worldwide, leading to negative outcomes in patients including various drug-related problems, such as polypharmacy, adverse drug events, more demands on drug monitoring, and unwanted increase in treatment cost. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the trends and issues related to prescription at outpatient hospital pharmacies in Jordan and to contrast that to the WHO rational medication list and WHO drug use indicators...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120260/evaluation-of-a-premixed-insulin-analog-suspension-in-japanese-people-with-type-2-diabetes-and-the-clinical-importance-of-improved-injection-techniques-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#9
Kunihiro Suzuki, Chie Aoki, Kanako Kato, Masanori Shimizu, Shintaro Sakurai, Kazunori Yanagi, Hisamoto Kuroda, Yoshimasa Aso
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes, who live in Asian countries, often use premixed insulin analogs. However, if these solutions are insufficiently mixed prior to use, patients will receive inaccurate doses of intermediate- and/or short-acting insulin, which could affect diabetes control. This study aimed to determine whether insulin users were correctly resuspending premixed insulin analog solutions prior to use. METHODS: We investigated whether Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were correctly resuspending their premixed insulin analog solutions by assessing the optical densities (ODs) of the solutions...
January 24, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120013/secretory-expression-and-surface-display-of-a-new-and-biologically-active-single-chain-insulin-sci-59-analog-by-lactic-acid-bacteria
#10
Ruifeng Mao, Dongli Wu, Shimeng Hu, Kangping Zhou, Man Wang, Yefu Wang
Insulin plays an important role in drug therapies for diabetes mellitus and as the main route of insulin delivery, subcutaneous injection may cause local discomfort, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and patient non-compliance. Therefore, oral delivery of insulin is more preferred. However, there is a low bioavailability due to insulin degradation by proteolytic enzymes and severe pH conditions along the gastrointestinal tract. In order to use the food-grade bacteria lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as oral delivery vehicles, a new and bioactive single-chain insulin (SCI-59) analog, containing the insulin B- and A-chains connected by an eight-residue linker (RSRGLPFR), was secretory expressed in Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 without using an antibiotic resistance gene and displayed onto the surface of various non-viable bacteria (NVBs) without genetic modification...
January 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118069/rationale-for-treatment-options-for-mealtime-glucose-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Stephen L Aronoff
While glycemic control is routinely assessed using HbA1c and fasting glucose measures, postprandial glucose (PPG) is also an important contributor of overall glycemia. Furthermore, PPG excursions have been linked to complications of diabetes. This review examines the effects of glucose-lowering therapies (including treatments administered at mealtime) on postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. A PubMed search was conducted to identify clinical studies of treatments for mealtime glucose control in type 2 diabetes...
January 24, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118050/administration-of-biosimilar-insulin-analogs-role-of-devices
#12
Lutz Heinemann, Ingo Fritz, Hootan Khatami, Steven V Edelman
With the expiration of patent protection for several originator insulin analog molecules, the availability of insulin analog copies is set to increase. Many regulatory authorities have developed, and continue to refine, guidelines for the approval of biosimilar insulin analogs. Aspects such as the structure, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of biosimilar insulin analogs are extensively addressed in these guidelines, but how the biosimilar insulin analog is administered to people with diabetes is not usually a topic...
February 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103136/inhibition-of-voltage-dependent-potassium-channels-mediates-camp-potentiated-insulin-secretion-in-rat-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
Yunfeng Liu, Xiangqin Zhong, Yaqin Ding, Lele Ren, Tao Bai, Mengmeng Liu, Zhihong Liu, Yangyan Guo, Qing Guo, Yu Zhang, Jing Yang, Yi Zhang
Insulin secretion is essential for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. An important intracellular signal regulating insulin secretion is cAMP. In this report, we showed that an increase of cAMP induced by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin or by cAMP analog db-cAMP not only potentiated insulin secretion but also inhibited Kv channels, and these effects were reversed by AC inhibitor SQ22536. The cAMP-mediated Kv channel inhibition resulted in prolongation of action potential duration, which partly accounts for the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by activation of cAMP signaling...
January 19, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091641/effects-of-pomegranate-extract-in-supplementing-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-therapy-on-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-in-chinese-girls-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#15
Jinsheng Liu, Jiulai Tang
Central precocious puberty (CPP) without organic abnormality is called idiopathic CPP (ICPP). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy on ICPP-affected girls in the Chinese population. 286 girls, diagnosed with ICPP were initially enrolled into this trial, and among them 225 eligible patients were randomized to receive a combinational GnRH analog treatment supplemented with either a placebo or pomegranate extract on a daily basis for a period of 3 months...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074109/improvement-of-quality-of-life-through-glycemic-control-by-liraglutide-a-glp-1-analog-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-page1-study
#16
Hitoshi Ishii, Tetsuji Niiya, Yasuhiro Ono, Naoyuki Inaba, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: In addition to achieving good glycemic control, diabetes care management aims to improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients. Treatment-associated difficulties and side effects frequently cause deterioration in QOL. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, is a novel injection drug that promotes insulin secretion. It is a user-friendly, once-daily injection with fewer hypoglycemic events. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of liraglutide therapy on QOL in patients...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072690/comparison-of-jet-injector-and-insulin-pen-in-controlling-plasma-glucose-and-insulin-concentrations-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lixin Guo, Xinhua Xiao, Xue Sun, Cuijuan Qi
This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of an insulin jet injector and an insulin pen in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with rapid-acting insulin (regular insulin) and insulin analog (insulin aspart) using the jet injector and the pen in 4 successive test cycles. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in blood were measured over time. Areas under curves of glucose and the insulin were calculated, and efficacy of 2 injection methods in treatment of the diabetes was compared...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044441/trehalose-glycopolymer-enhances-both-solution-stability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-therapeutic-protein
#18
Yang Liu, Juneyoung Lee, Kathryn M Mansfield, Jeong Hoon Ko, Sahar Sallam, Chrys Wesdemiotis, Heather D Maynard
Biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been successfully conjugated to therapeutic proteins to enhance their pharmacokinetics. However, many of these polymers, including PEG, only improve the in vivo lifetimes and do not protect proteins against inactivation during storage and transportation. Herein, we report a polymer with trehalose side chains (PolyProtek) that is capable of improving both the external stability and the in vivo plasma half-life of a therapeutic protein. Insulin was employed as a model biologic, and high performance liquid chromatography and dynamic light scattering confirmed that addition of trehalose glycopolymer as an excipient or covalent conjugation prevented thermal or agitation-induced aggregation of insulin...
January 3, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043300/-influences-of-exendin-4-on-the-secretion-function-of-islet-beta-cells-from-rats-in-the-early-stage-of-severe-scald
#19
D X Zhao, L Ma, Z A Shen, D W Li, Y R Shang, K Yin, W F Cheng, X Wang, Z X Liu
Objective: To observe the secretion function changes of islet beta cells isolated from rats in the early stage of severe scald, and to explore the influence of them. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, sham injury+ exendin-4 (SIE) group, scald (S) group, and scald+ exendin-4 (SE) group according to the random number table, with 9 rats in each group. Rats in groups S and SE were inflicted with 50% total body surface area full-thickness scald by a 12-s immersion of back and a 6-s immersion of abdomen in 94 ℃ hot water...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042874/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-glucose-lowering-effects-of-berberrubine-9-o-%C3%AE-d-glucuronide-an-active-metabolite-of-berberrubine
#20
Na Yang, Run-Bin Sun, Xing-Long Chen, Le Zhen, Chun Ge, Yu-Qing Zhao, Jun He, Jian-Liang Geng, Jia-Hua Guo, Xiao-Yi Yu, Fei Fei, Si-Qi Feng, Xuan-Xuan Zhu, Hong-Bo Wang, Feng-Hua Fu, Ji-Ye Aa, Guang-Ji Wang
Berberrubine (BRB) is the primary metabolite of berberine (BBR) that has shown a stronger glucose-lowering effect than BBR in vivo. On the other hand, BRB is quickly and extensively metabolized into berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide (BRBG) in rats after oral administration. In this study we compared the pharmacokinetic properties of BRB and BRBG in rats, and explored the mechanisms underlying their glucose-lowering activities. C57BL/6 mice with HFD-induced hyperglycemia were administered BRB (50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) for 6 weeks, which caused greater reduction in the plasma glucose levels than those caused by BBR (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or BRB (25 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
January 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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