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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128523/acute-effect-of-smoking-and-smoking-abstinence-on-energy-intake-and-appetite-related-hormones-blood-concentrations
#1
M Yannakoulia, C A Anastasiou, K Zachari, M Sidiropoulou, P Katsaounou, R Tenta
The effect of smoking on energy balance and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to examine the acute effect of smoking and its abstinence on energy intake, subjective feelings of appetite and related hormones. Fourteen healthy smokers participated in a randomized, crossover study consisting of two trials: the Cigarette trial (participants smoked two cigarettes of their brand within 15min) and the Sham trial (they were asked to hold the cigarette as smoking, but without lighting it)...
November 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116584/use-of-50-50-premixed-insulin-analogs-in-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-clinical-recommendations
#2
REVIEW
Gary Deed, Gary Kilov, Trisha Dunning, Richard Cutfield, Jane Overland, Ted Wu
INTRODUCTION: Premixed insulin analogs represent an alternative to basal or basal-bolus insulin regimens for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). "Low-mix" formulations with a low rapid-acting to long-acting analog ratio (e.g., 25/75) are commonly used, but 50/50 formulations (Mix50) may be more appropriate for some patients. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the efficacy and safety of Mix50, compared with low-mix, basal, or basal-bolus therapy, for insulin initiation and intensification...
December 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114384/treatment-with-insulin-analogs-and-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Christoph Hasslacher, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo
Background: A lower incidence of cardiovascular events has been reported in type 2 diabetes patients treated with insulin analogs (IAs). Corresponding data on people affected by type 1 diabetes are not available yet. Methodology: We investigated demographic and clinical data from 509 type 1 diabetics, who were treated in an outpatient clinic from 2006 to 2012. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between the type of insulin treatment and the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) complications, that is, presence of coronary heart, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases, adjusting for potential confounders...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114035/an-ultra-stable-single-chain-insulin-analog-resists-thermal-inactivation-and-exhibits-biological-signaling-duration-equivalent-to-the-native-protein
#4
Michael D Glidden, Khadijah Aldabbagh, Nelson B Phillips, Kelley Carr, Yen-Shan Chen, Jonathan Whittaker, Manijeh Phillips, Nalinda P Wickramasinghe, Nischay Rege, Mamuni Swain, Yi Peng, Yanwu Yang, Michael C Lawrence, Vivien C Yee, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Michael A Weiss
Thermal degradation of insulin complicates its delivery and use. Previous efforts to engineer ultra-stable analogs were confounded by prolonged cellular signaling in vivo, complicating mealtime therapy and of unclear safety. We therefore sought an ultra-stable analog whose potency and duration of action on intravenous bolus injection in diabetic rats are indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) insulin. Here, we describe the structure, function and stability of such an analog: a 57-residue single-chain insulin (SCI) with multiple acidic substitutions...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114034/solution-structure-of-an-ultra-stable-single-chain-insulin-analog-connects-protein-dynamics-to-a-novel-mechanism-of-receptor-binding
#5
Michael D Glidden, Yanwu Yang, Nicholas A Smith, Nelson B Phillips, Kelley Carr, Nalinda P Wickramasinghe, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Michael C Lawrence, Brian J Smith, Michael A Weiss
Domain-minimized insulin receptors (IRs) have enabled crystallographic analysis of insulin-bound "micro-receptors." In such structures the C-terminal segment of the insulin B chain inserts between conserved IR domains, unmasking an invariant receptor-binding surface that spans both insulin A- and B chains. This "open" conformation not only rationalizes the inactivity of single-chain insulin (SCI) analogs (in which the A and B chains are directly linked), but also suggests that connecting (C) domains of sufficient length will bind the IR...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100735/improving-metabolic-stability-with-deuterium-the-discovery-of-gpu-028-a-potent-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-agonists
#7
Zheng Li, Xue Xu, Gang Li, Xiaoting Fu, Yanzhi Liu, Yufeng Feng, Mingyan Wang, Yunting Ouyang, Jing Han
The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) has emerged as a promising anti-diabetic target due to its function in improvement of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. The FFA4 agonist TUG-891 revealed great potential as a widely used pharmacological tool, but it has been suffered from high plasma clearance probably because the phenylpropanoic acid is vulnerable to β-oxidation. To identify metabolically stable analog without influence on physiological mechanism of TUG-891, we tried to incorporate deuterium at the α-position of phenylpropionic acid to afford compound 4 (GPU-028)...
October 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097375/engineering-glucose-responsiveness-into-insulin
#8
Niels C Kaarsholm, Songnian Lin, Lin Yan, Theresa Kelly, Margaret van Heek, James Mu, Margaret Wu, Ge Dai, Yan Cui, Yonghua Zhu, Ester Carballo-Jane, Vijay Reddy, Peter Zafian, Pei Huo, Shuai Shi, Valentyn Antochshuk, Aimie Ogawa, Franklin Liu, Sandra C Souza, Wolfgang Seghezzi, Joseph Duffy, Mark Erion, Ravi Nargund, David E Kelley
Insulin has a narrow therapeutic index, reflected in a small margin between a dose that achieves good glycemic control and one that causes hypoglycemia. Once injected, the clearance of exogenous insulin is agnostic to blood glucose, aggravating the potential to cause hypoglycemia. We sought to create a "smart" insulin, one that can alter insulin clearance and hence insulin action in response to blood glucose, mitigating risk for hypoglycemia. The approach added saccharide units to insulin, to create insulin analogs with affinity for both the insulin receptor (IR) and mannose receptor C-type 1 (MR), which functions to clear endogenous mannosylated proteins, a principle used to endow insulin analogs with glucose responsivity...
November 2, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070572/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analog-prevents-obesity-related-glomerulopathy-by-inhibiting-excessive-autophagy-in-podocytes
#9
HongLei Guo, Bin Wang, HongMei Li, LiLu Ling, Jianying Niu, Yong Gu
AIM: To investigate the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 analog (GLP-1) in high fat diet-induced obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks were treated with GLP-1 (200 μg/kg) or 0.9% saline for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose and insulin and the expression of podocin, nephrin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter type (Glut4), and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) were assayed...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066867/clinical-and-pharmacological-hallmarks-of-rifapentine-s-use-in-diabetes-patients-with-active-and-latent-tuberculosis-do-we-know-enough
#10
REVIEW
Chunlan Zheng, Xiufen Hu, Li Zhao, Minhui Hu, Feng Gao
Rifapentine is a rifamycin derivate approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1998 for the treatment of active, drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). In 2014, rifapentine was approved for the treatment of latent TB infection in patients at high risk of progression to active disease and is currently under evaluation by the European Medicines Agency. Expanding indications of rifapentine largely affect diabetes patients, since about one-third of them harbor latent TB. Clinical consequences of rifapentine use in this population and potentially harmful interactions with hypoglycemic agents are widely underexplored and generally considered similar to the ones of rifampicin...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058131/insulin-and-its-cardiovascular-effects-what-is-the-current-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Sahana Pai Dongerkery, Pamela R Schroeder, Mansur E Shomali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we examine the nature of the complex relationship between insulin and cardiovascular disease. With metabolic abnormalities comes increased risk for cardiovascular complications. We discuss the key factors implicated in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, its relationship to insulin therapy, and what can be learned from large, recent cardiovascular outcome studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies suggest that insulin has positive effects of facilitating glucose entry into cells and maintaining euglycemia and negative effects of favoring obesity and atherogenesis under certain conditions...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042678/carnosine-scavenging-of-glucolipotoxic-free-radicals-enhances-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-uptake
#12
Michael J Cripps, Katie Hanna, Charlie Lavilla, Sophie R Sayers, Paul W Caton, Craig Sims, Luigi De Girolamo, Craig Sale, Mark D Turner
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes has risen to 8.5% among adults, which represents a staggering rise in prevalence from 4.7% in 1980. Whilst some treatments work by increasing insulin secretion, over time their effectiveness decreases. We aim to increase insulin secretion by developing strategies that work through mechanisms independent of current treatment options. Isolated CD1 mouse islets, INS-1 pancreatic β-cells, or C2C12 mouse myotubes were incubated in standard tissue culture media, or media supplemented with 28 mM glucose, 200 μM palmitic acid, and 200 μM oleic acid as a cellular model of diabetic glucolipotoxicity...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032696/impact-of-improving-postprandial-glycemic-control-with-intensifying-insulin-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Tamer Yacoub
Worldwide, many people with type 2 diabetes are not at recommended glycemic targets and remain at increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Reaching recommended glycemic targets requires normalizing both fasting and postprandial glucose (PPG). For some patients, this will require addition of a prandial insulin delivered by injection to control PPG excursions. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease, and thus, expert guidelines recommend that treatment for elevated PPG not be delayed...
October 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031771/a-nonrandomized-controlled-clinical-pilot-trial-on-8%C3%A2-wk-of%C3%A2-intermittent-fasting-24%C3%A2-h-wk
#14
Christian S Kessler, Rainer Stange, Maike Schlenkermann, Michael Jeitler, Andreas Michalsen, Antonia Selle, Franca Raucci, Nico Steckhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether intermittent fasting (IF) is an effective preventive measure, and whether it is feasible for healthy volunteers under every day conditions. METHODS: A nonrandomized controlled clinical trial on IF was performed with healthy volunteers over a period of 8 wk, and a subsequent 4-mo follow-up. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, after 8 wk, and after 6 mo. Volunteers who were not interested in fasting served as a control group...
August 12, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029793/high-extracellular-ca-2-enhances-the-adipocyte-accumulation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-a-decrease-in-camp
#15
Ryota Hashimoto, Youichi Katoh, Yuki Miyamoto, Kyoko Nakamura, Seigo Itoh, Hiroyuki Daida, Yuji Nakazato, Takao Okada
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are common progenitors of both adipocytes and osteoblasts. We recently suggested that increased [Ca(2+)]o caused by bone resorption might accelerate adipocyte accumulation in response to treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which high [Ca(2+)]o enhances adipocyte accumulation. We used primary mouse BMSCs and evaluated the levels of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining. CaSR agonists (both Ca(2+) and Sr(2+)) enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes among BMSCs in response to treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone...
November 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993757/painful-and-prolonged-muscle-cramps-following-insulin-injections-in-a-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-revisiting-the-1992-duke-case
#16
Rami A Ballout, Asma Arabi
A 56-year-old middle-eastern male with a long-standing history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to us complaining of severely painful bilateral upper and lower extremity cramps occurring shortly after his rapid-acting insulin analog injection(s). The cramps had started 6 months ago and have been occurring intermittently in non-predictable episodes since then. He had otherwise never experienced any insulin-related adverse reaction(s) before. His cramps are very painful and debilitating, interfering with his daily activities and placing him in a state of constant fear/anxiety of re-experiencing them...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990437/impact-of-injection-speed-volume-and-site-on-pain-sensation
#17
Eric Zijlstra, Johannes Jahnke, Annelie Fischer, Christoph Kapitza, Thomas Forst
BACKGROUND: Painful subcutaneous insulin injections may decrease treatment compliance. Improving injection comfort therefore represents a particular area of technological research in which steady progress has been made since the introduction of the insulin pen in 1985. Injection pain can be influenced by many variables, but relatively little is known about their impact. This study investigated the impact of injection volume (range 0-2250 µL), speed (range 0-800 µL/sec), and site (abdomen vs thigh) on pain sensation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988911/insulin-analog-linked-to-breast-cancer-risk
#18
Elizabeth Gourd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960085/the-clinical-effectiveness-of-insulin-glargine-in-patients-with-type-i-diabetes-in-brazil-findings-and-implications
#19
Lays P Marra, Vânia E Araújo, Gerusa Cc Oliveira, Leonardo M Diniz, Augusto A Guerra Júnior, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Brian Godman, Juliana Álvares
AIM: Published studies have challenged the cost-effectiveness of insulin glargine versus neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulins in Brazil with limited evidence of increased effectiveness despite considerably higher acquisition costs. However, still a controversy. Consequently, there is a need to address this. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of Type I diabetes patients receiving insulin glargine in Brazil following NPH insulin who met the criteria...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954218/effects-of-insulin-analogs-as-an-add-on-to-metformin-on-cutaneous-microcirculation-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#20
Marinos Fysekidis, Emmanuel Cosson, Karim Takbou, Angela Sutton, Nathalie Charnaux, Isabella Banu, Eric Vicaut, Paul Valensi
BACKGROUND: A single insulin injection was shown to improve microcirculatory blood flow. Our aim was to examine the effects of 4weeks of insulin therapy by three randomly assigned insulin analog regimens (Detemir, Aspart, and their combination) on cutaneous blood flow (CBF) and microcirculatory endothelial function as an add-on to metformin in type 2 diabetic patients poorly controlled on oral antidiabetic treatment. METHODS: Fourty-two type 2 diabetic patients with no history of cardiovascular disease in secondary failure to oral antidiabetic agents had CBF measurements before and after acetylcholine (Ach) iontophoretic administration...
September 24, 2017: Microvascular Research
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