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Zeisel choline

Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Mark E Stanton, Jane Herbert, Nadine M Lindinger, Catherine E Lewis, Neil C Dodge, H Eugene Hoyme, Steven H Zeisel, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the acceptability and feasibility of a randomized, double-blind choline supplementation intervention for heavy drinking women during pregnancy. In this paper, we report our results relating to the efficacy of this intervention in mitigating adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on infant growth and cognitive function. METHODS: 69 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) heavy drinkers in Cape Town, South Africa, recruited in mid-pregnancy, were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of either 2 g of choline or placebo from time of enrollment until delivery...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Steven H Zeisel, Kevin C Klatt, Marie A Caudill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Balz Frei, Victor L Fulgoni, Connie M Weaver, Steven H Zeisel
Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 specifically identified vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline and fiber as "underconsumed nutrients". Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2009-2012, assessments were made of age-group differences in the impact of dietary supplements on nutrient intake and inadequacies. Compared to food alone, use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly ( p < 0...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Taylor McClatchie, Megan Meredith, Mariame O Ouédraogo, Sandy Slow, Michael Lever, Mellissa R W Mann, Steven H Zeisel, Jacquetta M Trasler, Jay M Baltz
Betaine ( N,N,N -trimethylglycine) plays key roles in mouse eggs and preimplantation embryos first in a novel mechanism of cell volume regulation and second as a major methyl donor in blastocysts, but its origin is unknown. Here, we determined that endogenous betaine was present at low levels in germinal vesicle (GV) stage mouse oocytes before ovulation and reached high levels in the mature, ovulated egg. However, no betaine transport into oocytes was detected during meiotic maturation. Because betaine can be synthesized in mammalian cells via choline dehydrogenase (CHDH; EC 1...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eneda Pjetri, Steven H Zeisel
The MTHFD1 gene encodes for methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that has an important role in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism. In people, a single nucleotide polymorphism of this gene (1958G>A; rs2236225) is associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, neural tube and other birth defects. Mice homozygous for a loss of Mthfd1 via a gene-trap mutation are not viable, and heterozygotes, though they appear healthy, have metabolic imbalances in the folate- and choline-mediated 1-carbon metabolic pathways...
August 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Steven Zeisel
Choline dietary intake varies such that many people do not achieve adequate intakes. Diet intake of choline can modulate methylation because, via betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), this nutrient (and its metabolite, betaine) regulate the concentrations of S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine. Some of the epigenetic mechanisms that modify gene expression without modifying the genetic code depend on the methylation of DNA or of histones; and diet availability of choline and other methyl-group donors influences both of these methylations...
April 29, 2017: Nutrients
Annie J Roe, Shucha Zhang, Rafeeque A Bhadelia, Elizabeth J Johnson, Alice H Lichtenstein, Gail T Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Caren E Smith, Steven H Zeisel, Tammy M Scott
Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism. Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology. Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain ( n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed...
June 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yanyan Wang, Natalia Surzenko, Walter B Friday, Steven H Zeisel
Maternal diets low in choline, an essential nutrient, increase the risk of neural tube defects and lead to low performance on cognitive tests in children. However, the consequences of maternal dietary choline deficiency for the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex remain unknown. In this study, we fed mouse dams either control (CT) or low-choline (LC) diets and investigated the effects of choline on cortical development in the offspring. As a result of a low choline supply between embryonic day (E)11 and E17 of gestation, the number of 2 types of cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)-radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells-was reduced in fetal brains (P< 0...
April 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Anita J Fuglestad, Judith K Eckerle, Birgit A Fink, Heather L Hoecker, Christopher J Boys, Joshua P Radke, Maria G Kroupina, Neely C Miller, Ann M Brearley, Steven H Zeisel, Michael K Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are conditions characterized by physical anomalies, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and neurocognitive deficits, including intellectual, executive, and memory deficits. There are no specific biological treatments for FASDs, but rodent models have shown that prenatal or postnatal choline supplementation reduces cognitive and behavioral deficits. Potential mechanisms include phospholipid production for axonal growth and myelination, acetylcholine enhancement, and epigenetic effects...
November 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Xueqing Zhao, Steven Zeisel, Shucha Zhang
There is a growing interest in analyzing choline, betaine and their gut microbial metabolites including trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in body fluids due to the high relevance of these compounds for human health and diseases. A stable isotope dilution (SID)-LC-MRM/MS assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of choline, betaine, TMA, TMAO and creatinine in human plasma and urine. The assay was validated using quality control (QC) plasma samples, spiked at low, medium and high levels...
June 17, 2015: Electrophoresis
Matt J Silver, Karen D Corbin, Garrett Hellenthal, Kerry-Ann da Costa, Paula Dominguez-Salas, Sophie E Moore, Jennifer Owen, Andrew M Prentice, Branwen J Hennig, Steven H Zeisel
Choline is an essential nutrient, and the amount needed in the diet is modulated by several factors. Given geographical differences in dietary choline intake and disparate frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in choline metabolism genes between ethnic groups, we tested the hypothesis that 3 SNPs that increase dependence on dietary choline would be under negative selection pressure in settings where choline intake is low: choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) rs12676, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1 (MTHFD1) rs2236225, and phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) rs12325817...
August 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Kerry-Ann da Costa, Sangmin Lee, Barbara Renga, Hartmut Jaeschke, Zhihong Yang, Stephen J Orena, Michael J Goedken, Yuxia Zhang, Bo Kong, Margitta Lebofsky, Swetha Rudraiah, Rana Smalling, Grace Guo, Stefano Fiorucci, Steven H Zeisel, Li Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperhomocysteinemia is often associated with liver and metabolic diseases. We studied nuclear receptors that mediate oscillatory control of homocysteine homeostasis in mice. METHODS: We studied mice with disruptions in Nr0b2 (called small heterodimer partner [SHP]-null mice), betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (Bhmt), or both genes (BHMT-null/SHP-null mice), along with mice with wild-type copies of these genes (controls). Hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by feeding mice alcohol (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism binge model) or chow diets along with water containing 0...
May 2015: Gastroenterology
Laila C Schenkel, Ratnesh K Singh, Vera Michel, Steven H Zeisel, Kerry-Ann da Costa, Amy R Johnson, Harvey S Mudd, Marica Bakovic
Fibroblasts from a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), who presented with low plasma choline and betaine, were studied to determine the metabolic characteristics of the choline deficiency. Choline is required for the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and for betaine, an important osmoregulator. Here, choline transport, lipid homeostasis, and mitochondria function were analyzed in skin fibroblasts from POTS and compared with control cells. The choline transporter-like protein 1/solute carrier 44A1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) and mRNA expression were 2-3 times lower in POTS fibroblasts, and choline uptake was reduced 60% (P < 0...
May 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Carolyn A Miller, Karen D Corbin, Kerry-Ann da Costa, Shucha Zhang, Xueqing Zhao, Joseph A Galanko, Tondra Blevins, Brian J Bennett, Annalouise O'Connor, Steven H Zeisel
BACKGROUND: It is important to understand whether eating eggs, which are a major source of dietary choline, results in increased exposure to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which is purported to be a risk factor for developing heart disease. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether humans eating eggs generate TMAO and, if so, whether there is an associated increase in a marker for inflammation [ie, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] or increased oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)...
September 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kerry-Ann da Costa, Karen D Corbin, Mihai D Niculescu, Joseph A Galanko, Steven H Zeisel
Effect alleles (alleles with a polymorphism that is associated with the effect being measured) in a small number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to influence the dietary requirement for choline. In this study, we examined a much larger number of SNPs (n=200) in 10 genes related to choline metabolism for associations with development of organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when 79 humans were fed a low-choline diet. We confirmed that effect alleles in SNPs such as the C allele of PEMT rs12325817 increase the risk of developing organ dysfunction in women when they consume a diet low in choline, and we identified novel effect alleles, such as the C allele of CHKA SNP rs7928739, that alter dietary choline requirements...
July 2014: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Anita J Fuglestad, Judith K Eckerle, Maria G Kroupina, Neely C Miller, Christopher J Boys, Ann M Brearley, Birgit A Fink, Heather L Hoecker, Steven H Zeisel, Michael K Georgieff
There are no biological treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), lifelong conditions associated with physical anomalies, brain damage, and neurocognitive abnormalities. In preclinical studies, choline partially ameliorates memory and learning deficits from prenatal alcohol exposure. This phase I pilot study evaluated the feasibility, tolerability, and potential adverse effects of choline supplementation in children with FASD. We hypothesized that choline would be well tolerated with minimal adverse events...
November 2013: Nutrition Research
Anita J Fuglestad, Birgit A Fink, Judith K Eckerle, Christopher J Boys, Heather L Hoecker, Maria G Kroupina, Steven H Zeisel, Michael K Georgieff, Jeffrey R Wozniak
This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall...
September 2013: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Steven H Zeisel
Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Adequate intake of dietary choline may be important for optimal fetal outcome (birth defects, brain development) and for maternal liver and placental function. Diets in many low income countries and in approximately one-fourth of women in high income countries, like the United States, may be too low in choline content...
2013: International Journal of Women's Health
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