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Daniel P Radin, Richard Purcell, Arnold S Lippa
BACKGROUND/AIM: The 5-year survival rate of glioblastoma (GBM) is ~10%, demonstrating that a new therapeutic modality for this cancer is desperately needed. Complicating the search for such a modality is that most large molecules cannot pass through the blood brain barrier, so molecules demonstrating efficacy in vitro may not be useful in vivo because they never reach the brain. Recently, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) was identified as an effective agent in targeting GBM in vitro and in vivo by agonizing AMPA-glutamate receptors (AMPARs), eliciting massive calcium influx and mitochondrial calcium overload and apoptosis...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
Jun Ren, Xiuqing Ding, John J Greer
Inhalation of capsaicin-based sprays can cause central respiratory depression and lethal apneas. There are contradictory reports regarding the sites of capsaicin action. Furthermore, an understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced apneas and the development of pharmacological interventions is lacking. The main objectives of this study were to perform a systematic study of the mechanisms of action of capsaicin-induced apneas and to provide insights relevant to pharmacological intervention...
February 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
S M Turner, M K ElMallah, A K Hoyt, J J Greer, D D Fuller
Glutamatergic currents play a fundamental role in regulating respiratory motor output and are partially mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors throughout the premotor and motor respiratory circuitry. Ampakines are pharmacological compounds that enhance glutamatergic transmission by altering AMPA receptor channel kinetics. Here, we examined if ampakines alter the expression of respiratory long-term facilitation (LTF), a form of neuroplasticity manifested as a persistent increase in inspiratory activity following brief periods of reduced O2 [intermittent hypoxia (IH)]...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mai K ElMallah, Silvia Pagliardini, Sara M Turner, Anthony J Cerreta, Darin J Falk, Barry J Byrne, John J Greer, David D Fuller
Pompe disease results from a mutation in the acid α-glucosidase gene leading to lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory insufficiency is common, and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment, enzyme replacement, has limited effectiveness. Ampakines are drugs that enhance α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor responses and can increase respiratory motor drive. Recent work indicates that respiratory motor drive can be blunted in Pompe disease, and thus pharmacologic stimulation of breathing may be beneficial...
September 2015: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Rutger van der Schier, Margot Roozekrans, Monique van Velzen, Albert Dahan, Marieke Niesters
The human body is critically dependent on the ventilatory control system for adequate uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). Potent opioid analgesics, through their actions on μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressed on respiratory neurons in the brainstem, depress ventilation. Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is potentially life threatening and the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. One possible way of prevention of OIRD is by adding a respiratory stimulant to the opioid treatment, which through activation of non-opioidergic pathways will excite breathing and consequently will offset OIRD and should not affect analgesia...
2014: F1000Prime Reports
Jun Ren, Floriane Lenal, Michael Yang, Xiuqing Ding, John J Greer
BACKGROUND: Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in human and veterinary medicine. Propofol's disadvantages include the induction of respiratory depression and apnea. Here, the authors report a clinically feasible pharmacological solution for reducing propofol-induced respiratory depression via a mechanism that does not interfere with anesthesia. Specifically, they test the hypothesis that the AMPAKINE CX717, which has been proven metabolically stable and safe for human use, can prevent and rescue from propofol-induced severe apnea...
June 2013: Anesthesiology
Jun Ren, Xiuqing Ding, John J Greer
Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment for other types of drug-induced respiratory depression...
October 2012: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yiwen Zheng, Sangeeta Balabhadrapatruni, Chisako Masumura, Cynthia L Darlington, Paul F Smith
Ampakines are a class of putative nootropic drug designed to positively modulate the AMPA receptor and have been investigated as a potential treatment for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Nonetheless, some ampakines such as CX717 have been incompletely characterized in behavioural pharmacological studies. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to further characterize the effects of the ampakine, CX717 (20 mg/kg s.c), on the performance of rats in a 5 choice serial reaction time (5CSRTT) and object recognition memory task, using rats with cognitive deficits caused by bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) as a model...
December 2011: Current Alzheimer Research
Julia Boyle, Neil Stanley, Lynette M James, Nicola Wright, Sigurd Johnsen, Emma L Arbon, Derk-Jan Dijk
AMPA receptor modulation is a potential novel approach to enhance cognitive performance. CX717 is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has shown efficacy in rodent and primate cognition models. CX717 (100 mg, 300 mg and 1000 mg) and placebo were studied in 16 healthy male volunteers (18-45 years) in a randomized, crossover study. Cognitive function, arousal and recovery sleep (by polysomnography) were assessed during the extended wakefulness protocol. Placebo condition was associated with significant decrements in cognition, particularly at the circadian nadir (between 03:00 and 05:00)...
August 2012: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Amanda R Lorier, Gregory D Funk, John J Greer
BACKGROUND: Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate tongue muscles and are vital for maintaining upper-airway patency during inspiration. Depression of XII nerve activity by opioid analgesics is a significant clinical problem, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Currently there are no suitable pharmacological approaches to counter opiate-induced suppression of XII nerve activity while maintaining analgesia. Ampakines accentuate alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor responses...
January 19, 2010: PloS One
B G Oertel, L Felden, P V Tran, M H Bradshaw, M S Angst, H Schmidt, S Johnson, J J Greer, G Geisslinger, M A Varney, J Lötsch
Ventilatory depression is a significant risk associated with the use of opioids. We assessed whether opioid-induced ventilatory depression can be selectively antagonized by an ampakine without reduction of analgesia. In 16 healthy men, after a single oral dose of 1,500 mg of the ampakine CX717, a target concentration of 100 ng/ml alfentanil decreased the respiratory frequency by only 2.9 +/- 33.4% as compared with 25.6 +/- 27.9% during placebo coadministration (P < 0.01).Blood oxygenation and the ventilatory response to hypercapnic challenge also showed significantly smaller decreases with CX717 than with placebo...
February 2010: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
John J Greer, Jun Ren
Opioid analgesics are the most widely used and effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of acute, postoperative and chronic pain. However, activation of opiate receptors leads to significant depression of respiratory frequency in a subpopulation of patients. Here we test the hypothesis that the AMPAKINE CX717 is effective for alleviating fentanyl-induced respiratory depression without interfering with analgesia. Ampakines are a relatively new class of compounds that are in Phase II clinical trials as potential treatments for cognitive disorders and the enhancement of memory and attentiveness...
August 31, 2009: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Jun Ren, Xiuqing Ding, Gregory D Funk, John J Greer
BACKGROUND: The use of fentanyl as a potent analgesic is contradicted by marked respiratory depression among a subpopulation of patients. The commonly used approach of reversing fentanyl-induced respiratory depression with mu-opiate receptor antagonists such as naloxone has the undesirable effect of blocking analgesia. Here, the authors report a clinically feasible pharmacological solution for countering fentanyl-induced respiratory depression via a mechanism that does not interfere with analgesia...
June 2009: Anesthesiology
R E Hampson, R A España, G A Rogers, L J Porrino, S A Deadwyler
RATIONALE: Performance of cognitive tasks in nonhuman primates (NHPs) requires specific brain regions to make decisions under different degrees of difficulty or "cognitive load." OBJECTIVE: Local cerebral metabolic activity ([18F]FDG PET imaging) in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobe (MTL), and dorsal striatum (DStr) is examined in NHPs performing a delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) task with variable degrees of cognitive load. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Correlations between cognitive load and degree of brain metabolic activity were obtained with respect to the influence of the ampakine CX717 (Cortex Pharmaceuticals), using brain imaging and recordings of neuronal activity in NHPs and measures of intracellular calcium release in rat hippocampal slices...
January 2009: Psychopharmacology
Nancy J Wesensten, Rebecca M Reichardt, Thomas J Balkin
INTRODUCTION: Round-the-clock operations in both military and civilian sectors have increased the need for alertness- and performance-maintaining strategies. The potential performance and objective alertness-enhancing effects of CX717 (a novel cognitive enhancer currently being tested in Phase II clinical trials) were evaluated using a simulated night shift work paradigm. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups design, 48 volunteers underwent 4 consecutive nights of simulated shift work...
October 2007: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
P Murali Doraiswamy, Glen L Xiong
This review examines key pharmacological strategies that have been clinically studied for the primary or secondary prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Much information (neuropsychological, genetic and imaging) is already available to characterise an individual's risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. However, regulatory pathways for obtaining a prevention indication are less well charted, and such trials tend to involve 3- to 7-year studies of 1000 - 5000 individuals, depending on baseline status. Treatments developed for prevention will also need to have superior safety...
January 2006: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Linda J Porrino, James B Daunais, Gary A Rogers, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler
The deleterious effects of prolonged sleep deprivation on behavior and cognition are a concern in modern society. Persons at risk for impaired performance and health-related issues resulting from prolonged sleep loss would benefit from agents capable of reducing these detrimental effects at the time they are sleep deprived. Agents capable of improving cognition by enhancing brain activity under normal circumstances may also have the potential to reduce the harmful or unwanted effects of sleep deprivation. The significant prevalence of excitatory alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamatergic receptors in the brain provides a basis for implementing a class of drugs that could act to alter or remove the effects of sleep deprivation...
September 2005: PLoS Biology
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