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Niche construction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727964/psychological-science-as-a-complex-system-report-card
#1
Douglas L Medin
Psychological science is increasingly diverse in the tools available for research and the questions it is able to ask. But this potential is seriously limited by a lack of diversity in study populations, in situations and contexts explored, and in the researchers themselves. The current situation is problematic and difficult to change because of niche construction processes that favor the status quo. Systems level changes are needed to support a healthy psychological science.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726912/3d-material-cytometry-3dmac-a-very-high-replicate-high-throughput-analytical-method-using-microfabricated-shape-specific-cell-material-niches
#2
Kirsten Parratt, Jenny Jeong, Peng Qiu, Krishnendu Roy
Studying cell behavior within 3D material niches is key to understanding cell biology in health and diseases, and developing biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. Current approaches to studying these cell-material niches have low throughput and can only analyze a few replicates per experiment resulting in reduced measurement assurance and analytical power. Here, we report 3D material cytometry (3DMaC), a novel high-throughput method based on microfabricated, shape-specific 3D cell-material niches and imaging cytometry...
July 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716196/maximum-entropy-modeling-risk-of-anthrax-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan
#3
S K Abdrakhmanov, Y Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, A S Kadyrov, D B Kushubaev, T G Bakishev
The objective of this study was to zone the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) into risk categories according to the probability of anthrax emergence in farm animals as stipulated by the re-activation of preserved natural foci. We used historical data on anthrax morbidity in farm animals during the period 1933 - 2014, collected by the veterinary service of the RK. The database covers the entire territory of the RK and contains 4058 anthrax outbreaks tied to 1798 unique locations. Considering the strongly pronounced natural focality of anthrax, we employed environmental niche modeling (Maxent) to reveal patterns in the outbreaks' linkages to specific combinations of environmental factors...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709044/comparison-of-inoculum-sources-for-long-term-process-performance-and-fate-of-anammox-bacteria-niche-in-poly-vinyl-alcohol-sodium-alginate-gel-beads
#4
Kyungjin Cho, Minkyu Choi, Dawoon Jeong, Seockheon Lee, Hyokwan Bae
The process performance and microbial niche of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria were compared in two identical bioreactors inoculated with different inoculum sources (i.e., pre-cultured ANAMMOX bacteria: PAB and activated sludge: AS) entrapped in poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate (PVA/SA) gel beads for a long-term period (i.e., 1.5 years). The start-up period with AS was longer than that with PAB; however, both bioreactors were successfully operated over the long-term with stable ANAMMOX activity...
July 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701910/the-impact-of-ecological-niche-on-adaptive-flexibility-of-sensory-circuitry
#5
REVIEW
Sarah L Pallas
Evolution and development are interdependent, particularly with regard to the construction of the nervous system and its position as the machine that produces behavior. On the one hand, the processes directing development and plasticity of the brain provide avenues through which natural selection can sculpt neural cell fate and connectivity, and on the other hand, they are themselves subject to selection pressure. For example, mutations that produce heritable perturbations in neuronal birth and death rates, transcription factor expression, or availability of axon guidance factors within sensory pathways can markedly affect the development of form and thus the function of stimulus decoding circuitry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700580/infant-viewing-of-social-scenes-is-under-genetic-control-and-is-atypical-in-autism
#6
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698551/laminin-511-and-521-based-matrices-for-efficient-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-limbal-epithelial-progenitor-cells
#7
Naresh Polisetti, Lydia Sorokin, Naoki Okumura, Noriko Koizumi, Shigeru Kinoshita, Friedrich E Kruse, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
Optimization of culture conditions for human limbal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (LEPC) that incorporate the in vivo cell-matrix interactions are essential to enhance LEPC ex vivo-expansion and transplantation efficiency. Here, we investigate the efficacy of laminin (LN) isoforms preferentially expressed in the limbal niche as culture matrices for epithelial tissue engineering. Analyses of expression patterns of LN chains in the human limbal niche provided evidence for enrichment of LN-α2, -α3, -α5, -β1, -β2, -β3, -γ1, -γ2 and -γ3 chains in the limbal basement membrane, with LN-α5 representing a signature component specifically produced by epithelial progenitor cells...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686585/constructing-cellular-niche-properties-by-localized-presentation-of-wnt-proteins-on-synthetic-surfaces
#8
Molly Lowndes, Sergi Junyent, Shukry J Habib
Wnt signaling is crucial during embryonic development and for the maintenance of adult tissues. Depending on the tissue type, the Wnt pathway can promote stem cell self-renewal and/or direct lineage commitment. Wnt proteins are subject to lipid modification, often restricting them to act in a localized manner on responsive cells. Most methods for inducing Wnt signaling in stem cell cultures do not control the spatial presentation of the protein. To recreate the local presentation of Wnt proteins often seen in vivo, we previously developed a method to immobilize the protein onto synthetic surfaces...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672032/mountaintops-phylogeography-a-case-study-using-small-mammals-from-the-andes-and-the-coast-of-central-chile
#9
R Eduardo Palma, Pablo Gutiérrez-Tapia, Juan F González, Dusan Boric-Bargetto, Fernando Torres-Pérez
We evaluated if two sigmodontine rodent taxa (Abrothrix olivacea and Phyllotis darwini) from the Andes and Coastal mountaintops of central Chile, experienced distributional shifts due to altitudinal movements of habitat and climate change during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We tested the hypothesis that during LGM populations of both species experienced altitudinal shifts from the Andes to the lowlands and the coastal Cordillera, and then range retractions during interglacial towards higher elevations in the Andes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659885/importance-of-campylobacter-jejuni-flis-and-fliw-in-flagella-biogenesis-and-flagellin-secretion
#10
Katarzyna A Radomska, Marc M S M Wösten, Soledad R Ordoñez, Jaap A Wagenaar, Jos P M van Putten
Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649213/ethorobotics-a-new-approach-to-human-robot-relationship
#11
REVIEW
Ádám Miklósi, Péter Korondi, Vicente Matellán, Márta Gácsi
Here we aim to lay the theoretical foundations of human-robot relationship drawing upon insights from disciplines that govern relevant human behaviors: ecology and ethology. We show how the paradox of the so called "uncanny valley hypothesis" can be solved by applying the "niche" concept to social robots, and relying on the natural behavior of humans. Instead of striving to build human-like social robots, engineers should construct robots that are able to maximize their performance in their niche (being optimal for some specific functions), and if they are endowed with appropriate form of social competence then humans will eventually interact with them independent of their embodiment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648843/identification-of-regulators-of-germ-stem-cell-enwrapment-by-its-niche-in-c-elegans
#12
Lara M Linden, Kacy L Gordon, Ariel M Pani, Sara G Payne, Aastha Garde, Dane Burkholder, Qiuyi Chi, Bob Goldstein, David R Sherwood
Many stem cell niches contain support cells that increase contact with stem cells by enwrapping them in cellular processes. One example is the germ stem cell niche in C. elegans, which is composed of a single niche cell termed the distal tip cell (DTC) that extends cellular processes, constructing an elaborate plexus that enwraps germ stem cells. To identify genes required for plexus formation and to explore the function of this specialized enwrapping behavior, a series of targeted and tissue-specific RNAi screens were performed...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644872/helicobacter-pylori-gene-silencing-in-vivo-demonstrates-urease-is-essential-for-chronic-infection
#13
Aleksandra W Debowski, Senta M Walton, Eng-Guan Chua, Alfred Chin-Yen Tay, Tingting Liao, Binit Lamichhane, Robyn Himbeck, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Alma Fulurija, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603948/limb-derived-cells-as-a-paradigm-for-engineering-self-assembling-skeletal-tissues
#14
Warnakulasuriya A Fernando, Ioannis Papantoniou, Luis F Mendes, Gabriella Nilsson Hall, Kathleen Bosmans, Wai L Tam, Liliana M Teixeira, Malcolm Moos, Liesbet Geris, Frank P Luyten
Mimicking developmental events has been proposed as a strategy to engineer tissue constructs for regenerative medicine. However, this approach has not yet been investigated for skeletal tissues. Here we demonstrate that ectopic implantation of mouse embryonic day 14.5 long bone anlagen, dissociated into single cells and randomly incorporated in a bioengineered construct, give rise to epiphyseal growth plate like structures, bone, and marrow, which share many morphological and molecular similarities to epiphyseal units that form after transplanting intact long bone anlage, demonstrating substantial robustness and autonomy of complex tissue self-assembly and the overall organogenesis process...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576881/assessing-elements-of-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-for-plant-domestication-and-agricultural-origin-research
#15
Dolores R Piperno
The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000-10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570695/molecular-basis-for-the-binding-and-modulation-of-v-atpase-by-a-bacterial-effector-protein
#16
Jianhua Zhao, Ksenia Beyrakhova, Yao Liu, Claudia P Alvarez, Stephanie A Bueler, Li Xu, Caishuang Xu, Michal T Boniecki, Voula Kanelis, Zhao-Qing Luo, Miroslaw Cygler, John L Rubinstein
Intracellular pathogenic bacteria evade the immune response by replicating within host cells. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, makes use of numerous effector proteins to construct a niche supportive of its replication within phagocytic cells. The L. pneumophila effector SidK was identified in a screen for proteins that reduce the activity of the proton pumping vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. SidK is secreted by L. pneumophila in the early stages of infection and by binding to and inhibiting the V-ATPase, SidK reduces phagosomal acidification and promotes survival of the bacterium inside macrophages...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513711/a-novel-approach-for-fabricating-highly-tunable-and-fluffy-bioinspired-3d-poly-vinyl-alcohol-pva-fiber-scaffolds
#17
Sunanda Roy, Shreyas Kuddannaya, Tanya Das, Heng Yeong Lee, Jacob Lim, Xiao 'Matthew' Hu, Yue Chee Yoon, Jaehwan Kim
The excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and chemo-thermal stability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been harnessed in diverse practical applications. These properties have motivated the fabrication of high performance PVA based nanofibers with adequate control over the micro and nano-architectures and surface chemical interactions. However, the high water solubility and hydrophilicity of the PVA polymer limits the application of the electrospun PVA nanofibers in aqueous environments owing to instantaneous dissolution...
June 1, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507536/temporal-genomic-phylogeny-reconstruction-indicates-a-geospatial-transmission-path-of-salmonella-cerro-in-the-united-states-and-a-clade-specific-loss-of-hydrogen-sulfide-production
#18
Jasna Kovac, Kevin J Cummings, Lorraine D Rodriguez-Rivera, Laura M Carroll, Anil Thachil, Martin Wiedmann
Salmonella Cerro has become one of the most prevalent Salmonella serotypes isolated from dairy cattle in several U.S. states, including New York where it represented 36% of all Salmonella isolates of bovine origin in 2015. This serotype is commonly isolated from dairy cattle with clinical signs of salmonellosis, including diarrhea and fever, although it has also been identified in herds without evidence of clinical disease or decreased production. To better understand the transmission patterns and drivers of its geographic spread, we have studied the genomic similarity and microevolution of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486499/importance-of-neutral-processes-varies-in-time-and-space-evidence-from-dryland-stream-ecosystems
#19
Xiaoli Dong, David A Lytle, Julian D Olden, Tiffany A Schriever, Rachata Muneepeerakul
Many ecosystems experience strong temporal variability in environmental conditions; yet, a clear picture of how niche and neutral processes operate to determine community assembly in temporally variable systems remains elusive. In this study, we constructed neutral metacommunity models to assess the relative importance of neutral processes in a spatially and temporally variable ecosystem. We analyzed macroinvertebrate community data spanning multiple seasons and years from 20 sites in a Sonoran Desert river network in Arizona...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443039/primary-emotional-systems-and-personality-an-evolutionary-perspective
#20
Christian Montag, Jaak Panksepp
The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. Our argumentation leads to the need to increasingly consider individual differences in the raw affects/emotions of people to understand human personality in a bottom-up fashion, which can be coordinated with top-down perspectives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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