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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092776/periosteum-tissue-engineering-in-an-orthotopic-in%C3%A2-vivo-platform
#1
J G Baldwin, F Wagner, L C Martine, B M Holzapfel, C Theodoropoulos, O Bas, F M Savi, C Werner, E M De-Juan-Pardo, D W Hutmacher
The periosteum plays a critical role in bone homeostasis and regeneration. It contains a vascular component that provides vital blood supply to the cortical bone and an osteogenic niche that acts as a source of bone-forming cells. Periosteal grafts have shown promise in the regeneration of critical size defects, however their limited availability restricts their widespread clinical application. Only a small number of tissue-engineered periosteum constructs (TEPCs) have been reported in the literature. A current challenge in the development of appropriate TEPCs is a lack of pre-clinical models in which they can reliably be evaluated...
November 20, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072854/functional-richness-and-identity-do-not-strongly-affect-invasibility-of-constructed-dune-communities
#2
Tanya J Mason, Kristine French, Dianne F Jolley
Biotic effects are often used to explain community structure and invasion resistance. We evaluated the contribution of functional richness and identity to invasion resistance and abiotic resource availability using a mesocosm experiment. We predicted that higher functional richness would confer greater invasion resistance through greater resource sequestration. We also predicted that niche pre-emption and invasion resistance would be higher in communities which included functional groups similar to the invader than communities where all functional groups were distinct from the invader...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065192/cognition-and-culture-in-evolutionary-context
#3
Fernando Colmenares, María Victoria Hernández-Lloreda
In humans and other animals, the individuals' ability to adapt efficiently and effectively to the niches they have actively contributed to construct relies heavily on an evolved psychology which has been shaped by biological, social, and cultural processes over evolutionary time. As expected, although many of the behavioral and cognitive components of this evolved psychology are widely shared across species, many others are species-unique. Although many animal species are known to acquire group-specific traditions (or cultures) via social learning, human culture is unique in terms of its contents and characteristics (observable and unobservable products, cumulative effects, norm conformity, and norm enforcement) and of its cognitive underpinnings (imitation, instructed teaching, and language)...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063988/engineered-extracellular-microenvironment-with-a-tunable-mechanical-property-for-controlling-cell-behavior-and-cardiomyogenic-fate-of-cardiac-stem-cells
#4
Min-Young Choi, Jong-Tae Kim, Won-Jin Lee, Yunki Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young-Il Yang, Ki Dong Park
: Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are known to play a certain role in the myocardial homeostasis of the adult heart. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding CSCs provides mechanical signals to regulate a variety of cell behaviors, yet the impact in the adult heart of these mechanical properties of ECM on CSC renewal and fate decisions is mostly unknown. To elucidate CSC mechanoresponses at the individual cell and myocardial level, we used the sol-to-gel transitional gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) hydrogel with a tunable mechanical property to construct a three-dimensional (3D) matrix for culturing native myocardium and CSCs...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060362/cheating-fosters-species-co-existence-in-well-mixed-bacterial-communities
#5
Anne Leinweber, R Fredrik Inglis, Rolf Kümmerli
Explaining the enormous biodiversity observed in bacterial communities is challenging because ecological theory predicts that competition between species occupying the same niche should lead to the exclusion of less competitive community members. Competitive exclusion should be particularly strong when species compete for a single limiting resource or live in unstructured habitats that offer no refuge for weaker competitors. Here, we describe the 'cheating effect', a form of intra-specific competition that can counterbalance between-species competition, thereby fostering biodiversity in unstructured habitats...
January 6, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025291/evolution-of-genome-size-and-genomic-gc-content-in-carnivorous-holokinetics-droseraceae
#6
Adam Veleba, Petr Šmarda, František Zedek, Lucie Horová, Jakub Šmerda, Petr Bureš
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies in the carnivorous family Lentibulariaceae in the last years resulted in the discovery of the smallest plant genomes and an unusual pattern of genomic GC content evolution. However, scarcity of genomic data in other carnivorous clades still prevents a generalization of the observed patterns. Here the aim was to fill this gap by mapping genome evolution in the second largest carnivorous family, Droseraceae, where this evolution may be affected by chromosomal holokinetism in Drosera METHODS: The genome size and genomic GC content of 71 Droseraceae species were measured by flow cytometry...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024466/-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
Wei-Li Wang, Qiao-Zhu Xu, Xiao-Huan Mu, Le Wang, Li-Yan Zhang, Jing Xu, Ying-Dai Gao, Tao Cheng, Wei-Ping Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of NF-κB inhibitor in occurence and development of AML. METHODS: AML and normal bone marrow samples were collected from 8 AML patients and 8 normal persons. The expression of NF-κB signaling pathway genes was detected by NF-κB PCR array. Then, AML mouse model was constructed to test the role of NF-κB inhibitor in AML. RESULTS: The NF-κB signal pathway was activated in AML patients. The up-regulated genes, EDARADD, TNFSF14, could activate the NF-κB signal pathway, IL6 could regulate the inflammatory signal...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017869/endosteal-like-extracellular-matrix-expression-on-melt-electrospun-written-scaffolds
#8
Maria Lourdes Muerza-Cascante, Ali Shokoohmand, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, David Haylock, Paul D Dalton, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
: Tissue engineering technology platforms constitute a unique opportunity to integrate cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into scaffolds and matrices that mimic the natural microenvironments in vitro. The developments of tissue-engineered 3D models that mimic the endosteal microenvironment enable researchers to discover the causes and improve treatments for blood and immune-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish a physiologically relevant in vitro model using 3D printed scaffolds to assess the contribution of human cells to the formation of a construct that mimics human endosteum...
December 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007424/recreating-the-cardiac-microenvironment-in-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-of-human-physiology-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ayhan Atmanli, Ibrahim John Domian
The advent of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) biology has opened unprecedented opportunities for the use of tissue engineering to generate human cardiac tissue for in vitro study. Engineering cardiac constructs that recapitulate human development and disease requires faithful recreation of the cardiac niche in vitro. Here we discuss recent progress in translating the in vivo cardiac microenvironment into PSC models of the human heart. We review three key physiologic features required to recreate the cardiac niche and facilitate normal cardiac differentiation and maturation: the biochemical, biophysical, and bioelectrical signaling cues...
December 19, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005294/water-supply-and-demand-remain-coordinated-during-breakdown-of-the-global-scaling-relationship-between-leaf-size-and-major-vein-density
#10
Julio V Schneider, Jörg Habersetzer, Renate Rabenstein, Jens Wesenberg, Karsten Wesche, Georg Zizka
Vein networks that disobey the global scaling of major vein density with leaf size shed light on functional constraints of vein network formation in dicotyledons. Understanding their evolution, distribution and impact on vein-stomata-climate associations is an important contribution to our global view of vein network organization. Based on vein traits of 55 species of pantropical Ochnaceae, stomata and climatic niche data, and a dated molecular phylogeny, we unveil major structural shifts in vein networks through deep time, relationships between leaf size, vein and stomata traits, and their interplay with climate...
December 22, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998942/integrins-functioning-in-uterine-endometrial-stromal-and-epithelial-cells-in-estrus
#11
Hye Jin Park, Ji Eun Park, Hyun Lee, Seong Jae Kim, Jung Im Yun, Minseok Kim, Kyu Hyun Park, Seung Tae Lee
Here, as a basic study in the construction of a non-cellular niche that supports artificial organization of three-dimensional endometrial tissue, we defined the types of integrin heterodimers that are expressed transcriptionally, translationally and functionally in endometrial stromal (ES) and endometrial epithelial (EE) cells isolated from the mouse uterus in estrus. Gene and protein expression of integrin subunits were analyzed at the transcriptional and translational level by real-time PCR and fluorescent immunoassay, respectively...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980030/present-day-african-analogue-of-a-pre-european-amazonian-floodplain-fishery-shows-convergence-in-cultural-niche-construction
#12
Doyle B McKey, Mélisse Durécu, Marc Pouilly, Philippe Béarez, Alex Ovando, Mashuta Kalebe, Carl F Huchzermeyer
Erickson [Erickson CL (2000) Nature 408 (6809):190-193] interpreted features in seasonal floodplains in Bolivia's Beni savannas as vestiges of pre-European earthen fish weirs, postulating that they supported a productive, sustainable fishery that warranted cooperation in the construction and maintenance of perennial structures. His inferences were bold, because no close ethnographic analogues were known. A similar present-day Zambian fishery, documented here, appears strikingly convergent. The Zambian fishery supports Erickson's key inferences about the pre-European fishery: It allows sustained high harvest levels; weir construction and operation require cooperation; and weirs are inherited across generations...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941914/high-fidelity-visualization-of-cell-to-cell-variation-and-temporal-dynamics-in-nascent-extracellular-matrix-formation
#13
Claire M McLeod, Robert L Mauck
Extracellular matrix dynamics are key to tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis, injury, and repair. The spatiotemporal organization of this matrix has profound biological implications, but is challenging to monitor using standard techniques. Here, we address these challenges by using noncanonical amino acid tagging to fluorescently label extracellular matrix synthesized in the presence of bio-orthogonal methionine analogs. This strategy labels matrix proteins with high resolution, without compromising their distribution or mechanical function...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938326/whole-genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomics-of-closely-related-fusarium-head-blight-fungi-fusarium-graminearum-f-meridionale-and-f-asiaticum
#14
Sean Walkowiak, Owen Rowland, Nicolas Rodrigue, Rajagopal Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: The Fusarium graminearum species complex is composed of many distinct fungal species that cause several diseases in economically important crops, including Fusarium Head Blight of wheat. Despite being closely related, these species and individuals within species have distinct phenotypic differences in toxin production and pathogenicity, with some isolates reported as non-pathogenic on certain hosts. In this report, we compare genomes and gene content of six new isolates from the species complex, including the first available genomes of F...
December 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936347/the-infectious-intracellular-lifestyle-of-salmonella-enterica-relies-on-the-adaptation-to-nutritional-conditions-within-the-salmonella-containing-vacuole
#15
Lautaro Diacovich, Lucía Lorenzi, Mauro Tomassetti, Stéphane Méresse, Hugo Gramajo
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined...
December 9, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885671/recruited-monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-promote-the-arrest-of-tumor-cells-in-the-premetastatic-niche-through-an-il-1%C3%AE-mediated-increase-in-e-selectin-expression
#16
Huifang Shi, Juechao Zhang, Xiaoqing Han, Huihan Li, Mingshu Xie, Yingying Sun, Wenguang Liu, Xueqing Ba, Xianlu Zeng
The tumor premetastatic niche initiated by primary tumors is constructed by multiple molecular factors and cellular components and provides permissive condition that allows circulating tumor cells to successfully metastasize. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a population of immature cells in pathological conditions, play a critical role in the formation of the premetastatic niche. However, few researches are focused on the function of monocytic MDSCs (mo-MDSCs), a subtype of MDSCs, in the construction of the niche...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#17
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#18
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859289/correlational-selection-on-personality-and-social-plasticity-morphology-and-social-context-determine-behavioural-effects-on-mating-success
#19
Pierre-Olivier Montiglio, Tina W Wey, Ann T Chang, Sean Fogarty, Andrew Sih
1.Despite a central line of research aimed at quantifying relationships between mating success and sexually dimorphic traits (e.g., ornaments), individual variation in sexually selected traits often explains only a modest portion of the variation in mating success. 2.Another line of research suggests that a significant portion of the variation in mating success observed in animal populations could be explained by correlational selection, where the fitness advantage of a given trait depends on other components of an individual's phenotype and/or its environment...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853610/population-growth-as-a-driver-of-initial-domestication-in-eastern-north-america
#20
Elic M Weitzel, Brian F Codding
The transition to agriculture is one of the most significant events in human prehistory; yet, explaining why people initially domesticated plants and animals remains a contentious research problem in archaeology. Two competing hypotheses dominate current debates. The first draws on niche construction theory to emphasize how intentional management of wild resources should lead to domestication regardless of Malthusian population-resource imbalances. The second relies on models from behavioural ecology (BE) to highlight how individuals should only exert selective pressure on wild resources during times of population-resource imbalance...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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