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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919507/tissue-engineered-magnetic-cell-sheet-patches-for-advanced-strategies-in-tendon-regeneration
#1
Ana I Gonçalves, Márcia T Rodrigues, Manuela E Gomes
Tendons are powerful 3D biomechanically structures combining a few cells in an intrincated and highly hierarchical niche environment. When tendon homeostasis is compromised, restoration of functionality upon injury is limited and requires alternatives to current augmentation or replacement strategies. Cell sheet technologies are a powerful tool for the fabrication of living extracellular-rich patches towards regeneration of tenotopic defects. Thus, we originally propose the development of magnetically responsive tenogenic patches through magnetic cell sheet (magCSs) technology that enable the remote control upon implantation of the tendon-mimicking constructs...
September 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879614/plant-sex-affects-the-structure-of-plant-pollinator-networks-in-a-subtropical-forest
#2
Minhua Zhang, Fangliang He
Although it has long been recognized that the diversified sexual systems of plants could influence community patterns and pollination specialization, plant sex is not usually incorporated to quantify plant-pollinator networks. In this study, we observed 1776 visitations corresponding to 84 pollinator species and 28 plant species (19 sexually monomorphic plants and 9 dioecious plants) in a subtropical forest, China. We constructed three networks by, respectively, combining visitations to dioecious female and male plants at the species level, separating them, and retaining the shared visitations between them...
September 6, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852597/allele-specific-expression-analysis-identifies-regulatory-variation-associated-with-stress-related-genes-in-the-mexican-highland-maize-landrace-palomero-toluque%C3%A3-o
#3
M Rocío Aguilar-Rangel, Ricardo A Chávez Montes, Eric González-Segovia, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, June K Simpson, Ruairidh J H Sawers
BACKGROUND: Gene regulatory variation has been proposed to play an important role in the adaptation of plants to environmental stress. In the central highlands of Mexico, farmer selection has generated a unique group of maize landraces adapted to the challenges of the highland niche. In this study, gene expression in Mexican highland maize and a reference maize breeding line were compared to identify evidence of regulatory variation in stress-related genes. It was hypothesised that local adaptation in Mexican highland maize would be associated with a transcriptional signature observable even under benign conditions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839929/why-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-is-necessary
#4
REVIEW
Gerd B Müller
Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839923/why-developmental-niche-construction-is-not-selective-niche-construction-and-why-it-matters
#5
Karola Stotz
In the last decade, niche construction has been heralded as the neglected process in evolution. But niche construction is just one way in which the organism's interaction with and construction of the environment can have potential evolutionary significance. The constructed environment does not just select for, it also produces new variation. Nearly 3 decades ago, and in parallel with Odling-Smee's article 'Niche-constructing phenotypes', West and King introduced the 'ontogenetic niche' to give the phenomena of exogenetic inheritance a formal name...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839920/niche-construction-sources-of-selection-and-trait-coevolution
#6
Kevin Laland, John Odling-Smee, John Endler
Organisms modify and choose components of their local environments. This 'niche construction' can alter ecological processes, modify natural selection and contribute to inheritance through ecological legacies. Here, we propose that niche construction initiates and modifies the selection directly affecting the constructor, and on other species, in an orderly, directed and sustained manner. By dependably generating specific environmental states, niche construction co-directs adaptive evolution by imposing a consistent statistical bias on selection...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839919/evolutionary-biology-today-and-the-call-for-an-extended-synthesis
#7
Douglas J Futuyma
Evolutionary theory has been extended almost continually since the evolutionary synthesis (ES), but except for the much greater importance afforded genetic drift, the principal tenets of the ES have been strongly supported. Adaptations are attributable to the sorting of genetic variation by natural selection, which remains the only known cause of increase in fitness. Mutations are not adaptively directed, but as principal authors of the ES recognized, the material (structural) bases of biochemistry and development affect the variety of phenotypic variations that arise by mutation and recombination...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839917/human-niche-human-behaviour-human-nature
#8
REVIEW
Agustin Fuentes
The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839915/domestication-as-a-model-system-for-the-extended-evolutionary-synthesis
#9
REVIEW
Melinda A Zeder
One of the challenges in evaluating arguments for extending the conceptual framework of evolutionary biology involves the identification of a tractable model system that allows for an assessment of the core assumptions of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The domestication of plants and animals by humans provides one such case study opportunity. Here, I consider domestication as a model system for exploring major tenets of the EES. First I discuss the novel insights that niche construction theory (NCT, one of the pillars of the EES) provides into the domestication processes, particularly as they relate to five key areas: coevolution, evolvability, ecological inheritance, cooperation and the pace of evolutionary change...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808914/from-pleistocene-to-holocene-the-prehistory-of-southwest-asia-in-evolutionary-context
#10
Trevor Watkins
In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808160/incremental-contributions-of-fbaa-and-other-impetigo-associated-surface-proteins-to-fitness-and-virulence-of-a-classical-group-a-streptococcal-skin-strain
#11
Candace N Rouchon, Anhphan T Ly, John P Noto, Feng Luo, Sergio Lizano, Debra E Bessen
Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains having a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene is found to be present in most skin specialist strains, but largely absent from a genetically-related subset of pharyngitis isolates...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798841/microfluidic-engineering-of-neural-stem-cell-niches-for-fate-determination
#12
Yachen Wang, Jingyun Ma, Na Li, Liang Wang, Liming Shen, Yu Sun, Yajun Wang, Jingyuan Zhao, Wenjuan Wei, Yan Ren, Jing Liu
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has great therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system injuries. Successful NSC replacement therapy requires precise control over the cellular behaviors. However, the regulation of NSC fate is largely unclear, which severely restricts the potential clinical applications. To develop an effective model, we designed an assembled microfluidic system to engineer NSC niches and assessed the effects of various culture conditions on NSC fate determination...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793810/remote-sensing-tropical-coral-reefs-the-view-from-above
#13
Sam J Purkis
Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil reefs form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783870/cxcr4-antagonist-delivery-on-decellularized-skin-scaffold-facilitates-impaired-wound-healing-in-diabetic-mice-by-increasing-expression-of-sdf-1-and-enhancing-migration-of-cxcr4-positive-cells
#14
Hao Liu, Hanping Liu, Xiaoyuan Deng, Maosheng Chen, Xue Han, Wenxia Yan, Ning Wang
C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). The antagonist of CXCR4 can mobilize CD34+ cells and hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow within several hours, and it has an efficacy on diabetes ulcer through acting on the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. In this study, we investigated for the first time whether the antagonist of CXCR4 (Plerixafor/AMD3100) delivered on acellular dermal matrix (ADM) may accelerate diabetes-impaired wound healing...
June 8, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761013/why-gupta-et-al-s-critique-of-niche-construction-theory-is-off-target
#15
Marcus W Feldman, John Odling-Smee, Kevin N Laland
Gupta et al., in their article in this issue ('Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an academic niche?'. doi:10.1007/s12041-017-0787-6), lament 'serious problems with the way science is being done' and suggest that 'niche construction theory exemplifies this state of affairs.' However, their aggressively confrontational but superficial critique of niche construction theory (NCT) only contributes to these problems by attacking claims that NCT does not make. This is unfortunate, as their poor scholarship has done a disservice to the evolutionary biology community through propagating misinformation...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761012/niche-construction-in-evolutionary-theory-the-construction-of-an-academic-niche
#16
Manan Gupta, N G Prasad, Sutirth Dey, Amitabh Joshi, N C Vidya T
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761011/co-niche-construction-between-hosts-and-symbionts-ideas-and-evidence
#17
Renee M Borges
Symbiosis is a process that can generate evolutionary novelties and can extend the phenotypic niche space of organisms. Symbionts can act together with their hosts to co-construct host organs, within which symbionts are housed. Once established within hosts, symbionts can also influence various aspects of host phenotype, such as resource acquisition, protection from predation by acquisition of toxicity, as well as behaviour. Once symbiosis is established, its fidelity between generations must be ensured. Hosts evolve various mechanisms to screen unwanted symbionts and to facilitate faithful transmission of mutualistic partners between generations...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757467/high-level-expression-and-purification-of-soluble-form-of-human-natural-killer-cell-receptor-nkr-p1-in-hek293s-gnti-cells
#18
Jan Bláha, Barbora Kalousková, Ondřej Skořepa, Samuel Pažický, Petr Novák, Ondřej Vaněk
Human natural killer receptor protein 1 (NKR-P1, CD161, gene klrb1) is a C-type lectin-like receptor of natural killer (NK) cells responsible for recognition of its cognate protein ligand lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1). NKR-P1 is the single human orthologue of the prototypical rodent NKR-P1 receptors. Naturally, human NKR-P1 is expressed on the surface of NK cells, where it serves as inhibitory receptor; and on T and NKT cells functioning as co-stimulatory receptor promoting secretion of IFNγ. Most notably, it is expressed on Th17 and Tc17 lymphocytes where presumably promotes targeting into LLT1 expressing immunologically privileged niches...
July 27, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739945/cumulative-cultural-learning-development-and-diversity
#19
Cristine H Legare
The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727964/psychological-science-as-a-complex-system-report-card
#20
Douglas L Medin
Psychological science is increasingly diverse in the tools available for research and the questions it is able to ask. But this potential is seriously limited by a lack of diversity in study populations, in situations and contexts explored, and in the researchers themselves. The current situation is problematic and difficult to change because of niche construction processes that favor the status quo. Systems level changes are needed to support a healthy psychological science.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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