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Viviane Callier
Evodevo is concerned with understanding how phenotypes develop and evolve, how organismal diversity is generated and maintained, and how evolutionary innovations originate. The second Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology (PASEDB) meeting in Calgary, Canada, showcased a great variety of species and study systems, and a variety of approaches to address these questions. Although there were, like at the first PASEDB meeting, many developmental genetic and genomic studies, much of the work moved beyond comparative developmental genetics toward more integrative studies that seek explanations at different levels of the organismal hierarchy...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Yi-Hsien Su, Jr-Kai Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
Verónica S Di Stilio, Rainer Melzer, Jocelyn C Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dian-Han Kuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
Tim Peterson, Gerd B Müller
The introduction of novel phenotypic structures is one of the most significant aspects of organismal evolution. Yet the concept of evolutionary novelty is used with drastically different connotations in various fields of research, and debate exists about whether novelties represent features that are distinct from standard forms of phenotypic variation. This article contrasts four separate uses for novelty in genetics, population genetics, morphology, and behavioral science, before establishing how novelties are used in evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo)...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
Neelima R Sinha, Steven D Rowland, Yasunori Ichihashi
An intricate web of regulatory relationships between DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites regulates how organisms achieve form and function. Genome sequencing combined with computational methods has allowed us to look at diverse readouts and generate a comprehensive framework for how molecules generate morphological phenotypes. RNAseq has evolved and proved useful for identifying links between transcription factor activity and transcript abundance, and for the generation of transcriptomes in non-model species through de novo assembly...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Daniel A Sasson, Joseph F Ryan
Ctenophores (comb jellies) are emerging as important animals for investigating fundamental questions across numerous branches of biology (e.g., evodevo, neuroscience and biogeography). A few ctenophore species including, most notably, Mnemiopsis leidyi, are considered as invasive species, adding to the significance of studying ctenophore ecology. Despite the growing interest in ctenophore biology, relatively little is known about their reproduction. Like most ctenophores, M. leidyi is a simultaneous hermaphrodite capable of self-fertilization...
2016: PeerJ
Kinya G Ota, Gembu Abe
Morphological variation of the goldfish is known to have been established by artificial selection for ornamental purposes during the domestication process. Chinese texts that date to the Song dynasty contain descriptions of goldfish breeding for ornamental purposes, indicating that the practice originated over one thousand years ago. Such a well-documented goldfish breeding process, combined with the phylogenetic and embryological proximities of this species with zebrafish, would appear to make the morphologically diverse goldfish strains suitable models for evolutionary developmental (evodevo) studies...
May 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Michael J Layden, Fabian Rentzsch, Eric Röttinger
Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Veronica Hinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Markus Lindholm
Adaptation by means of natural selection depends on the ability of populations to maintain variation in heritable traits. According to the Modern Synthesis this variation is sustained by mutations and genetic drift. Epigenetics, evodevo, niche construction and cultural factors have more recently been shown to contribute to heritable variation, however, leading an increasing number of biologists to call for an extended view of speciation and evolution. An additional common feature across the animal kingdom is learning, defined as the ability to change behavior according to novel experiences or skills...
2015: Biosemiotics
Linda Z Holland
In the past 40 years, comparisons of developmental gene expression and mechanisms of development (evodevo) joined comparative morphology as tools for reconstructing long-extinct ancestral forms. Unfortunately, both approaches typically give congruent answers only with closely related organisms. Chordate nervous systems are good examples. Classical studies alone left open whether the vertebrate brain was a new structure or evolved from the anterior end of an ancestral nerve cord like that of modern amphioxus...
December 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Elena M Kramer
One of the major goals of the modern study of evodevo is to understand the evolution of gene function across a range of contexts, including sub/neofunctionalization, co-option of genetic modules, and the evolution of morphological novelty. To these ends, comparative studies of gene expression can be useful for constructing hypotheses, but cannot provide direct evidence of functional evolution. Unfortunately, determining endogenous gene function in non-model species is often not an option. Faced with this dilemma, a common approach is to use heterologous expression (HE) in genetically tractable model species as a proxy for functional analyses...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
María Eugenia Cornide-Petronio, Ramón Anadón, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, María Celina Rodicio
The dual development of the retina of lampreys is exceptional among vertebrates and offers an interesting EvoDevo (evolutionary developmental biology) model for understanding the origin and evolution of the vertebrate retina. Only a single type of photoreceptor, ganglion cell and bipolar cell are present in the early-differentiated central retina of lamprey prolarvae. A lateral retina appears later in medium-sized larvae (about 3 years after hatching in the sea lamprey), growing and remaining largely neuroblastic until metamorphosis...
June 2015: Experimental Eye Research
Johannes Jaeger, Manfred Laubichler, Werner Callebaut
In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. We argue that Duboule's prediction is based on a one-sided understanding of systems biology as a science that is only interested in functional, not evolutionary, aspects of biological processes...
2015: Biological Theory
Jeremy P Brockes
Regeneration is studied in a few model species of salamanders, but the ten families of salamanders show considerable variation, and this has implications for our understanding of salamander biology. The most recent classification of the families identifies the cryptobranchoidea as the basal group which diverged in the early Jurassic. Variation in the sizes of genomes is particularly obvious, and reflects a major contribution from transposable elements which is already present in the basal group.Limb development has been a focus for evodevo studies, in part because of the variable property of pre-axial dominance which distinguishes salamanders from other tetrapods...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chelsea D Specht, Dianella G Howarth
Evolutionary developmental biology (evodevo) attempts to explain how the process of organismal development evolves, utilizing a comparative approach to investigate changes in developmental pathways and processes that occur during the evolution of a given lineage. Evolutionary genetics uses a population approach to understand how organismal changes in form or function are linked to underlying genetics, focusing on changes in gene and genotype frequencies within populations and the fixation of genotypic variation into traits that define species or evoke speciation events...
April 2015: New Phytologist
Josep Martí-Solans, Alfonso Ferrández-Roldán, Hector Godoy-Marín, Jordi Badia-Ramentol, Nuria P Torres-Aguila, Adriana Rodríguez-Marí, Jean Marie Bouquet, Daniel Chourrout, Eric M Thompson, Ricard Albalat, Cristian Cañestro
The genome sequencing and the development of RNAi knockdown technologies in the urochordate Oikopleura dioica are making this organism an attractive emergent model in the field of EvoDevo. To succeed as a new animal model, however, an organism needs to be easily and affordably cultured in the laboratory. Nowadays, there are only two facilities in the world capable to indefinitely maintain Oikopleura dioica, one in the SARS institute (Bergen, Norway) and the other in the Osaka University (Japan). Here, we describe the setup of a new facility in the University of Barcelona (Spain) in which we have modified previously published husbandry protocols to optimize the weekly production of thousands of embryos and hundreds of mature animals using the minimum amount of space, human resources, and technical equipment...
January 2015: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Cedric Boeckx
Recent advances in genetics and neurobiology have greatly increased the degree of variation that one finds in what is taken to provide the biological foundations of our species-specific linguistic capacities. In particular, this variation seems to cast doubt on the purportedly homogeneous nature of the language faculty traditionally captured by the concept of "Universal Grammar." In this article we discuss what this new source of diversity reveals about the biological reality underlying Universal Grammar. Our discussion leads us to support (1) certain hypotheses advanced in evolutionary developmental biology that argue for the existence of robust biological mechanisms capable of canalizing variation at different levels, and (2) a bottom-up perspective on comparative cognition...
2014: Biological Theory
Beate Mittmann, Petra Ungerer, Marleen Klann, Angelika Stollewerk, Carsten Wolff
BACKGROUND: Crustaceans of the genus Daphnia are one of the oldest model organisms in ecotoxicology, ecology and evolutionary biology. The publication of the Daphnia pulex genome has facilitated the development of genetic tools to answer long-standing questions in these research fields (Science 331: 555-561, 2011). A particular focus is laid on understanding the genetic basis of the striking ability of daphnids to change their phenotype in response to environmental stressors. Furthermore, Daphnia have recently been developed into crustacean model organisms for EvoDevo research, contributing to the ongoing attempt to resolve arthropod phylogeny...
March 18, 2014: EvoDevo
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