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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334709/-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-in-shanghai-from-2009-2016
#1
Y J Yang, Y W Hu
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of Human coronavirus (HCoV), the patterns of emergence and circulation, and the genotype distribution of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) from November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai. Methods: A total of 6 059 respiratory specimens, including pharyngeal swab, sputum, nasopharyngeal aspirates and alveolar lavage fluid, as well as relative clinical data were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections from seven sentinel hospitals during November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334678/genome-evolution-analysis-of-recurrent-testicular-malignant-mesothelioma-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Shigeng Zhang, Qi Zhang, Qing Sun, Jinlong Tang, Jimin Chen, Na Ji, Yichun Zheng, Francia Fang, Wanjun Lei, Pengpeng Li, Nan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is a rare and lethal disease. The genomic characteristics and genetic changes of tumor cells during the progression of this disease are unknown. METHODS: we performed whole-genome sequencing of four successive tumor samples derived from surgery and a blood sample in a single patient. RESULTS: All tumors were found to have significant C-to-T and T-to-C mutations, and amplification of copy number in chromosomes 1 and 12 were notified in all tumor samples...
January 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334654/phbv-polymer-supported-denitrification-system-efficiently-treated-high-nitrate-concentration-wastewater-denitrification-performance-microbial-community-structure-evolution-and-key-denitrifying-bacteria
#3
Zhongshuo Xu, Liyan Song, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
Biodegradable polymer supported denitrification (BPD) system shows good denitrification performance for the wastewater with low nitrate concentrations. In this study, a BPD system using Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) polymer as carbon source was developed to treat the wastewater with high nitrate concentrations. The denitrification performance, utilization ratio of PHBV polymers, and microbial community structure evolution and key denitrifying bacteria were comprehensively studied. Results indicated that an average nitrate removal efficiency of 99% could be achieved with an influent NO3--N concentration of 100 mg L-1 and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7...
January 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334223/a-novel-color-modulation-analysis-strategy-through-tunable-multiband-laser-for-nanoparticle-identification-and-evaluation
#4
Xuan Cao, Gang Lei, Jingjing Feng, Qi Pan, Xiaodong Wen, Yan He
Creating color difference and improving the color resolution in digital imaging is crucial for better application of color analy-sis. Herein, a novel color modulation analysis strategy was developed by using a homemade tunable multiband laser illumi-nation device, in which the portions of R, G, and B components of the illumination light are discretionarily adjustable, and hence the sample color could be visually modulated continuously in the RGB color space. Through this strategy, the color appearance of single gold nanorods (AuNRs) under dark-field microscopy, was migrated from the spectrally insensitive red region to the spectrally sensitive green-yellow-red region...
January 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334198/enzyme-based-glucose-sensor-from-invasive-to-wearable-device
#5
REVIEW
Hyunjae Lee, Yongseok Joseph Hong, Seungmin Baik, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Blood glucose concentration is a key indicator of patients' health, particularly for symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus. Because of the large number of diabetic patients, many approaches for glucose measurement have been studied to enable continuous and accurate glucose level monitoring. Among them, electrochemical analysis is prominent because it is simple and quantitative. This technology has been incorporated into commercialized and research-level devices from simple test strips to wearable devices and implantable systems...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332297/integrodifference-equations-in-the-presence-of-climate-change-persistence-criterion-travelling-waves-and-inside-dynamics
#6
Mark A Lewis, Nathan G Marculis, Zhongwei Shen
To understand the effects that the climate change has on the evolution of species as well as the genetic consequences, we analyze an integrodifference equation (IDE) models for a reproducing and dispersing population in a spatio-temporal heterogeneous environment described by a shifting climate envelope. Our analysis on the IDE focuses on the persistence criterion, travelling wave solutions, and the inside dynamics. First, the persistence criterion, characterizing the global dynamics of the IDE, is established in terms of the basic reproduction number...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331913/speciation-evolution-of-zinc-and-copper-during-pyrolysis-and-hydrothermal-carbonization-treatments-of-sewage-sludges
#7
Rixiang Huang, Bei Zhang, Emily M Saad, Ellery D Ingall, Yuanzhi Tang
Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique)...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331904/anthocyanins-in-perilla-plants-and-dried-leaves
#8
Yumi Fujiwara, Miya Kono, Airi Ito, Michiho Ito
High-quality perilla leaves are purple on upper and lower surfaces and have a good aroma. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia specifies the content of essential oils in perilla leaves but not that of anthocyanins. Several reports have described the chemical species of anthocyanins in red perilla, but a complete analysis of anthocyanins in perilla has not been reported. In this study, the anthocyanins in the leaves of cultivated and wild species of perilla and those in commercially available perilla herbs were studied...
January 11, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331890/deep-sequence-analysis-reveals-the-ovine-rumen-as-a-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#9
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331888/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-ido-and-pdl1-expression-during-immune-or-targeted-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma
#10
Lukas Krähenbühl, Simone M Goldinger, Joanna Mangana, Katrin Kerl, Ines Chevolet, Liève Brochez, Christine Horak, Mitch Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Phil F Cheng
A deepened understanding of the cellular and molecular processes in the tumor microenvironment is necessary for the development of precision immunotherapy (IT). We simultaneously investigated CD3, PDL1, and IDO by immunohistochemistry in paired biopsies from various organs of 43 metastatic melanoma patients treated with IT and targeted therapy (TT). Intraindividual biopsies taken after a period of weeks to months demonstrate discordant results in 30% of the cases. Overlap of IDO and PDL1 increased after therapy...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331102/opposite-sex-relationship-questionnaire-for-female-adolescents-development-and-psychometric-evolution
#11
Masoumeh Sibmar, Nasim Bahrami, AbouAli Vedadhir, Hamid Alavi Majd, Averil Parker
Aim The goal of the present study is to adopt state-of-the-art techniques and standards to develop and evaluate a measure, called the opposite-sex relationship questionnaire for female adolescents (OSRQFA), to assess the reasons why adolescent girls would or would not develop, a relationship with an adolescent boy. Methods A mixed-method, sequential, exploratory design was adopted. In the qualitative phase, an in-depth interview approach was used to identify the properties and dimensions to be included in the OSRQFA...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330664/an-iranian-genomic-sequence-of-beet-mosaic-virus-provides-insights-into-diversity-and-evolution-of-the-world-population
#12
Musa Mohammadi, Adrian J Gibbs, Ahmad Hosseini, Samin Hosseini
Beet mosaic virus (BtMV), the only Potyvirus known to infect sugar beet, occurs worldwide in beet crops. The full genome sequencing of a BtMV isolate from Iran (Ir-VRU), enabled us to better understand the evolutionary history of this virus. Selection analysis suggested that BtMV evolution is mainly under negative selection but its strength varies in different proteins with the multifunctional proteins under strongest selection. Recombination has played a major role in the evolution of the BtMVs; only the Ir-VRU and USA isolates show no evidence of recombination...
January 12, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330650/a-cold-adapted-endoglucanase-from-camel-rumen-with-high-catalytic-activity-at-moderate-and-low-temperatures-an-anomaly-of-truly-cold-adapted-evolution-in-a-mesophilic-environment
#13
Kamran Khalili Ghadikolaei, Javad Gharechahi, Kamahldin Haghbeen, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri
Endoglucanases are important enzymes in plant biomass degradation. They have current and potential applications in various industrial sectors including human and animal food processing, textile, paper, and renewable biofuel production. It is assumed that the cold-active endoglucanases, with high catalytic rates in moderate and cold temperatures, can improve the cost-effectiveness of industrial processes by lowering the need for heating and, thus, energy consumption. In this study, the endoglucanase CelCM3 was procured from a camel rumen metagenome via gene cloning and expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 12, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330647/absence-of-the-nitrous-oxide-reductase-gene-cluster-in-commercial-alfalfa-inoculants-is-probably-due-to-the-extensive-loss-of-genes-during-rhizobial-domestication
#14
Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Gabriela Soto, Cintia Jozefkowicz, Nicolás Ayub
As other legume crops, alfalfa cultivation increases the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Since legume-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria play a crucial role in this emission, it is important to understand the possible impacts of rhizobial domestication on the evolution of denitrification genes. In comparison with the genomes of non-commercial strains, those of commercial alfalfa inoculants exhibit low total genome size, low number of ORFs and high numbers of both frameshifted genes and pseudogenes, suggesting a dramatic loss of genes during bacterial domestication...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330556/evolution-of-the-phosphatidylcholine-biosynthesis-pathways-in-green-algae-combinatorial-diversity-of-methyltransferases
#15
Takashi Hirashima, Masakazu Toyoshima, Takashi Moriyama, Naoki Sato
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. Recently, we detected PC in four species in the genus Chlamydomonas: C. applanata NIES-2202, C. asymmetrica NIES-2207, C. debaryana NIES-2212, and C. sphaeroides NIES-2242. To reveal the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae and the evolutionary scenario involved in their diversity, we analyzed the PC biosynthesis genes in these four algae using draft genome sequences...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330451/tracheophyte-genomes-keep-track-of-the-deep-evolution-of-the-caulimoviridae
#16
Seydina Issa Diop, Andrew D W Geering, Françoise Alfama-Depauw, Mikaël Loaec, Pierre-Yves Teycheney, Florian Maumus
Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are viral sequences that are integrated in the nuclear genomes of their hosts and are signatures of viral infections that may have occurred millions of years ago. The study of EVEs, coined paleovirology, provides important insights into virus evolution. The Caulimoviridae is the most common group of EVEs in plants, although their presence has often been overlooked in plant genome studies. We have refined methods for the identification of caulimovirid EVEs and interrogated the genomes of a broad diversity of plant taxa, from algae to advanced flowering plants...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330122/privileged-portal-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-light-of-the-coevolution-of-a-visceral-portal-system-and-liver-in-the-chordate-lineage-a-search-for-therapeutic-targets
#17
REVIEW
Vladimir M Subbotin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) disseminates systemically, but metastases occur in distant organs in only a few patients, whereas HCC routinely metastasizes to liver and its vessels. HCC cells disseminate via hepatic veins, but portal veins are affected by metastasis more frequently than are hepatic veins, and correlates with poor prognosis. In this review, I suggest that privileged HCC portal metastasis occurs because of high levels of pancreatic family hormones and growth factors (PHGFs) in the portal blood...
January 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330088/the-flight-of-the-locus-of-selection-some-intricate-relationships-between-evolutionary-elements
#18
REVIEW
April M Becker
Selection has enriched our understanding of the world since it was first applied to the evolution of species. Selection stands as an alternative to essentialist thinking, as a generalized and multiply applicable concept, and as a causal explanation for current forms within biology and behavior. Attempts to describe selection processes in a generalizable way have provided clarity about their minimal elements, such as replicators and interactors. This paper discusses the interconnectedness among different levels of selection using evidence garnered from evolutionary biology, development, epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior analysis...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330057/fixation-and-absorption-in-a-fluctuating-environment
#19
Matan Danino, Nadav M Shnerb
A fundamental problem in the fields of population genetics, evolution, and community ecology, is the fate of a single mutant, or invader, introduced in a finite population of wild types. For a fixed-size community of N individuals, with Markovian, zero-sum dynamics driven by stochastic birth-death events, the mutant population eventually reaches either fixation or extinction. The classical analysis, provided by Kimura and his coworkers, is focused on the neutral case, [where the dynamics is only due to demographic stochasticity (drift)], and on time-independent selective forces (deleterious/beneficial mutation)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329935/tick-borne-pathogen-detection-what-s-new
#20
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gilbert Greub
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Traditionally, tick-borne pathogen detection has been carried out using PCR-based methods that rely in known sequences for specific primers design. This approach matches with the view of a 'single-pathogen' epidemiology. Recent results, however, have stressed the importance of coinfections in pathogen ecology and evolution with impact in pathogen transmission and disease severity. New approaches, including high-throughput technologies, were then used to detect multiple pathogens, but they all need a priori information on the pathogens to search...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
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