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Evolutionary dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231849/evolution-of-karyotypes-in-chameleons
#1
Michail Rovatsos, Marie Altmanová, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Petr Velenský, Antonio Sánchez Baca, Lukáš Kratochvíl
The reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes and sex determining systems in squamate reptiles is precluded by the lack of data in many groups including most chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). We performed cytogenetic analysis in 16 species of chameleons from 8 genera covering the phylogenetic diversity of the family and also phylogenetic reconstruction of karyotype evolution in this group. In comparison to other squamates, chameleons demonstrate rather variable karyotypes, differing in chromosome number, morphology and presence of interstitial telomeric signal (ITS)...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230902/the-evolutionary-fate-of-heterogeneous-gene-duplications-a-precarious-overdominant-equilibrium-between-environment-sublethality-and-complementation
#2
Pascal Milesi, Benoît S Assogba, Célestine M Atyame, Nicolas Pocquet, Arnaud Berthomieu, Sandra Unal, Patrick Makoundou, Mylène Weill, Pierrick Labbé
Gene duplications occur at a high rate. Although most appear detrimental, some homogeneous duplications (identical gene copies) can be selected for beneficial increase in produced proteins. Heterogeneous duplications, which combine divergent alleles of a single locus, are seldom studied due to the paucity of empirical data. We investigated their role in an ongoing adaptive process at the ace-1 locus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. We assessed the worldwide diversity of the ace-1 alleles (single-copy, susceptible S and insecticide-resistant R, and duplicated D that pair one S and one R copy), analyzed their phylogeography, and measured their fitness to understand their early dynamics using population genetics models...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230365/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-zebrafish-danio-rerio-pentraxin-carbonic-anhydrase
#3
Maarit S Patrikainen, Martti E E Tolvanen, Ashok Aspatwar, Harlan R Barker, Csaba Ortutay, Janne Jänis, Mikko Laitaoja, Vesa P Hytönen, Latifeh Azizi, Prajwol Manandhar, Edit Jáger, Daniela Vullo, Sampo Kukkurainen, Mika Hilvo, Claudiu T Supuran, Seppo Parkkila
Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitous, essential enzymes which catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and H+ ions. Vertebrate genomes generally contain gene loci for 15-21 different CA isoforms, three of which are enzymatically inactive. CA VI is the only secretory protein of the enzymatically active isoforms. We discovered that non-mammalian CA VI contains a C-terminal pentraxin (PTX) domain, a novel combination for both CAs and PTXs. Methods: We isolated and sequenced zebrafish (Danio rerio) CA VI cDNA, complete with the sequence coding for the PTX domain, and produced the recombinant CA VI-PTX protein...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228264/co-invading-symbiotic-mutualists-of-medicago-polymorpha-retain-high-ancestral-diversity-and-contain-diverse-accessory-genomes
#4
Stephanie S Porter, Joshua J Faber-Hammond, Maren L Friesen
Exotic, invasive plants and animals can wreak havoc on ecosystems by displacing natives and altering environmental conditions. However, much less is known about the identities or evolutionary dynamics of the symbiotic microbes that accompany invasive species. Most leguminous plants rely upon symbiotic rhizobium bacteria to fix nitrogen, and are incapable of colonizing areas devoid of compatible rhizobia. We compare the genomes of symbiotic rhizobia in a portion of the legume's invaded range, with those of the rhizobium symbionts from across the legume's native range...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226517/natural-selection-beyond-genes-identification-and-analyses-of-evolutionarily-conserved-elements-in-the-genome-of-the-collared-flycatcher-ficedula-albicollis
#5
Rory J Craig, Alexander Suh, Mi Wang, Hans Ellegren
It is becoming increasingly clear that a significant proportion of the functional sequence within eukaryotic genomes is noncoding. However, since the identification of conserved elements (CEs) has been restricted to a limited number of model organisms, the dynamics and evolutionary character of the genomic landscape of conserved, and hence likely functional, sequence is poorly understood in most species. Moreover, identification and analysis of the full suite of functional sequence is particularly important for the understanding of the genetic basis of trait loci identified in genome scans or quantitative trait locus mapping efforts...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225415/a-co-flow-structure-for-goal-directed-internal-change
#6
Pascal Gambardella, Deborah E Polk, David Lounsbury, Ralph Levine
We describe a co-flow structure that models internal, goal-directed changes to an attribute (e.g., employee loyalty) of fundamental material (e.g., employees). This co-flow accommodates problems not adequately modeled with an existing, generic structure. Our structure builds on the co-flow proposed by Hines, which uses an information delay to model external change to an attribute. We use a first-order information delay to model both external changes to the attribute from the material stock and internal changes from an internal goal for the attribute...
January 2017: System Dynamics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225404/setting-an-evolutionary-trap-could-the-hider-strategy-be-maladaptive-for-white-tailed-deer
#7
M Colter Chitwood, Marcus A Lashley, Christopher E Moorman, Christopher S DePerno
An evolutionary trap occurs when an organism makes a formerly adaptive decision that now results in a maladaptive outcome. Such traps can be induced by anthropogenic environmental changes, with nonnative species introductions being a leading cause. The recent establishment of coyotes (Canis latrans) into the southeastern USA has the potential to change white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics through direct predation and behavioral adaptation. We used movement rate and bedsite characteristics of radiocollared neonates to evaluate their antipredator strategies in the context of novel predation risk in a structurally homogeneous, fire-maintained ecosystem...
2017: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224864/breeding-a-better-cow-will-she-be-adaptable
#8
D P Berry
Adaption is a process that makes an individual or population more suited to their environment. Long-term adaptation is predicated on ample usable genetic variation. Evolutionary forces influencing the extent and dynamics of genetic variation in a population include random drift, mutation, recombination, selection, and migration; the relative importance of each differs by population (i.e., drift is likely to be more influential in smaller populations) and number of generations exposed to selection (i.e., mutation is expected to contribute substantially to genetic variability following many generations of selection)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223740/statistical-models-for-brain-signals-with-properties-that-evolve-across-trials
#9
REVIEW
Hernando Ombao, Mark Fiecas, Chee-Ming Ting, Yin Fen Low
Most neuroscience cognitive experiments involve repeated presentations of various stimuli across several minutes or a few hours. It has been observed that brain responses, even to the same stimulus, evolve over the course of the experiment. These changes in brain activation and connectivity are believed to be associated with learning and/or habituation. In this paper, we present two general approaches to modeling dynamic brain connectivity using electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded across replicated trials in an experiment...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223357/phylogenomic-detection-and-functional-prediction-of-genes-potentially-important-for-plant-meiosis
#10
Luoyan Zhang, Hongzhi Kong, Hong Ma, Ji Yang
Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. A better understanding of the cytological procedures of meiosis has been achieved by comprehensive cytogenetic studies in plants, while the genetic mechanisms regulating meiotic progression remain incompletely understood. The increasing accumulation of complete genome sequences and large-scale gene expression datasets has provided a powerful resource for phylogenomic inference and unsupervised identification of genes involved in plant meiosis...
December 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222063/evolutionary-dynamism-in-bryophytes-phylogenomic-inferences-confirm-rapid-radiation-in-the-moss-family-funariaceae
#11
Rafael Medina, Matthew Johnson, Yang Liu, Nicholas Wilding, Terry A Hedderson, Norman Wickett, Bernard Goffinet
Rapid diversifications of plants are primarily documented and studied in angiosperms, which are perceived as evolutionarily dynamic. Recent studies have, however, revealed that bryophytes have also undergone periods of rapid radiation. The speciose family Funariaceae, including the model taxon Physcomitrella patens, is one such lineage. Here, we infer relationships among major lineages within the Entosthodon-Physcomitrium complex from virtually complete organellar exomes (i.e., 123 genes) obtained through high throughput sequencing of genomic libraries enriched in these loci via targeted locus capture...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221892/coevolution-of-nonlinear-group-interactions-and-strategies-in-well-mixed-and-structured-populations
#12
Lei Zhou, Aming Li, Long Wang
In microbial populations and human societies, the rule of nonlinear group interactions strongly affects the intraspecific evolutionary dynamics, which leads to the variation of the strategy composition eventually. The consequence of such variation may retroact to the rule of the interactions. This correlation indicates that the rule of nonlinear group interactions may coevolve with individuals' strategies. Here, we develop a model to investigate such coevolution in both well-mixed and structured populations...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221891/the-evolution-of-host-defence-to-parasitism-in-fluctuating-environments
#13
Charlotte Ferris, Alex Best
Given rapidly changing environments, it is important for us to understand how the evolution of host defence responds to fluctuating environments. Here we present the first theoretical study of evolution of host resistance to parasitism in a classic epidemiological model where the host birth rate varies seasonally. We show that this form of seasonality has clear qualitative and quantitative impacts on the evolution of resistance. When the host can recover from infection, it evolves a lower level of defence when the amplitude is high...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221677/epigenetic-regulation-of-biological-rhythms-an-evolutionary-ancient-molecular-timer
#14
REVIEW
Tyler J Stevenson
Biological rhythms are pervasive in nature, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern timing is far from complete. The rapidly emerging research focus on epigenetic plasticity has revealed a system that is highly dynamic and reversible. In this Opinion, I propose an epigenetic clock model that outlines how molecular modifications, such as DNA methylation, are integral components for timing endogenous biological rhythms. The hypothesis proposed is that an epigenetic clock serves to maintain the period of molecular rhythms via control over the phase of gene transcription and this timing mechanism resides in all cells, from unicellular to complex organisms...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219108/origin-history-and-meanings-of-the-word-transmission
#15
Joaquín Villalba, Fernando A Navarro, Francisco Cortés
The origin of the words transmit and transmission and their derivatives can be traced to the Latin transmittere, in turn formed by prefixing the preposition trans ("across or beyond") to the verb mittere ("to let go or to send"). From the times of Ancient Rome in the 3rd century b.c.e., the Latin word transmissio has been "transmitted" (through Romance languages such as French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese) to all the major languages of culture, English among them. And through English, the international language of biomedical science in the 21st century, the term transmission is increasingly present today in some of the most dynamic disciplines of modern natural science, including genomics, molecular microbiology, hospital epidemiology, molecular genetics, biotechnology, evolutionary biology, and systems biology...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218040/adaptation-of-lactobacillus-casei-zhang-to-gentamycin-involves-an-alkaline-shock-protein
#16
Wenyi Zhang, Huiling Guo, Chenxia Cao, Lina Li, Lai-Yu Kwok, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
Lactobacillus (L. casei) Zhang is a koumiss-originated probiotic strain, which was used as a model in a long-term antibiotics-driven evolution experiment to reveal bacterial evolutionary dynamics; and we isolated gentamycin-resistant L. casei Zhang descendents. To decipher the gentamycin resistance mechanism, here we cultivated the parental L. casei Zhang and its descendent cells in an antibiotics-containing environment to compare their global protein expression profiles using the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215005/disentangling-eco-evolutionary-dynamics-of-predator-prey-coevolution-the-case-of-antiphase-cycles
#17
Ellen van Velzen, Ursula Gaedke
The impact of rapid predator-prey coevolution on predator-prey dynamics remains poorly understood, as previous modelling studies have given rise to contradictory conclusions and predictions. Interpreting and reconciling these contradictions has been challenging due to the inherent complexity of model dynamics, defying mathematical analysis and mechanistic understanding. We develop a new approach here, based on the Geber method for deconstructing eco-evolutionary dynamics, for gaining such understanding. We apply this approach to a co-evolutionary predator-prey model to disentangle the processes leading to either antiphase or ¼-lag cycles...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#18
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213275/dynamic-changes-in-host-gene-expression-following-in-vitro-viral-mimic-stimulation-in-crocodile-cells
#19
Subir Sarker, Yinan Wang, Brenden Warren-Smith, Karla J Helbig
The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212819/transcriptional-and-translational-dynamics-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-in-early-chicken-development
#20
Young Sun Hwang, Minseok Seo, Sohyun Bang, Heebal Kim, Jae Yong Han
Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is the critical process for the establishment of embryonic identity across vertebrates. During this period, the massive transcriptional activation, called zygotic genome activation (ZGA), is mediated by maternally stored factors, and maternal mRNA clearance by conserved zygotic microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs; however, the important transition in avian species was identified by morphologic perspectives only. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis to examine the molecular transitions of intrauterine development in chickens...
December 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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