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Evolutionary dynamics

Nicolas Loeuille, Céline Hauzy
Plant defenses are very diverse and often involve contrasted costs and benefits. Quantitative defenses, whose protective effect is dependent on the dose, are effective against a wide range of herbivores, but often divert energy from growth and reproduction. Qualitative defenses often have little allocation costs. However, while deterrent to some herbivores, they often incur costs through other interactions within the community (eg, decrease in pollination or attraction of other enemies). In the present work, we model the evolutionary dynamics of these two types of defenses, as well and the evolutionary dynamics of the herbivore niche...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Carol M Worthman, Kathy Trang
Recent opposing trends towards earlier physical maturation and later social maturation present a conundrum of apparent biological-social mismatch. Here we use life history analysis from evolutionary ecology to identify forces that drive these shifts. Together with findings in developmental science, our life history analysis indicates that adolescence is a distinctive period for biological embedding of culture. Ethnographic evidence shows that mass education is a novel feature of the globalizing cultural configurations of adolescence, which are driven by transformations in labour, livelihood and lifestyle...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Tobias Otte, Monika Hilker, Sven Geiselhardt
The insect integument is covered by cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) which provide protection against environmental stresses, but are also used for communication. Here we review current knowledge on environmental and insect-internal factors which shape phenotypic plasticity of solitary living insects, especially herbivorous ones. We address the dynamics of changes which may occur within minutes, but may also last weeks, depending on the species and conditions. Two different modes of changes are suggested, i.e...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Amy J E Healey, Niall J McKeown, Amy L Taylor, Jim Provan, Warwick Sauer, Gavin Gouws, Paul W Shaw
Analysis of genetic variation can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary diversification which, for commercially harvested species, can also be relevant to the implementation of spatial management strategies and sustainability. In comparison with other marine biodiversity hot spots, there has been less genetic research on the fauna of the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). This is epitomized by the lack of information for lethrinid fish, which support socioeconomically important fisheries in the region...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kazunori D Yamada
Background: A profile-comparison method with position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) is among the most accurate alignment methods. Currently, cosine similarity and correlation coefficients are used as scoring functions of dynamic programming to calculate similarity between PSSMs. However, it is unclear whether these functions are optimal for profile alignment methods. By definition, these functions cannot capture nonlinear relationships between profiles. Therefore, we attempted to discover a novel scoring function, which was more suitable for the profile-comparison method than existing functions, using neural networks...
2018: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
Ignacio Quintero, Walter Jetz
Mountain ranges harbour exceptionally high biodiversity, which is now under threat from rapid environmental change. However, despite decades of effort, the limited availability of data and analytical tools has prevented a robust and truly global characterization of elevational biodiversity gradients and their evolutionary origins. This has hampered a general understanding of the processes involved in the assembly and maintenance of montane communities. Here we show that a worldwide mid-elevation peak in bird richness is driven by wide-ranging species and disappears when we use a subsampling procedure that ensures even species representation in space and facilitates evolutionary interpretation...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Miguel A Gomez-Llano, Hanna M Bensch, Erik I Svensson
Sexual conflict is a pervasive evolutionary force that can reduce female fitness. Experimental evolution studies in the laboratory might overestimate the importance of sexual conflict since the ecological conditions in such settings typically include only a single species. Here, we experimentally manipulated conspecific male density (high or low) and species composition (sympatric or allopatric) to investigate how ecological conditions affect female survival in a sexually dimorphic insect, the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens)...
February 21, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Shichao Pang, Yidi Sun, Leilei Wu, Liguang Yang, Yi-Lei Zhao, Zhen Wang, Yixue Li
Although numerous studies on kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) were carried out, the dynamic process of tumor formation was not clear yet. Inadequate attention was paid on the evolutionary paths among somatic mutations and their clinical implications. As the tumor initiation and evolution of KIRC were primarily associated with SNVs, we reconstructed an evolutionary process of KIRC using cross-sectional SNVs in different pathological stages. KIRC driver genes appeared early in the evolutionary tree, and the genes with moderate mutation frequency showed a pattern of stage-by-stage expansion...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carolyn Ott, Dikla Nachmias, Shai Adar, Michal Jarnik, Shachar Sherman, Ramon Y Birnbaum, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Natalie Elia
The hexameric AAA ATPase VPS4 facilitates ESCRT III filament disassembly on diverse intracellular membranes. ESCRT III components and VPS4 have been localized to the ciliary transition zone and spindle poles and reported to affect centrosome duplication and spindle pole stability. How the canonical ESCRT pathway could mediate these events is unclear. We studied the association of VPS4 with centrosomes and found that GFP-VPS4 was a dynamic component of both mother and daughter centrioles. A mutant, VPS4EQ , which can't hydrolyze ATP, was less dynamic and accumulated at centrosomes...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Rugbjerg, Nils Myling-Petersen, Andreas Porse, Kira Sarup-Lytzen, Morten O A Sommer
A transition toward sustainable bio-based chemical production is important for green growth. However, productivity and yield frequently decrease as large-scale microbial fermentation progresses, commonly ascribed to phenotypic variation. Yet, given the high metabolic burden and toxicities, evolutionary processes may also constrain bio-based production. We experimentally simulate large-scale fermentation with mevalonic acid-producing Escherichia coli. By tracking growth rate and production, we uncover how populations fully sacrifice production to gain fitness within 70 generations...
February 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Seema Nayan Sheth, Amy Lauren Angert
Species' geographic ranges and climatic niches are likely to be increasingly mismatched due to rapid climate change. If a species' range and niche are out of equilibrium, then population performance should decrease from high-latitude "leading" range edges, where populations are expanding into recently ameliorated habitats, to low-latitude "trailing" range edges, where populations are contracting from newly unsuitable areas. Demographic compensation is a phenomenon whereby declines in some vital rates are offset by increases in others across time or space...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hugo Cayuela, Roger Pradel, Pierre Joly, Eric Bonnaire, Aurélien Besnard
Dispersal is a key process in ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Spatiotemporal variation in habitat availability and characteristics has been suggested to be the main cause involved in dispersal evolution and has a strong influence on metapopulation dynamics. In recent decades, the study of dispersal has led to the development of capture-recapture (CR) models that allow movement between sites to be quantified, while handling imperfect detection. For studies involving numerous recapture sites, Lagrange et al...
February 20, 2018: Ecology
Roland Frey, David Reby, Guido Fritsch, Benjamin D Charlton
Koalas are characterised by a highly unusual vocal anatomy, with a descended larynx and velar vocal folds, allowing them to produce calls at disproportionately low frequencies. Here we use advanced imaging techniques, histological data, classical macroscopic dissection and behavioural observations to provide the first detailed description and interpretation of male and female koala vocal anatomy. We show that both males and females have an elongated pharynx and soft palate, resulting in a permanently descended larynx...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ran Tian, Meixiu Chen, Simin Chai, Xinghua Rong, Bingyao Chen, Wenhua Ren, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are specialized receptors that represent a key component of the host innate immune system. Whether molecular evolutionary history of different PRR classes have involved different genetic mechanisms underlying diverse pathogen environment in mammals, and whether distinct ecology of mammals may have imposed divergent selective pressures on the evolution of the PRRs, remained unknown. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the characterization of 20 genes belonging to four PRR classes in mammals...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Kun Cao, Jing Zhang, Xin-Yu Miao, Qiu-Xia Wei, Xin-Lu Zhao, Qing-Yu He, Xuesong Sun
Iron is an essential element for almost all bacteria. The iron ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters located on the cell membrane affects bacterial virulence and infection. Although a variety of Fe3+ -transporters have been found in bacteria, their evolutionary processes are rarely studied. Pneumococcal iron ABC transporter (PitA), a highly conserved Fe3+ -transporter in most pathogenic bacteria, influences the capsule formation and virulence of bacteria. However, multiple sequence alignment revealed that PitA is expressed in four different variants in bacteria, and the structural complexity of these variants increases progressively...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Robert Lowe, Carl Barton, Christopher A Jenkins, Christina Ernst, Oliver Forman, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Christoph Bock, Stephen J Rossiter, Chris G Faulkes, Susan E Ozanne, Lutz Walter, Duncan T Odom, Cathryn Mellersh, Vardhman K Rakyan
BACKGROUND: Mammalian species exhibit a wide range of lifespans. To date, a robust and dynamic molecular readout of these lifespan differences has not yet been identified. Recent studies have established the existence of ageing-associated differentially methylated positions (aDMPs) in human and mouse. These are CpG sites at which DNA methylation dynamics show significant correlations with age. We hypothesise that aDMPs are pan-mammalian and are a dynamic molecular readout of lifespan variation among different mammalian species...
February 16, 2018: Genome Biology
Tuomas Nurmi, Kalle Parvinen, Vesa Selonen
We propose a novel mathematical model for a metapopulation in which dispersal occurs on two levels: juvenile dispersal from the natal site is mandatory but it may take place either locally within the natal patch or globally between patches. Within each patch, individuals live in sites. Each site can be inhabited by at most one individual at a time and it may be of high or low quality. A disperser immigrates into a high-quality site whenever it obtains one, but it immigrates into a low-quality site only with a certain probability that depends on the time within the dispersal season...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Ana Cañete, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli
The vertebrate heart receives the blood through the cardiac inflow tract. This area has experienced profound changes along the evolution of vertebrates; changes that have a reflection in the cardiac ontogeny. The development of the inflow tract involves dynamic changes due to the progressive addition of tissue derived from the secondary heart field. The inflow tract is the site where oxygenated blood coming from lungs is received separately from the systemic return, where the cardiac pacemaker is established and where the proepicardium develops...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Yini Geng, Jiahua Jin, Fei Chen, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase...
2018: PloS One
Berta Verd, Erik Clark, Karl R Wotton, Hilde Janssens, Eva Jiménez-Guri, Anton Crombach, Johannes Jaeger
Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
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