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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315395/acute-intravenous-administration-of-dietary-constituent-theanine-suppresses-noxious-neuronal-transmission-of-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-in-rats
#1
Shiori Takehana, Yoshiko Kubota, Nobuo Uotsu, Kei Yui, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282553/challenges-in-the-treatment-of-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#2
REVIEW
Gaetano Zaccara, Gianfranco Giannasi, Roberto Oggioni, Eleonora Rosati, Luciana Tramacere, Pasquale Palumbo
Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. The most recent definition of CSE is a convulsive seizure lasting more than 5min or consecutive seizures without recovery of consciousness. In adults, for the treatment of the early stages of CSE, diazepam, lorazepam or midazolam are the most common treatments, although the choice of agent seems less important than rapid treatment. Midazolam, when administered intramuscularly (best evidence), buccally, or nasally, is effective and safe in the pre-hospital setting...
February 28, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244216/the-choice-of-euthanasia-method-affects-metabolic-serum-biomarkers
#3
Pierozan Paula, Jernerén Fredrik, Ransome Yusuf, Karlsson Oskar
The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO2 inhalation, and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats...
February 28, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238830/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-was-less-under-isoflurane-than-pentobarbital-anesthesia-via-a-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-early-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Oak Z Chi, Scott J Mellender, Geza K Kiss, Xia Liu, Harvey R Weiss
One of the important factors altering the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in cerebral ischemia is the anesthetic used. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in modulating BBB permeability and in isoflurane induced neuroprotection. This study was performed to compare the degree of BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia under isoflurane vs pentobarbital anesthesia and to determine whether inhibition of PI3K/Akt would affect the disruption in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia...
February 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222732/refinement-of-intraperitoneal-injection-of-sodium-pentobarbital-for-euthanasia-in-laboratory-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#5
Katie K Zatroch, Cameron G Knight, Julie N Reimer, Daniel S J Pang
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist for a recommended dose or volume and IP euthanasia has been described as unreliable, with misinjections leading to variable success in ensuring a timely death. The aims of this study were to assess and improve efficacy and consistency of IP euthanasia. In a randomized, blinded study, 51 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (170-495 g) received one of four treatments: low-dose low-volume (LL) IP pentobarbital (n = 13, 200 mg/kg pentobarbital), low-dose high-volume (LH) IP pentobarbital (n = 14, 200 mg/kg diluted 1:3 with phosphate buffered saline), high-dose high-volume (HH, n = 14, 800 mg/kg pentobarbital), or saline...
February 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184034/hyperbaric-oxygenation-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-transplanted-rat-kidneys-by-triggering-autophagy-and-inhibiting-inflammatory-response
#6
Ding-Su Bao, Yu-Ke Wu, Shi-Jie Fu, Guo-You Wang, Si-Jin Yang, Guo-Biao Liang, Zhi-Hui Xie, Song Rong
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a clinically common pathologic process defined as the inability to improve neuronal function. This study aimed to investigate the pathological mechanism of IRI and to explore effects of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) on autophagy and inflammatory response in IRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a Sham group, a kidney transplant group (Trans), and a kidney transplant plus HBO treatment group (Trans+HBO). The kidney was harvested from the donor and transplanted to recipient rats according to a previously reported study...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182114/evolution-of-cerebral-atrophy-in-a-patient-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-treated-with-barbiturate-coma
#7
Christopher R Newey, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christine Ahrens, Stephen Hantus, Aarti Sarwal
Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181351/sedation-methods-for-transthoracic-echocardiography-in-children-with-trisomy-21-a-retrospective-study
#8
Jeff Miller, Lili Ding, James Spaeth, Jennifer Lam, Joanna Paquin, Erica Lin, Allison Divanovic, Bi Lian Li, Shankar Baskar, Andreas W Loepke
BACKGROUND: Many children with Trisomy 21 have neurologic or behavioral problems that make it difficult for them to remain still during noninvasive imaging studies, such as transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEcho). Recently, intranasal dexmedetomidine sedation has been introduced for this purpose. However, dexmedetomidine has been associated with bradycardia. Children with Trisomy 21 have been reported to have a higher risk of bradycardia and airway obstruction with sedation or anesthesia compared to children without Trisomy 21...
February 8, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177696/assessment-of-renal-function-in-the-anaesthetised-rat-following-injection-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#9
Deirdre Edge, Christine M Shortt, E J Johns, Oliviero L Gobbo, Farouk Markos, Mohammed H Abdulla, Elaine F Barry
A recent study showed that a significant fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred following intravenous injection of two novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), MF66 and OD15. To assess if this was caused by excessive glomerular clearance, the effect of both particles on renal function was studied. Experiments were performed on sodium pentobarbital anaesthetised male Wistar rats (250-350 g). Twenty-minute urine clearances were taken followed by an i.v. bolus of MF66, OD15 (2 mg·kg(-1)), or dH2O (0...
November 14, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160425/anxiolytic-like-effect-of-2-4-1-phenyl-1h-pyrazol-4-yl-methyl-piperazin-1-yl-ethan-1-ol-is-mediated-through-the-benzodiazepine-and-nicotinic-pathways
#10
Adriane F Brito, James O Fajemiroye, Hiasmin F S Neri, Dayane M Silva, Daiany P B Silva, Germán Sanz, Boniek G Vaz, Flávio S de Carvalho, Paulo C Ghedini, Luciano M Lião, Ricardo Menegatti, Elson A Costa
In this study we proposed the design, synthesis of a new compound 2-(4-((1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethan-1-ol (LQFM032), and pharmacological evaluation of its anxiolytic-like effect. This new compound was subjected to pharmacological screening refered to as Irwin test, prior to sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep, open field and wire tests. The anxiolytic-like effect of this compound was evaluated using elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests. In addition, the mnemonic activity was evaluated through step-down test...
February 3, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160299/sedative-and-motor-incoordination-effects-of-ethanol-in-mice-lacking-cd14-tlr2-tlr4-or-myd88
#11
Yuri A Blednov, Mendy Black, Jillian M Benavidez, Adriana Da Costa, Jody Mayfield, R Adron Harris
BACKGROUND: In our companion article, we examined the role of MyD88-dependent signaling in ethanol (EtOH) consumption in mice lacking key components of this inflammatory pathway and observed differential effects on drinking. Here, we studied the role of these same signaling components in the acute sedative, intoxicating, and physiological effects of EtOH. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to strongly reduce the duration of EtOH-induced sedation, although most studies do not support its direct involvement in EtOH consumption...
March 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153523/systemic-administration-of-the-dietary-constituent-resveratrol-inhibits-the-nociceptive-jaw-opening-reflex-in-rats-via-the-endogenous-opioid-system
#12
Shota Kokuba, Shiori Takehana, Katsuo Oshima, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, under in vivo conditions, systemic administration of resveratrol could attenuate the rat nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR) via the endogenous opioid system. The JOR evoked by electrical stimulation of the tongue was recorded as digastric muscle electromyograms (dEMG) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The amplitude of the dEMG increased significantly in proportion to the intensity of electrical stimulation (from 1× to 5 × threshold for the JOR)...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149527/high-performance-of-a-unique-mesoporous-polystyrene-based-adsorbent-for-blood-purification
#13
Jian Chen, Wenyan Han, Jie Chen, Wenhui Zong, Weichao Wang, Yue Wang, Guanghui Cheng, Chunran Li, Lailiang Ou, Yaoting Yu
A multi-functional polystyrene based adsorbent (NKU-9) with a unique mesoporous and a high surface area was prepared by suspension polymerization for removal of therapeutic toxins in blood purification. The adsorbent produced had an almost equal amount of mesopore distribution in the range from 2 to 50 nm. The adsorption of serum toxins with different molecular weights were examined by in vitro adsorption assays and compared with some clinical currently used adsorbents such as HA-330, Cytosorb and BL-300 which are produced by China, America and Japan, respectively...
February 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140642/comparison-of-penetrating-and-nonpenetrating-captive-bolt-methods-in-horned-goats
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samantha L Collins, Marc Caldwell, Silke Hecht, Brian K Whitlock
OBJECTIVE To use MRI and CT to compare the amount of tissue damage (soft tissue and bone) to the heads of goats after administration of a nonpenetrating or penetrating captive bolt. ANIMALS Cadavers of twelve 1- to 5-year-old mixed-breed goats that had been euthanized with an overdose of pentobarbital as part of an unrelated study. PROCEDURES Cadavers were randomly assigned to receive a nonpenetrating (n = 6) or penetrating (6) captive bolt. The head of 1 cadaver was imaged via CT and MRI. The muzzle of a device designed to administer either a penetrating or nonpenetrating captive bolt was then placed flush on the dorsal midline of each head at the level of the external occipital protuberance (poll) and aimed downward toward the cranialmost portion of the intermandibular space, and the assigned bolt was administered...
February 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129582/an-up-no-change-or-down-system-time-dependent-expression-of-mrnas-in-contused-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-used-for-wound-age-estimation
#15
Jun-Hong Sun, Xi-Yan Zhu, Ta-Na Dong, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Qi-Qing Liu, San-Qiang Li, Qiu-Xiang Du
The combined use of multiple markers is considered a promising strategy in estimating the age of wounds. We sought to develop an "up, no change, or down" system and to explore how to combine and use various parameters. In total, 78 Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into a control group and contusion groups of 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 24-, 28-, 32-, 36-, 40-, 44-, and 48-h post-injury (n=6 per group). A contusion was produced in the right limb of the rats under diethyl ether anesthesia by a drop-ball technique; the animals were sacrificed at certain time points thereafter, using a lethal dose of pentobarbital...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089920/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-mediated-non-genomic-facilitatory-effect-of-estrogen-on-cooling-induced-reduction-of-skin-blood-flow-in-mice
#16
Izumi Serizawa, Nozomi Iwasaki, Hirotake Ishida, Shin-Ya Saito, Tomohisa Ishikawa
An enhanced vasoconstrictor activity of cutaneous arteries participates in the reduction of skin blood flow induced by cooling stimulation. Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cooling-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women during the period from menarche to menopause. We thus investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on cooling-induced reduction of plantar skin blood flow (PSBF) in mouse in vivo. Ovariectomized female ddY mice, anaesthetized with pentobarbital, were treated with tetrodotoxin for eliminating the sympathetic nerve tone and artificially ventilated...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068994/spatiotemporal-changes-of-optical-signals-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-of-neuropathic-rats-after-electroacupuncture-stimulation
#17
Myeounghoon Cha, Younbyoung Chae, Sun Joon Bai, Bae Hwan Lee
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury causes physiological changes in primary afferent neurons. Neuropathic pain associated with peripheral nerve injuries may reflect changes in the excitability of the nervous system, including the spinothalamic tract. Current alternative medical research indicates that acupuncture stimulation has analgesic effects in various pain symptoms. However, activation changes in the somatosensory cortex of the brain by acupuncture stimulation remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066138/potentiation-of-decursinol-angelate-on-pentobarbital-induced-sleeping-behaviors-via-the-activation-of-gabaa-ergic-systems-in-rodents
#18
Jae Hoon Woo, Tae-Woo Ha, Jae-Seon Kang, Jin Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Angelicae Gigantis Radix (AGR, Angelica gigas) has been used for a long time as a traditional folk medicine in Korea and oriental countries. Decursinol angelate (DCA) is structurally isomeric decursin, one of the major components of AGR. This study was performed to confirm whether DCA augments pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via the activation of GABAA-ergic systems in animals. Oral administration of DCA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly suppressed spontaneous locomotor activity. DCA also prolonged sleeping time, and decreased the sleep latency by pentobarbital (42 mg/kg), in a dose-dependent manner, similar to muscimol, both at the hypnotic (42 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) dosages...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059434/assessment-of-abuse-liability-of-tramadol-among-experienced-drug-users-double-blind-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Mrinmay Das, Raka Jain, Anju Dhawan, Amandeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. METHODS: A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes)...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049349/chemical-constituents-of-eleutherococcus-sessiliflorus-extract-and-its-sedative-hypnotic-effect
#20
Yang Song, Chun-Juan Yang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Nan Zhao, Xue-Song Feng, Fan-Hao Meng
The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the roots of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (E. sessiliflorus). The compounds were isolated through various chromatography techniques and elucidated by mass spectrometric (MS), 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The sedative-hypnotic effect of E. sessiliflorus ethanol extract and its fractions (acetic ether, n-butanol and water fraction) were also investigated. In the chemical constituent study, one new compound, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate and fourteen known compounds were isolated and identified...
January 4, 2017: Natural Product Research
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