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Jeongsoo Han, Myeounghoon Cha, Minjee Kwon, Seong-Karp Hong, Sun Joon Bai, Bae Hwan Lee
The insular cortex (IC) is a pain-related brain region that receives various types of sensory input and processes the emotional aspects of pain. The present study was conducted to investigate spatiotemporal patterns related to neuroplastic changes in the IC after nerve injury using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. The tibial and sural nerves of rats were injured under pentobarbital anesthesia. To observe optical signals in the IC, rats were re-anesthetized with urethane 7days after injury, and a craniectomy was performed to allow for optical imaging...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Sidra Ishaq, Muhammad Adil Rasheed, Muhammad Ashraf, Imran Altaf, Saima Rehmat, Ghulam Fatima
Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Christopher R Newey, Dolora Wisco, Premkumar Nattanmai, Aarti Sarwal
BACKGROUND: Refractory status epilepticus is often treated with third-line therapy, such as pentobarbital coma. However, its use is limited by side effects. Recognizing and preventing major and minor adverse effects of prolonged pentobarbital coma may increase good outcomes. This study retrospectively reviewed direct and indirect medical and surgical pentobarbital coma. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients with refractory status epilepticus treated with pentobarbital over a 1 year period at a large tertiary care center...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Baba Shankar Rao Garige, Srisailam Keshetti, Uma Maheshwara Rao Vattikuti
BACKGROUND: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Yusuke Sano, Shogo Ito, Mamoru Yoneda, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Ayako Uchinaka, Yasuko K Bando, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Anesthesia can affect respiratory, circulatory, and endocrine systems but is necessary for certain experimental procedures such as echocardiography and blood sampling in small animals. We have now investigated the effects of four types of anesthesia-pentobarbital (PENT), ketamine-xylazine (K/X), and low- or high-dose isoflurane (ISO)-on hemodynamics, cardiac function, and glucose and lipid metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aortic pressure, heart rate, and echocardiographic parameters were measured at various time points up to 45 min after the induction of anesthesia, and blood was then collected for measurement of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Toshio Kobayashi, Yutaka Oshima, Naoki Hashizume, Makoto Nakai, Shozo Ajimi, Nobuya Imatanaka
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly examined for pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. Two common means of anesthesia before euthanasia and bronchoalveolar lavage in rats are intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital and inhalation of isoflurane. Medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol is an alternative anesthesia to pentobarbital for animal welfare; however, the effect of this combination on BALF and blood chemistry is unknown. Here, we compared the effects of anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital or one of two combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (dose, 0...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Vahid Reza Askari, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Ahmad Ghorbani, Hassan Rakhshandeh
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF)...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Jessica M Chisholm, Daniel S J Pang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a killing method is aversive and exposure to high concentrations is likely to be painful. Bradycardia during exposure to CO2 is associated with nociception and pain. However, it is unclear if bradycardia occurs before loss of consciousness as definitions of loss of consciousness vary in the literature. The objectives of this study were to explore the relationship between recumbency, loss of righting reflex (LORR) and a quiescent electromyograph as measures of loss of consciousness, and identify the onset of bradycardia in relation to these measures...
2016: PloS One
Katharina Hellbach, Andre Yaroshenko, Konstantin Willer, Tina Pritzke, Alena Baumann, Nina Hesse, Sigrid Auweter, Maximilian F Reiser, Oliver Eickelberg, Franz Pfeiffer, Anne Hilgendorff, Felix G Meinel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of x-ray dark-field imaging in projection radiography-based depiction of pneumothoraces in the neonatal murine lung, a potentially life-threatening medical condition that requires a timely and correct diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By the use of a unique preclinical model, 7-day-old C57Bl/6N mice received mechanical ventilation for 2 or 8 hours with oxygen-rich gas (FIO2 = 0.4; n = 24). Unventilated mice either spontaneously breathed oxygen-rich gas (FIO2 = 0...
October 2016: Investigative Radiology
Joanne Guerlain, Antoine Paul, Isabelle Rouillon, Marine Parodi, Erea Noel Garabedian, Natalie Loundon
PURPOSE: Outpatient pediatric audiometry brainstem response (ABR) uses various techniques (no drug, hydroxyzine, pentobarbital, melatonin). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of melatonin as compared to pentobarbital in children with associated disorders. METHOD: This was a retrospective study that took place in a tertiary care center. Eighty-three children (34 girls and 49 boys) had performed ABR under pentobarbital (GPent) or melatonin (GMel) between 2013 and 2014 and were included...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Clemens A Strohmaier, Karolina Motloch, Christian Runge, Andrea Trost, Barbara Bogner, Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Falk Schrödl, Markus Lenzhofer, Herbert A Reitsamer
PURPOSE: Recent histological data suggest autonomic innervation of the central retinal artery. In the present study, we investigated the effect of electrical brain stem stimulation at the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) on the retinal vessel diameter in rats and whether nitric oxide mediates a possible effect. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were anesthetized using pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally). The animals were artificially ventilated and the femoral artery and vein were cannulated for blood pressure measurement and drug administration...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Muluken Walle Birhanie, Bizuayehu Walle, Kidist Rebba
BACKGROUND: Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. METHODS: Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg)...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Tapan Kavi, Donna Molaie, Michael Nurok, Axel Rosengart, Shouri Lahiri
Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Daphne S Mous, Heleen M Kool, Marjon J Buscop-van Kempen, Anton H Koning, Oleh Dzyubachyk, Rene M H Wijnen, Dick Tibboel, Robbert J Rottier
Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) suffer from severe pulmonary hypertension attributable to altered development of the pulmonary vasculature, which is often resistant to vasodilator therapy. Present treatment starts postnatally even though significant differences in the pulmonary vasculature are already present early during pregnancy. We examined the effects of prenatal treatment with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil on pulmonary vascular development in experimental CDH starting at a clinically relevant time...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Ahmad Ghorbani, Mahmoud Hosseini, Hassan Rakhshandeh
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital...
July 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Irma Aranda-González, Yolanda Moguel-Ordóñez, Luis Chel-Guerrero, Maira Segura-Campos, David Betancur-Ancona
Steviol glycosides are a family of compounds found in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that are responsible for sweetness capacity. The antihyperglycemic effect of the two major steviol glycosides, Rebaudioside A and Stevioside, has been studied and it has been found that despite having the same common structure, only Stevioside exerts an antihyperglycemic effect. Although other steviol derivatives are found in smaller amounts (minor steviol glycosides) in S. rebaudiana, whether or not they possess antihyperglycemic activity has not been evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Takuya Usui, Ayumi Nakazawa, Takashi Okura, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Yoshiyuki Kubo, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
The elimination of histamine, an excitatory neurotransmitter, from the brain/CSF across the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) was investigated using Wistar rats, which were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. An in vivo intracerebral microinjection study suggested that there was only partial efflux of [(3) H]histamine from the rat brain across the blood-brain barrier. The [(3) H]histamine elimination clearance from the rat CSF was 3.8-fold greater than that of a CSF bulk flow marker, and the elimination of [(3) H]histamine was significantly inhibited by the co-administration of unlabeled histamine, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated process in histamine elimination from the CSF...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Robert C Tasker, Howard P Goodkin, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Kevin E Chapman, Nicholas S Abend, Ravindra Arya, James N Brenton, Jessica L Carpenter, William D Gaillard, Tracy A Glauser, Joshua Goldstein, Ashley R Helseth, Michele C Jackson, Kush Kapur, Mohamad A Mikati, Katrina Peariso, Mark S Wainwright, Angus A Wilfong, Korwyn Williams, Tobias Loddenkemper
OBJECTIVE: To describe pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus in whom there is intention to use an IV anesthetic for seizure control. DESIGN: Two-year prospective observational study evaluating patients (age range, 1 mo to 21 yr) with refractory status epilepticus not responding to two antiepileptic drug classes and treated with continuous infusion of anesthetic agent. SETTING: Nine pediatric hospitals in the United States...
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Xi-Yan Zhu, Qiu-Xiang Du, San-Qiang Li, Jun-Hong Sun
The inter-group heterogeneity and intra-group homogeneity of relative expression are very necessary when the mRNA were used to determine wound age accurately in forensic medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the intra-group homogeneity of SFRP5, FZD4 and Fosl1 mRNAs in post-injury intervals. The corresponding proteins show different subcellular locations. A total of 78 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and contusion groups. At 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, or 48 h (n = 6 per group) after contusion (under anesthesia by chloral hydrate intraperitoneally), the rats were sacrificed using a lethal dose of pentobarbital, and samples of the injured muscles were collected...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Andrés Uc Cachón, Carlos Quintal-Novelo, Gilberto Medina-Escobedo, Gaspar Castro-Aguilar, Rosa E Moo-Puc
Several studies have shown the hepatoprotective effect of the consumption of coffee and tea, which is mainly attributed to caffeine. Many experimental studies have demonstrated this effect; however, these studies used high caffeine doses that are not related to human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of low doses of caffeine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Low doses of caffeine (CAFF) 5 and 10 mg/kg (CAFF5 and CAFF10) were evaluated in chronic liver damage induced by CCl4 (0...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
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