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Yang Ye, Cun-Zhi Liu, Rui Wang, Yu-Wei Zhang, Bo Zhang, Yu Cui, Xue-Wei Liu, Shu-Ming Huang
Previous small animal models for menopausal transition are mainly performed to mimic the biochemical changes of patients with menopausal transition. The psychological symptoms in animal models are often overlooked. To mimic clinical situation, we developed a new mouse model of menopausal transition: the combination of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and empty bottle stimulation (EBS). After OVX and 21 days of EBS, behavioral test and pentobarbital-induced sleep test were carried out. Then all the animals were euthanized for further investigations...
March 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Edgar Isaac Rojas-Bedolla, Jorge Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Mario Iván Arenas-López, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Amirali Arian
OBJECTIVE: In Iranian Traditional Medicine, the herbs with cold and wet temperament can help to improve insomnia. Portulaca oleracea has cold and wet temperament, so the present study was carried out to investigate the sleep-prolonging effect of Portulaca oleracea. METHODS: This work was an experimental study on mice which were randomly divided into these groups: saline (control); Diazepam:) positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) by Soxhlet apparatus and maceration; in the effective (dose25 mg/kg), different fractions of extract were tested...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Naresh Mullaguri, Nakul Katyal, Aarti Sarwal, Jonathan M Beary, Pravin George, Naresh Karthikeyan, Premkumar Nattanamai, Christopher R Newey
Although a neurological examination is fundamental to the evaluation of comatose patients, it is less reliable in a medically induced coma. A commonly misinterpreted finding in patients in a pentobarbital coma is altered pupillary reactivity secondary to an exaggerated ciliospinal reflex. Recognizing an exaggerated ciliospinal reflex in patients in a pentobarbital coma is important and may prevent unnecessary intervention. We present a patient induced in a pentobarbital coma for the treatment of status epilepticus who exhibited a nonreactive pupil secondary to an exaggerated ciliospinal reflex confirmed by pupillometry...
December 30, 2017: Curēus
Risako Kato, Masanori Yamanaka, Masayuki Kobayashi
General anesthetics decrease the frequency and density of spike firing. This effect makes it difficult to detect spike regularity. To overcome this problem, we developed a method utilizing the unfolding transformation which analyzes the energy level statistics in the random matrix theory. We regarded the energy axis as time axis of neuron spike and analyzed the time series of cortical neural firing in vivo. Unfolding transformation detected regularities of neural firing while changes in firing densities were associated with pentobarbital...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Necip Pirincci, Serkan Yıldırım, Abuzer Tas, Yagmur Kuscu, Tunc Ozan, Fatih Firdolas, Halit Demir, Ahmet Karakeci
OBJECTIVES: Prolidase plays a vital role in collagen turnover, matrix remodeling and cell growth. We aimed to evaluate the association between treatment with chorionic gonadotropin and infertility and erectile dysfunction, by investigating tissue prolidase activity, oxidative stress and levels of antioxidant enzymes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen (16) male Wistar albino rats used in this study were randomly divided into two groups: rats treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and control rats (n = 8 in each group)...
March 5, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Y X Gao, Y T Liu, Y Y Zhang, J J Qiu, T T Zhao, C A Yu, J G Zheng
Objective: To establish the mouse aorta dissection (AD) model through drinking water containing β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). Methods: Forty 3-week-old C57B1/6J male mice were divided into four groups according to randomized block design: control, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) BAPN groups (dissolving respective dose of BAPN in the drinking water, n= 10 each group). Arterial systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly in conscious, restrained mice using a noninvasive computerized tail-cuff system...
February 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
W J Adeyemi, L A Olayaki
It has been opined that a combined therapeutic approach should be considered in the optimal management ofosteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the study investigated the effects of salmon calcitonin (Sct) and/or omega-3 fatty acids (N-3), relative to diclofenac sodium (DF) on selected biochemical parameters in induced osteoarthritic rats. Forty (40) adultmale Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into 8 groups (n=5), viz: Group 1-Normal control; Group 2-OA control; Group 3-OA+N-3 (200 mg/kg, p...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Kazuki Mitome, Shiori Takehana, Katsuo Oshima, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration suppresses sodium channels in primary afferent sensory neurons, the acute local effect of DHA on the trigeminal nociceptive reflex remains to be elucidated, in vivo. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether local administration of DHA attenuates the nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR) in vivo in the rat. The JOR evoked by electrical stimulation of the tongue was recorded by a digastric muscle electromyogram (dEMG) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats...
February 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Todd Rabkin Golden, Veronika Solnicky, Rita Wadeea, Sehem Ghazala
We present a rare case of pentobarbital infusion causing propylene glycol-induced lactic acidosis, during refractory status epilepticus treatment in a 66-year-old man without seizure history.
February 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Monica Eggermont, Stefan De Wachter, Jane Eastham, James Gillespie
The present study characterises the complex structural and functional elements of the female rat urethra that may be involved in controlling urethral closure and continence. Urethras were dissected from female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) euthanized by pentobarbital overdose. Tissues were fixed (4% paraformaldehyde), frozen and sectioned (8μm) for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies were used to detect immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide, nitric oxide synthase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Emily S Dudley, Gregory P Boivin
All currently accepted methods of euthanasia for laboratory mice involve some degree of stress, fear, anxiety, or pain. We evaluated the voluntary oral administration of a euthanasia drug in 99 male and 81 female mice of various strains. We first explored the palatability of sugar-cookie dough with various flavorings added. We placed the cookie dough in the cage with an adult mouse and recorded the amount ingested after 1 h. Mice readily ingested all flavors of sugar-cookie dough. We then added a euthanasia solution containing pentobarbital and phenytoin to all flavors of cookie dough and placed a small bolus in the cage of each mouse or mouse pair...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Robert H Witcher, Michelle M Ramirez
PURPOSE: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is associated with antiepileptic drug use and is a rare but life-threatening side effect. We present a case of phenobarbital-induced DRESS in a patient who subsequently required phenobarbital and was successfully desensitized. SUMMARY: A 5-year-old male presented with medically refractory status epilepticus (SE). He had been trialed on several antiepileptic medications without achieving burst suppression...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Hiroaki Takemoto, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Nahoko Uchiyama, Takuro Maruyama, Tadatoshi Yamashita, Masashi Hyuga, Naohiro Oshima, Yoshiaki Amakura, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa, Yoshinori Kobayashi
Ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) has been developed to eliminate the adverse effects caused by ephedrine alkaloid-induced sympathetic hyperactivation. Previously, we reported that EFE possesses analgesic, anti-influenza, and cancer metastatic inhibitory effects at comparable levels to that of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE). However, it has not yet been demonstrated that EFE is free from the known side effects of EHE, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. In this study, the incidence of these adverse effects was compared between mice administered EHE and those administered EFE...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella Mutolo
A cholinergic system has been described in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, no information is available on the role played by acetylcholine (ACh) in the modulation of the cough reflex within the caudal NTS that has an important function in cough regulation. We addressed this issue making use of bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of 10 mM ACh combined with 5 mM physostigmine as well as of 10 mM mecamylamine or 10 mM scopolamine into the caudal NTS of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits...
January 21, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Jeffrey W Miller, Lili Ding, Joel B Gunter, Jennifer E Lam, Erica P Lin, Joanna R Paquin, Bi Lian Li, James P Spaeth, Renee N Kreeger, Allison Divanovic, Mohamed Mahmoud, Andreas W Loepke
BACKGROUND: Acquisition of transthoracic echocardiographic (TTEcho) images in children often requires sedation. The optimal sedative for TTEcho has not been determined. Children with congenital heart disease are repeatedly exposed to sedatives and anesthetics that may affect brain development. Dexmedetomidine, which in animals alters brain structure to a lesser degree, may offer advantages in this vulnerable population. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial enrolled 280 children 3-24 months of age undergoing outpatient TTEcho, comparing 2...
January 23, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Martin Holtkamp
Patients with prolonged seizures that do not respond to intravenous benzodiazepines and a second-line anticonvulsant suffer from refractory status epilepticus and those with seizures that do not respond to continuous intravenous anesthetic anticonvulsants suffer from super-refractory status epilepticus. Both conditions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A strict pharmacological treatment regimen is urgently required, but the level of evidence for the available drugs is very low. Refractory complex focal status epilepticus generally does not require anesthetics, but all intravenous non-anesthetizing anticonvulsants may be used...
January 24, 2018: Drugs
Thomas Breuer, Christian Bleilevens, Rolf Rossaint, Gernot Marx, Julian Gehrenkemper, Henning Dierksen, Antoine Delpierre, Joachim Weis, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez, Christian S Bruells
BACKGROUND: Anesthetics in ventilated patients are critical as any cofactor hampering diaphragmatic function may have a negative impact on the weaning progress and therefore on patients' mortality. Dexmedetomidine may display antioxidant and antiproteolytic properties, but it also reduced glucose uptake by the muscle, which may impair diaphragm force production. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine could inhibit ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were separated into three groups (n = 8/group)...
January 18, 2018: Anesthesiology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation (MV) in preterm infants (PTI) causes discomfort. Whether it causes pain is controversial. Meta analysis reviews of published work on PTI during MV have shown no clinically significant impact of opioids on pain scales, and hence not recommended for routine use in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Similarly regular use of sedative midazolam is also not recommended. Therefore we hypothesized a downward trend in narcotics and sedatives used in MV of PTI in NICUs...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Yevgeniya E Koshman, Brett R Herzberg, Terese R Seifert, James S Polakowski, Scott W Mittelstadt
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was to determine whether assessment of myocardial contractility and hemodynamics in an anesthetized dog model, could consistently detect drug-induced changes in the inotropic state of the heart using drugs known to have clinically relevant positive and negative effects on myocardial contractility. METHODS: Derived parameters included: diastolic, systolic and mean arterial BP, peak systolic LVP, HR, end-diastolic LVP, and LVdP/dtmax as the primary contractility index...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
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