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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549254/comparative-early-stage-assessment-of-multiproduct-biorefinery-systems-an-application-to-the-isobutanol-platform
#1
Jonathan Moncada, John A Posada, Andrea Ramírez
An early stage assessment method is applied to the production of isobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass, and to three multiproduct portfolios from the conversion of isobutanol: Case 1: production of isobutyl acetate and glycerol tert-butyl ether (GTBE), Case 2: production of isobutyl acetate and ketones, and Case 3: production of isobutyl acetate alkanes. The method screens and compares each route with its equivalent petrochemical counterpart. The method is composed by different indicators involving economic and environmental aspects...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548125/next-generation-sequencing-based-molecular-characterization-of-primary-urinary-bladder-adenocarcinoma
#2
Somak Roy, Dinesh Pradhan, Wayne L Ernst, Stephanie Mercurio, Yana Najjar, Rahul Parikh, Anil V Parwani, Reetesh K Pai, Rajiv Dhir, Marina N Nikiforova
Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor clinical outcomes and no standard of care therapy. Molecular biology of this tumor is unknown due to the lack of comprehensive molecular profiling studies. The study aimed to identify genomic alterations of clinical and therapeutic significance using next-generation sequencing and compare genomic profile of primary bladder adenocarcinoma with that of high-grade urothelial carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. A cohort of 15 well-characterized primary bladder adenocarcinoma was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing for the identification of mutations and copy-number changes in 51 cancer-related genes...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546523/alk-protein-expression-is-related-to-neuroblastoma-aggressiveness-but-is-not-independent-prognostic-factor
#3
Ji Won Lee, Sung Hye Park, Hyoung Jin Kang, Kyung Duk Park, Hee Young Shin, Hyo Seop Ahn
Purpose: In this study, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation and amplification, ALK protein expression, loss of the nuclear alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) protein, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression were studied to investigate potential correlations between these molecular characteristics and clinical features or outcomes in neuroblastoma. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients were enrolled in this study...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544851/low-ceiling-temperature-polymer-microcapsules-with-hydrophobic-payloads-via-rapid-emulsion-solvent-evaporation
#4
Shijia Tang, Mostafa Yourdkhani, Catherine M Possanza Casey, Nancy R Sottos, Scott R White, Jeffrey S Moore
We report a microencapsulation procedure based on rapid solvent evaporation to prepare microcapsules with hydrophobic core materials and low ceiling temperature polymer shell wall of cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA). We use and compare microfluidic and bulk emulsions. In both methods, rapid solvent evaporation following emulsification resulted in kinetically trapped core-shell microcapsules while slow evaporation resulted in acorn morphology. Through the systematic variation of encapsulation parameters, we found that polymer-to-core weight ratios higher than 1 and polymer concentration higher than 4...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544372/deprotonation-of-a-seemingly-hydridic-diborane-6-to-build-a-b-b-bond
#5
Thomas Kaese, Hendrik Budy, Michael Bolte, Hans-Wolfram Lerner, Matthias Wagner
Deprotonation of the doubly arylene-bridged diborane(6) derivative 1H2 with (Me3 Si)3 CLi or (Me3 Si)2 NK gives the B-B σ-bonded species M[1H] in essentially quantitative yields (THF, room temperature; M=Li, K, arylene=4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-biphenylylene). With nBuLi as the base, the yield of Li[1H] drops to 20 % and the 1,1-bis(9-borafluorenyl)butane Li[2H] is formed as a side product (30 %). In addition to the 1,1-butanediyl fragment, the two boron atoms of Li[2H] are linked by a μ-H bridge. In the closely related molecule Li[3H], the corresponding μ-H atom can be abstracted with (Me3 Si)3 CLi to afford the B-B-bonded conjugated base Li2 [3] (THF, 150 °C; 15 %)...
May 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544248/end-functionalized-palladium-scs-pincer-polymers-via-controlled-radical-polymerizations
#6
Diane S Lye, Aaron E Cohen, Madeleine Z Wong, Marcus Weck
A direct and facile route toward semitelechelic polymers, end-functionalized with palladated sulfur-carbon-sulfur pincer (Pd(II) -pincer) complexes is reported that avoids any post-polymerization step. Key to our methodology is the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization with functionalized chain-transfer agents. This strategy yields Pd end-group-functionalized materials with monomodal molar mass dispersities (Đ) of 1.18-1.44. The RAFT polymerization is investigated using a Pd(II) -pincer chain-transfer agent for three classes of monomers: styrene, tert-butyl acrylate, and N-isopropylacrylamide...
May 22, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537588/activation-and-discovery-of-earth-abundant-metal-catalysts-using-sodium-tert-butoxide
#7
Jamie H Docherty, Jingying Peng, Andrew P Dominey, Stephen P Thomas
First-row, earth-abundant metals offer an inexpensive and sustainable alternative to precious-metal catalysts. As such, iron and cobalt catalysts have garnered interest as replacements for alkene and alkyne hydrofunctionalization reactions. However, these have required the use of air- and moisture-sensitive catalysts and reagents, limiting both adoption by the non-expert as well as applicability, particularly in industrial settings. Here, we report a simple method for the use of earth-abundant metal catalysts by general activation with sodium tert-butoxide...
June 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537078/asymmetric-synthesis-of-the-tetraponerine-alkaloids
#8
Stephen G Davies, Ai M Fletcher, Ian T T Houlsby, Paul M Roberts, James E Thomson
The asymmetric syntheses of all eight tetraponerine alkaloids (T1-T8) were achieved using the diastereoselective conjugate additions of lithium amide reagents in the key stereodefining steps. Conjugate addition of either lithium (R)-N-allyl-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amide or lithium (R)-N-(but-3-en-1-yl)-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amide to tert-butyl sorbate was followed by ring-closing metathesis of the resultant N-alkenyl β-amino esters, reduction to the corresponding aldehydes, and reaction with tert-butyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536020/%C3%B0-valuation-of-biocompatibility-and-antioxidant-efficiency-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticles-loaded-with-quercetin
#9
Denitsa Aluani, Virginia Tzankova, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Yordan Yordanov, Elena Nikolova, Feodor Odzhakov, Alexandar Apostolov, Tzvetanka Markova, Krassimira Yoncheva
The present study deals with development and evaluation of the safety profile of chitosan/alginate nanoparticles as a platform for delivery of a natural antioxidant quercetin. The nanoparticles were prepared by varying the ratios between both biopolymers giving different size and charge of the formulations. The biocompatibility was explored in vitro in cells from different origin: cultivated HepG2 cells, isolated primary rat hepatocytes, isolated murine spleen lymphocytes and macrophages. In vivo toxicological evaluation was performed after repeated 14-day oral administration to rats...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535058/peo-ppo-diblock-copolymers-protect-myoblasts-from-hypo-osmotic-stress-in-vitro-dependent-on-copolymer-size-composition-and-architecture
#10
Mihee Kim, Karen J Haman, Evelyne M Houang, Wenjia Zhang, Demetris Yannopoulos, Joseph M Metzger, Frank S Bates, Benjamin J Hackel
Poloxamer 188, a triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), protects cellular membranes from various stresses. Though numerous block copolymer variants exist, evaluation of alternative architecture, composition, and size has been minimal. Herein, cultured murine myoblasts are exposed to the stresses of hypotonic shock and isotonic recovery, and membrane integrity was evaluated by quantifying release of lactate dehydrogenase. Comparative evaluation of a systematic set of PEO-PPO diblock and PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers demonstrates that the diblock architecture can be protective in vitro...
May 23, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534651/tert-butylhydroquinone-promotes-angiogenesis-and-improves-heart-functions-in-rats-after-myocardial-infarction
#11
Nan-Qian Zhou, Ning Liu, Peng Li, Song Ping, Qi-Sheng Peng, Wei-Dong Shi
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an increased risk of heart failure and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), as an antioxidant, shows multiple cardioprotective actions including the reduction in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how tBHQ improves heart functions in rats. METHODS: The MI model was established in WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery...
May 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532995/histological-subtypes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-are-related-to-gene-mutations-and-molecular-tumour-classification
#12
Julien Calderaro, Gabrielle Couchy, Sandrine Imbeaud, Giuliana Amaddeo, Eric Letouzé, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Christophe Laurent, Yacine Hajji, Daniel Azoulay, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Jean-Charles Nault, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our increasing understanding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology holds promise for personalized care, however its translation into clinical practice requires a precise knowledge of its relationship to tumour phenotype. METHODS: We aimed at investigating molecular-phenotypic correlations in a large series of HCC. To this purpose, 343 surgically resected HCC were investigated by pathological review, immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and sequencing...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532594/the-endocrine-disrupting-alkylphenols-and-4-4-ddt-interfere-with-estrogen-conversion-and-clearance-by-mouse-liver-cytosol
#13
Talal El-Hefnawy, Claudia Hernandez, Laura P Stabile
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous compounds known for negative impacts on reproductive functions and for increasing cancer risk. EDCs are believed to cause the harmful effects in part through their inappropriate low-affinity binding to steroid receptors and other possible non-receptor mediated paradigms, however there is a need to further elucidate other mechanisms involving the direct and indirect impact of EDCs on reproductive functions. We examined the metabolism of 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) by cell-free hepatic cytosol in the presence of alkylphenols (nonylphenol/NP and 4-tert-octylphenol/tOP), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT) and other EDCs...
May 19, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532250/design-and-evaluation-of-mpeg-pla-micelles-functionalized-with-drug-interactive-domains-as-improved-drug-carriers-for-docetaxel-delivery
#14
Dingqing Qi, Feirong Gong, Xin Teng, Mingming Ma, Huijing Wen, Weihao Yuan, Yi Cheng, Chong Lu
Polymeric micelles are very attractive drug delivery systems for hydrophobic agents, owing to their readily tailorable chemical structure and ease for scale-up preparation. However, the intrinsic poor stability of drug-loaded micelles presents one of the major challenges for most micellar systems in the translation to clinical applications. In this study, a simple, well-defined, and easy-to-scale up 9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) containing lysine dendronized mPEG-PLA (mPEG-PLA-Lys(FB)2) micellar formulation was designed and prepared for docetaxel (DTX) delivery, in an effort to improve the stability of the micelles, and its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor efficacy against SKOV-3 ovarian cancer were evaluated...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530472/telomerase-expression-in-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-pharyngeal-teeth
#15
W H Tan, P E Witten, C Winkler, D W T Au, A Huysseune
Nonmammalian vertebrates have the capacity of lifelong tooth replacement. In all vertebrates, tooth formation requires contact and interaction between the oral or pharyngeal epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. To secure lifelong replacement, the presence of odontogenic stem cells has been postulated, particularly in the epithelial compartment. This study uses an advanced teleost fish species, the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, a close relative to Oryzias latipes, to examine the expression and distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert), the catalytic unit of telomerase, in developing pharyngeal teeth and to relate these data to the proliferative activity of the cells...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529542/frequency-and-geographic-distribution-of-tert-promoter-mutations-in-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Pezzuto, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly develops in subjects chronically infected with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses through a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the human genome. Nucleotide changes in coding regions (i.e. TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A and ARID2) as well as in non-coding regions (i.e. TERT promoter) are considered cancer drivers for HCC development with variable frequencies in different geographic regions depending on the etiology and environmental factors...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527438/the-fate-of-the-tert-butyl-radical-in-low-temperature-autoignition-reactions
#17
Kevin B Moore, Justin M Turney, Henry F Schaefer
Alkyl combustion models depend on kinetic parameters derived from reliable experimental or theoretical energetics that are often unavailable for larger species. To this end, we have performed a comprehensive investigation of the tert-butyl radical (R(•) in this paper) autoignition pathways. CCSD(T)/ANO0 geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies were obtained for key stationary points for the R(•) + O2 and QOOH + O2 mechanisms. Relative energies were computed to chemical accuracy (±1 kcal mol(-1)) via extrapolation of RCCSD(T) energies to the complete basis-set limit, or usage of RCCSD(T)-F12 methods...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526854/induction-of-senescence-in-primary-glioblastoma-cells-by-serum-and-tgf%C3%AE
#18
Ritesh Kumar, Alexander Gont, Theodore J Perkins, Jennifer E L Hanson, Ian A J Lorimer
Glioblastoma is the most common type of adult brain tumour and has a median survival after diagnosis of a little more than a year. Glioblastomas have a high frequency of mutations in the TERT promoter and CDKN2A locus that are expected to render them resistant to both replicative and oncogene-induced senescence. However, exposure of PriGO8A primary glioblastoma cells to media with 10% serum induced a senescence-like phenotype characterized by increased senescence-associated β galactosidase activity, PML bodies and p21 and morphological changes typical of senescence...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526614/human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-3a1-aldh3a1-exhibits-chaperone-like-function
#19
Georgia-Persephoni Voulgaridou, Ilias Tsochantaridis, Theodora Mantso, Rodrigo Franco, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various aldehydes. Certain types of epithelial tissues in mammals, especially those continually exposed to environmental stress (e.g., corneal epithelium), express ALDH3A1 at high levels and its abundance in such tissues is perceived to help to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of oxidative stress. Metabolic as well as non-metabolic roles for ALDH3A1 have been associated with its mediated resistance to cellular oxidative stress...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525599/analytical-method-for-pyrethroid-metabolites-in-urine-of-the-non-occupationally-exposed-population-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Toshiaki Yoshida
Pyrethroids are widely being used as household insecticides or mothproof repellents. An analytical method is described for determination of urinary metabolites as biomarkers for monitoring exposure to the pyrethroids. In total, 11 urinary metabolites, 3-(2-carboxyprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzly alcohol, 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid, 4-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, were enzymatically hydrolyzed and extracted with toluene...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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