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Neuron cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038243/an-%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-based-cytoskeleton-protects-large-diameter-myelinated-axons-from-degeneration
#1
Claire Yu-Mei Huang, Chuansheng Zhang, Daniel R Zollinger, Christophe Leterrier, Matthew N Rasband
Axons must withstand mechanical forces including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, since spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038240/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-forms-a-periodic-cytoskeleton-at-the-axon-initial-segment-and-is-required-for-nervous-system-function
#2
Claire Yu-Mei Huang, Chuansheng Zhang, Tammy Szu-Yu Ho, Juan Oses-Prieto, Alma L Burlingame, Joshua Lalonde, Jeffrey L Noebels, Christophe Leterrier, Matthew N Rasband
Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and super-resolution microscopy we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021705/global-analysis-of-ginsenoside-rg1-protective-effects-in-%C3%AE-amyloid-treated-neuronal-cells
#3
Ji Seon Shim, Min-Young Song, Sung-Vin Yim, Seung-Eun Lee, Kang-Sik Park
BACKGROUND: A number of reports have described the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the protective mechanisms of Rg1 in AD remain elusive. METHODS: To investigate the potential mechanisms of Rg1 in β-amyloid peptide-treated SH-SY5Y cells, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture combined with nano-LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: We identified a total of 1,149 proteins in three independent experiments...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021345/direct-evidence-of-aplp1-trans-interactions-in-cell-cell-adhesion-platforms-investigated-via-fluorescence-fluctuation-spectroscopy
#4
Valentin Dunsing, Magnus Mayer, Filip Liebsch, Gerhard Multhaup, Salvatore Chiantia
The Amyloid-precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) is a type I transmembrane protein which plays a role in synaptic adhesion and synaptogenesis. Past investigations indicated that APLP1 is involved in the formation of protein-protein complexes that bridge the junctions between neighboring cells. Nevertheless, APLP1-APLP1 trans interactions have never been directly observed in higher eukaryotic cells. Here, we investigated APLP1 interactions and dynamics directly in living human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, namely cross-correlation scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (sFCS) and Number&Brightness (N&B)...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018403/repulsive-guidance-molecule-a-inhibits-angiogenesis-by-downregulating-vegf-and-phosphorylated-focal-adhesion-kinase-in-vitro
#5
Gang Zhang, Rong Wang, Ke Cheng, Qi Li, Yu Wang, Rongrong Zhang, Xinyue Qin
Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is a major neuron guidance factor in central nervous systems. We previously found that inhibition of RGMa could greatly enhance neural function rehabilitation in rats after MCAO/reperfusion. Neuron guidance factors are often regulators of angiogenesis. However, the effect of RGMa on angiogenesis and its mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we investigated the effect of RGMa on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, tube formation, and cytoskeleton reassembly...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980356/remapping-the-microtubule-landscape-how-phosphorylation-dictates-the-activities-of-microtubule-associated-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Amrita Ramkumar, Brigette Y Jong, Kassandra M Ori-McKenney
Classical microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) were originally identified based on their co-purification with microtubules assembled from mammalian brain lysate. They have since been found to perform a range of functions involved in regulating the dynamics of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Most of these MAPs play integral roles in microtubule organization during neuronal development, microtubule remodeling during neuronal activity, and microtubule stabilization during neuronal maintenance. As a result, mutations in MAPs contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases...
October 4, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979192/arc-interacts-with-the-integral-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-calnexin
#7
Craig Myrum, Jonathan Soulé, Margarethe Bittins, Kyle Cavagnini, Kevin Goff, Silje K Ziemek, Maria S Eriksen, Sudarshan Patil, Adrian Szum, Rajeevkumar R Nair, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc, is a major regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Here we reveal a novel interaction partner of Arc, a resident endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein, calnexin. We show an interaction between recombinantly-expressed GST-tagged Arc and endogenous calnexin in HEK293, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and PC12 cells. The interaction was dependent on the central linker region of the Arc protein that is also required for endocytosis of AMPA-type glutamate receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978487/mutations-in-membrin-gosr2-reveal-stringent-secretory-pathway-demands-of-dendritic-growth-and-synaptic-integrity
#8
Roman Praschberger, Simon A Lowe, Nancy T Malintan, Carlo N G Giachello, Nian Patel, Henry Houlden, Dimitri M Kullmann, Richard A Baines, Maria M Usowicz, Shyam S Krishnakumar, James J L Hodge, James E Rothman, James E C Jepson
Mutations in the Golgi SNARE (SNAP [soluble NSF attachment protein] receptor) protein Membrin (encoded by the GOSR2 gene) cause progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Membrin is a ubiquitous and essential protein mediating ER-to-Golgi membrane fusion. Thus, it is unclear how mutations in Membrin result in a disorder restricted to the nervous system. Here, we use a multi-layered strategy to elucidate the consequences of Membrin mutations from protein to neuron. We show that the pathogenic mutations cause partial reductions in SNARE-mediated membrane fusion...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978447/acetylated-microtubules-are-preferentially-bundled-leading-to-enhanced-kinesin-1-motility
#9
Linda Balabanian, Christopher L Berger, Adam G Hendricks
The motor proteins kinesin and dynein transport organelles, mRNA, proteins, and signaling molecules along the microtubule cytoskeleton. In addition to serving as tracks for transport, the microtubule cytoskeleton directs intracellular trafficking by regulating the activity of motor proteins through the organization of the filament network, microtubule-associated proteins, and tubulin posttranslational modifications. However, it is not well understood how these factors influence motor motility, and in vitro assays and live cell observations often produce disparate results...
October 3, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974382/dual-effect-of-serotonin-on-the-dendritic-growth-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-involvement-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht7-receptors
#10
P S Rojas, F Aguayo, D Neira, M Tejos, E Aliaga, J P Muñoz, C S Parra, J L Fiedler
Serotonin acts through its receptors (5-HTRs) to shape brain networks during development and modulates essential functions in mature brain. The 5-HT1AR is mainly located at soma of hippocampal neurons early during brain development and its expression gradually shifts to dendrites during postnatal development. The 5-HT7R expressed early during hippocampus development, shows a progressive reduction in its expression postnatally. Considering these changes during development, we evaluated in cultured hippocampal neurons whether the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R change their expression, modulate dendritic growth, and activate signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, AKT/GSK3β and LIMK/cofilin, which may sustain dendrite outgrowth by controlling cytoskeleton dynamics...
September 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964772/prion-like-transmission-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-in-the-context-of-an-nfl-null-background
#11
Nicola J Rutherford, Mieu Brooks, Cara J Riffe, Kimberly-Marie M Gorion, Jasie K Howard, Jess-Karan S Dhillon, Benoit I Giasson
Neurofilaments are a major component of the axonal cytoskeleton in neurons and have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases due to their presence within characteristic pathological inclusions. Their contributions to these diseases are not yet fully understood, but previous studies investigated the effects of ablating the obligate subunit of neurofilaments, low molecular mass neurofilament subunit (NFL), on disease phenotypes in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and tauopathy. Here, we tested the effects of ablating NFL in α-synuclein M83 transgenic mice expressing the human pathogenic A53T mutation, by breeding them onto an NFL null background...
September 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962923/vesicular-movements-in-the-growth-cone
#12
REVIEW
Motohiro Nozumi, Michihiro Igarashi
Growth cones, which are the highly motile tips of extending neuronal processes in developing neurons, have many vesicles. These vesicles are likely essential for the membrane expansion that is required for nerve growth, and probably coordinate with rearrangement of the cytoskeletons. Such mechanisms are poorly understood from molecular and cell biological aspects. Recently, we used superresolution microscopic approaches and described new mechanisms that are involved in the interaction between the vesicles and F-actin in the leading edge of the peripheral domain...
September 26, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959054/highly-diversified-expansions-shaped-the-evolution-of-membrane-bound-proteins-in-metazoans
#13
Misty M Attwood, Arunkumar Krishnan, Markus Sällman Almén, Helgi B Schiöth
The dramatic increase in membrane proteome complexity is arguably one of the most pivotal evolutionary events that underpins the origin of multicellular animals. However, the origin of a significant number of membrane families involved in metazoan development has not been clarified. In this study, we have manually curated the membrane proteomes of 22 metazoan and 2 unicellular holozoan species. We identify 123,014 membrane proteins in these 24 eukaryotic species and classify 86% of the dataset. We determine 604 functional clusters that are present from the last holozoan common ancestor (LHCA) through many metazoan species...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947862/a-review-on-eph-ephrin-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-in-gastric-colorectal-and-pancreatic-cancers
#14
Julia Rudno-Rudzińska, Wojciech Kielan, Ewelina Frejlich, Krzysztof Kotulski, Wojciech Hap, Krzysztof Kurnol, Przemysław Dzierżek, Marcin Zawadzki, Agnieszka Hałoń
Erythroprotein-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma receptors (Eph receptors) compose a subfamily of transmembrane protein-tyrosine kinases receptors that takes part in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Eph family receptor-interacting proteins (Ephrins) are ligands for those receptors. Eph/ephrin system is responsible for the cytoskeleton activity, cell adhesion, intercellular connection, cellular shape as well as cell motility. It affects neuron development and functioning, bone and glucose homeostasis, immune system and correct function of enterocytes...
August 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941704/mir-194-is-involved-in-morphogenesis-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-inner-ear-by-rearranging-actin-cytoskeleton-via-targeting-rhob
#15
Jintao Du, Xuemei Zhang, Hui Cao, Di Jiang, Xianren Wang, Wei Zhou, Kaitian Chen, Jiao Zhou, Hongyan Jiang, Luo Ba
Many microRNAs participate in the development, differentiation and function preservation of the embryonic and adult inner ear, but many details still need to be elucidated regarding the numerous microRNAs in the inner ear. Based on previous investigations on the microRNA profile in the inner ear, we confirmed that several microRNAs are expressed in the inner ear, and we detected the spatial expression of these microRNAs in the neonatal mouse inner ear. Then we focused on miR-194 for its specific expression with a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern during inner ear development...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936781/coordinate-expression-of-pan-neuronal-and-functional-signature-genes-in-sympathetic-neurons
#16
U Ernsberger, M Kramer, K Tsarovina, T Deller, H Rohrer
Neuron subtypes of the mature nervous system differ in the expression of characteristic marker genes while they share the expression of generic neuronal genes. The regulatory logic that maintains subtype-specific and pan-neuronal genes is not well understood. To begin to address this issue, we analyze RNA sequencing results from whole sympathetic ganglia and single sympathetic neurons in the mouse. We focus on gene products involved in the neuronal cytoskeleton, neurotransmitter synthesis and storage, transmitter release and reception and electrical information processing...
November 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932862/tailored-release-of-triiodothyronine-and-retinoic-acid-from-a-spatio-temporally-fabricated-nanofiber-composite-instigating-neuronal-differentiation
#17
Aishwarya Satish, Purna Sai Korrapati
Regeneration of the central and peripheral nervous system is challenging since the functional restoration of injured nerves is an incredible task. The fabrication of an ideal nerve guide that fulfills the requirement to regenerate nerve tissue is a herculean challenge requiring a combination of both biochemical and topographical cues. The present study explores the combinatorial effect of aligned nanofibers and the regulated delivery of triiodothyronine and retinoic acid on nerve regeneration. A sequential release mechanism is adopted in fabricating the nanofiber scaffold, with triiodothyronine incorporated into the nanofiber shell ensuring its prior release, followed by retinoic acid (entrapped within zein nanoparticles) from the core...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#18
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916625/transcriptional-correlates-of-memory-maintenance-following-long-term-sensitization-of-aplysia-californica
#19
Catherine Conte, Samantha Herdegen, Saman Kamal, Jency Patel, Ushma Patel, Leticia Perez, Marissa Rivota, Robert J Calin-Jageman, Irina E Calin-Jageman
We characterized the transcriptional response accompanying maintenance of long-term sensitization (LTS) memory in the pleural ganglia of Aplysia californica using microarray (N = 8) and qPCR (N = 11 additional samples). We found that 24 h after memory induction there is strong regulation of 1198 transcripts (748 up and 450 down) in a pattern that is almost completely distinct from what is observed during memory encoding (1 h after training). There is widespread up-regulation of transcripts related to all levels of protein production, from transcription (e...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912677/reversible-axonal-dystrophy-by-calcium-modulation-in-frataxin-deficient-sensory-neurons-of-yg8r-mice
#20
Belén Mollá, Diana C Muñoz-Lasso, Fátima Riveiro, Arantxa Bolinches-Amorós, Federico V Pallardó, Angel Fernandez-Vilata, María de la Iglesia-Vaya, Francesc Palau, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a peripheral neuropathy involving a loss of proprioceptive sensory neurons. Studies of biopsies from patients suggest that axonal dysfunction precedes the death of proprioceptive neurons in a dying-back process. We observed that the deficiency of frataxin in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the YG8R mouse model causes the formation of axonal spheroids which retain dysfunctional mitochondria, shows alterations in the cytoskeleton and it produces impairment of axonal transport and autophagic flux...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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