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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#1
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#2
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624537/visualizing-rna-granule-transport-and-translation-in-living-neurons
#3
REVIEW
Karl E Bauer, Michael A Kiebler, Inmaculada Segura
In polarized cells, such as neurons, the synthesis of an mRNA does not ensure its proper cellular expression. Most mature transcripts require the association with RNA-binding proteins, resulting in the formation of RNA granules, which are then transported within the cytoplasm along the cytoskeleton and delivered to their proper subcellular locations, where they can be locally translated. Here we review current microscopy methods that have been developed to visualize RNA granule formation, transport and translation at the single cell level with a special emphasis on the MS2 and SunTag systems...
June 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620580/the-human-nadph-oxidase-nox4-regulates-cytoskeletal-organization-in-two-cancer-cell-lines-hepg2-and-sh-sy5y
#4
Simon Auer, Mark Rinnerthaler, Johannes Bischof, Maria Karolin Streubel, Hannelore Breitenbach-Koller, Roland Geisberger, Elmar Aigner, Janne Cadamuro, Klaus Richter, Mentor Sopjani, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Thomas Klaus Felder, Michael Breitenbach
NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase), where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606990/the-formin-daam-is-required-for-coordination-of-the-actin-and-microtubule-cytoskeleton-in-axonal-growth-cones
#5
Szilárd Szikora, István Földi, Krisztina Tóth, Ede Migh, Andrea Vig, Beáta Bugyi, József Maléth, Péter Hegyi, Péter Kaltenecker, Natalia Sanchez-Soriano, József Mihály
Directed axonal growth depends on proper coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in the growth cone. However, despite the relatively large number of proteins implicated in actin-microtubule cross-talk, the mechanisms whereby actin polymerization is coupled to microtubule stabilization and advancement in the peripheral growth cone remained largely unclear. Here we identified the formin DAAM as a novel factor playing a role in concerted regulation of actin and microtubule remodeling in Drosophila primary neurons...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605648/impacts-of-triclosan-exposure-on-zebrafish-early-life-stage-toxicity-and-acclimation-mechanisms
#6
Falisse Elodie, Voisin Anne-Sophie, Silvestre Frédéric
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products and present in most aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the occurrence of triclosan acclimation and the biological mechanisms underlying the stress response triggered in early-life stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish eggs were first exposed to four different sublethal concentrations of TCS (2, 20, 50 and 100μg/L) for 7days following fertilization and subsequently exposed to a lethal concentration of TCS (1000μg/L)...
June 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595357/the-alzheimer-s-disease-transcriptome-mimics-the-neuroprotective-signature-of-igf-1-receptor-deficient-neurons
#7
Caroline George, Géraldine Gontier, Philippe Lacube, Jean-Christophe François, Martin Holzenberger, Saba Aïd
Seminal studies using post-mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease evidenced aberrant insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signalling. Addressing causality, work in animal models recently demonstrated that long-term suppression of IGF1R signalling alleviates Alzheimer's disease progression and promotes neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we showed that genetically ablating IGF1R in neurons of the ageing brain efficiently protects from neuroinflammation, anxiety and memory impairments induced by intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid-β oligomers...
June 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588454/reelin-signaling-inactivates-cofilin-to-stabilize-the-cytoskeleton-of-migrating-cortical-neurons
#8
REVIEW
Michael Frotscher, Shanting Zhao, Shaobo Wang, Xuejun Chai
Neurons are highly polarized cells. They give rise to several dendrites but only one axon. In addition, many neurons show a preferred orientation. For example, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex extend their apical dendrites toward the cortical surface while their axons run in opposite direction toward the white matter. This characteristic orientation reflects the migratory trajectory of a pyramidal cell during cortical development: the leading process (the future apical dendrite) extends toward the marginal zone (MZ) and the trailing process (the future axon) toward the intermediate zone (IZ) while the cells migrate radially to reach their destination in the cortical plate (CP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583862/recovery-of-glomerular-morphology-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-young-mice-after-disruption-caused-by-continuous-odorant-exposure
#9
Fernanda Monjaraz-Fuentes, Diana Millán-Adalco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Robyn Hudson, René Drucker-Colín
Olfactory glomeruli are the first synaptic site of the olfactory system and are formed by the convergence of axons of the same type of sensory neurons onto the olfactory bulbs of the brain. Although the anatomical organization of glomeruli is conserved across species, their particular role in olfactory processing remains uncertain. We studied the composition and maintenance of glomeruli by means of a genetic model, mI7-IRES-tauGFP knock-in young mice, where the cytoskeleton of sensory neurons expressing the mI7 olfactory receptor is tagged with green fluorescent protein...
June 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573459/cytoskeleton-associated-risk-modifiers-involved-in-early-and-rapid-progression-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#10
Saima Zafar, Neelam Younas, Nadeem Sheikh, Waqas Tahir, Mohsin Shafiq, Matthias Schmitz, Isidre Ferrer, Olivier Andréoletti, Inga Zerr
A high priority in the prion field is to identify pre-symptomatic events and associated profile of molecular changes. In this study, we demonstrate the pre-symptomatic dysregulation of cytoskeleton assembly and its associated cofilin-1 pathway in strain and brain region-specific manners in MM1 and VV2 subtype-specific Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at clinical and pre-clinical stage. At physiological level, PrP(C) interaction with cofilin-1 and phosphorylated form of cofilin (p-cofilin(Ser3)) was investigated in primary cultures of mouse cortex neurons (PCNs) of PrP(C) wild-type and knockout mice (PrP(-/-))...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572759/dendritic-actin-cytoskeleton-structure-functions-and-regulations
#11
REVIEW
Anja Konietzny, Julia Bär, Marina Mikhaylova
Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin) that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555078/tau-dependent-suppression-of-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-stressed-hippocampus
#12
C Dioli, P Patrício, R Trindade, L G Pinto, J M Silva, M Morais, E Ferreiro, S Borges, A Mateus-Pinheiro, A J Rodrigues, N Sousa, J M Bessa, L Pinto, I Sotiropoulos
Stress, a well-known sculptor of brain plasticity, is shown to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain; yet, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly investigated. Previous studies have shown that chronic stress triggers hyperphosphorylation and accumulation of the cytoskeletal protein Tau, a process that may impair the cytoskeleton-regulating role(s) of this protein with impact on neuronal function. Here, we analyzed the role of Tau on stress-driven suppression of neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) using animals lacking Tau (Tau-knockout; Tau-KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544479/drinking-problems-mechanisms-of-macropinosome-formation-and-maturation
#13
REVIEW
Catherine M Buckley, Jason S King
Macropinocytosis is a mechanism for the non-specific bulk uptake and internalisation of extracellular fluid. This plays specific and distinct roles in diverse cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells and neurons, by allowing cells to sample their environment, extract extracellular nutrients and regulate plasma membrane turnover. Macropinocytosis has recently been implicated in several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. Uptake by macropinocytosis is also exploited by several intracellular pathogens to gain entry into host cells...
May 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536506/axonal-membranes-and-their-domains-assembly-and-function-of-the-axon-initial-segment-and-node-of-ranvier
#14
REVIEW
Andrew D Nelson, Paul M Jenkins
Neurons are highly specialized cells of the nervous system that receive, process and transmit electrical signals critical for normal brain function. Here, we review the intricate organization of axonal membrane domains that facilitate rapid action potential conduction underlying communication between complex neuronal circuits. Two critical excitable domains of vertebrate axons are the axon initial segment (AIS) and the nodes of Ranvier, which are characterized by the high concentrations of voltage-gated ion channels, cell adhesion molecules and specialized cytoskeletal networks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516224/psychiatric-behaviors-associated-with-cytoskeletal-defects-in-radial-neuronal-migration
#15
REVIEW
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi
Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders...
May 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506438/prion-like-spreading-in-tauopathies
#16
REVIEW
Jacob I Ayers, Benoit I Giasson, David R Borchelt
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that functions in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics, especially in neurons. Misfolded and aggregated forms of tau produce pathological structures in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tauopathy dementias. These disorders can present with a sporadic etiology, such as in AD, or a familial etiology, such as in some cases of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism. Notably, the pathological features of tau pathology in these diseases can be very distinct...
April 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505103/neuronal-migration-and-auts2-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Kei Hori, Mikio Hoshino
Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal migration causes mental dysfunction. Recently, a key gene for various psychiatric diseases, the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), has been shown to regulate neuronal migration, which gives new insight into understanding this question...
May 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503382/poly-adp-ribosylation-is-present-in-murine-sciatic-nerve-fibers-and-is-altered-in-a-charcot-marie-tooth-1e-neurodegenerative-model
#18
Laura I Lafon Hughes, Carlos J Romeo Cardeillac, Karina B Cal Castillo, Salomé C Vilchez Larrea, José R Sotelo Sosa, Gustavo A Folle Ungo, Silvia H Fernández Villamil, Alejandra E Kun González
BACKGROUND: Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) as a postranslational protein modification and catabolized mainly by poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). In spite of the existence of cytoplasmic PARPs and PARG, research has been focused on nuclear PARPs and PAR, demonstrating roles in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and the participation in DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation. We have recently detected non-nuclear PAR structurally and functionally associated to the E-cadherin rich zonula adherens and the actin cytoskeleton of VERO epithelial cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502042/tale-of-the-good-and-the-bad-cdk5-remodeling-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-the-brain
#19
REVIEW
Kavita Shah, Sandra Rossie
Cdk5 kinase, a cyclin-dependent kinase family member, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling in the brain. Cdk5 is essential for brain development during embryogenesis. After birth, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes such as learning and memory formation, drug addiction, pain signaling, and long-term behavior changes, all of which rely on rapid alterations in the cytoskeleton. Cdk5 activity is deregulated in various brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke, resulting in profound remodeling of the neuronal cytoskeleton, loss of synapses, and ultimately neurodegeneration...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500272/probing-the-lithium-response-pathway-in-hipscs-implicates-the-phosphoregulatory-set-point-for-a-cytoskeletal-modulator-in-bipolar-pathogenesis
#20
Brian T D Tobe, Andrew M Crain, Alicia M Winquist, Barbara Calabrese, Hiroko Makihara, Wen-Ning Zhao, Jasmin Lalonde, Haruko Nakamura, Glenn Konopaske, Michelle Sidor, Cameron D Pernia, Naoya Yamashita, Moyuka Wada, Yuuka Inoue, Fumio Nakamura, Steven D Sheridan, Ryan W Logan, Michael Brandel, Dongmei Wu, Joshua Hunsberger, Laurel Dorsett, Cordulla Duerr, Ranor C B Basa, Michael J McCarthy, Namrata D Udeshi, Philipp Mertins, Steven A Carr, Guy A Rouleau, Lina Mastrangelo, Jianxue Li, Gustavo J Gutierrez, Laurence M Brill, Nikolaos Venizelos, Guang Chen, Jeffrey S Nye, Husseini Manji, Jeffrey H Price, Colleen A McClung, Hagop S Akiskal, Martin Alda, De-Maw M Chuang, Joseph T Coyle, Yang Liu, Yang D Teng, Toshio Ohshima, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Richard L Sidman, Shelley Halpain, Stephen J Haggarty, Yoshio Goshima, Evan Y Snyder
The molecular pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel such mechanisms in polygenic diseases is generally challenging. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's target and hence gain molecular insight into BPD. By profiling the proteomics of BDP-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2)...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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