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Neuron cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337305/rho-kinase-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-hippocampal-neurons-via-calcium-dependent-cytoskeleton-regulation
#1
Zhisheng Ji, Zhenbin Cai, Jifeng Zhang, Nannuan Liu, Jing Chen, Minghui Tan, Hongsheng Lin, Guoqing Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether calcium is involved in downstream signal transduction in neurite outgrowth regulated by Rho kinase. METHODS: In vitro primary hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with Rho kinase agonist (LPA) or antagonist (Y-27632). Then, the cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth were observed. After addition of calcium antagonist BAPTA/AM to reduce intracellular calcium, the cytoskeleton distribution and neurite outgrowth were observed...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334785/amino-acid-substitution-equivalent-to-human-chorea-acanthocytosis-i2771r-in-yeast-vps13-protein-affects-its-binding-to-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate
#2
Weronika Rzepnikowska, Krzysztof Flis, Joanna Kaminska, Marcin Grynberg, Agnieszka Urbanek, Kathryn R Ayscough, Teresa Zoladek
The rare human disorder chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is caused by mutations in hVPS13A gene. The hVps13A protein interacts with actin and regulates the level of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in the membranes of neuronal cells. Yeast Vps13 is involved in vacuolar protein transport and, like hVps13A, participates in PI4P metabolism. Vps13 proteins are conserved in eukaryotes, but their molecular function remains unknown. One of the mutations found in ChAc patients causes amino acids substitution I2771R which affects the localization of hVps13A in skeletal muscles...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323401/zinc-and-copper-effects-on-stability-of-tubulin-and-actin-networks-in-dendrites-and-spines-of-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Laura Perrin, Stephane Roudeau, Asuncion Carmona, Florelle Domart, Jennifer D Petersen, Sylvain Bohic, Yang Yang, Peter Cloetens, Richard Ortega
Zinc and copper ions can modulate the activity of glutamate-receptors. However, labile zinc and copper ions likely represent only the tip of the iceberg and other neuronal functions are suspected for these metals in their bound state. We performed synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging with 30 nm resolution to image total biometals in dendrites and spines from hippocampal neurons. We found that zinc is distributed all along the dendrites while copper is mainly pinpointed within the spines. In spines, zinc content is higher within the spine head while copper is higher within the spine neck...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#4
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315956/axonal-transport-deficits-in-multiple-sclerosis-spiraling-into-the-abyss
#5
REVIEW
Robert van den Berg, Casper C Hoogenraad, Rogier Q Hintzen
The transport of mitochondria and other cellular components along the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton plays an essential role in neuronal survival. Defects in this system have been linked to a large number of neurological disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS) and associated models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), alterations in axonal transport have been shown to exist before neurodegeneration occurs. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have linked several motor proteins to MS susceptibility, while neuropathological studies have shown accumulations of proteins and organelles suggestive for transport deficits...
March 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299574/physiological-and-pathological-roles-of-15-deoxy-%C3%AE-12-14-prostaglandin-j2-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-neurological-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Tatsurou Yagami, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Hiromi Koma
Prostaglandins (PGs) are divided into conventional PGs, e.g., PGD2, and cyclopentenone-type PGs, e.g., 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). PGD2 is non-enzymatically metabolized to PGJ2, Δ(12)-PGJ2, and 15d-PGJ2. In the central nervous system, 15d-PGJ2 differentiates embryonic midbrain cells into dopaminergic neuronal cells via its nuclear peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). 15d-PGJ2 exerts conflict actions: proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities. In the brain, 15d-PGJ2 possesses opposite functions as a neuroprotectant at low concentrations and a neurotoxicant at high concentrations in the brain...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298410/fus-inclusions-disrupt-rna-localization-by-sequestering-kinesin-1-and-inhibiting-microtubule-detyrosination
#7
Kyota Yasuda, Sarah F Clatterbuck-Soper, Meredith E Jackrel, James Shorter, Stavroula Mili
Cytoplasmic inclusions of the RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) represent one type of membraneless ribonucleoprotein compartment. Formation of FUS inclusions is promoted by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations, but the cellular functions affected upon inclusion formation are poorly defined. In this study, we find that FUS inclusions lead to the mislocalization of specific RNAs from fibroblast cell protrusions and neuronal axons. This is mediated by recruitment of kinesin-1 mRNA and protein within FUS inclusions, leading to a loss of detyrosinated glutamate (Glu)-microtubules (MTs; Glu-MTs) and an inability to support the localization of RNAs at protrusions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296067/rna-binding-proteins-of-the-nxf-nuclear-export-factor-family-and-their-connection-with-the-cytoskeleton
#8
REVIEW
L A Mamon, V R Ginanova, S F Kliver, A O Yakimova, A A Atsapkina, E V Golubkova
The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor)...
March 13, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293820/crosstalk-of-cell-polarity-signaling-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Tomáš Mazel
Cell polarity, the asymmetric organization of cellular components along one or multiple axes, is present in most cells. From budding yeast cell polarization induced by pheromone signaling, oocyte polarization at fertilization to polarized epithelia and neuronal cells in multicellular organisms, similar mechanisms are used to determine cell polarity. Crucial role in this process is played by signaling lipid molecules, small Rho family GTPases and Par proteins. All these signaling circuits finally govern the cytoskeleton, which is responsible for oriented cell migration, cell shape changes, and polarized membrane and organelle trafficking...
March 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286248/cell-migration-in-schizophrenia-patient-derived-cells-do-not-regulate-motility-in-response-to-extracellular-matrix
#10
Jing Yang Tee, Ratneswary Sutharsan, Yongjun Fan, Alan Mackay-Sim
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder linked to a large number of risk genes. The function of these genes in disease etiology is not fully understood but pathway analyses of genomic data suggest developmental dysregulation of cellular processes such as neuronal migration and axon guidance. Previous studies of patient-derived olfactory cells show them to be more motile than control-derived cells when grown on a fibronectin substrate, motility that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase signaling...
March 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285824/clasp2-links-reelin-to-the-cytoskeleton-during-neocortical-development
#11
Gregory M Dillon, William A Tyler, Kerilyn C Omuro, John Kambouris, Camila Tyminski, Shawna Henry, Tarik F Haydar, Uwe Beffert, Angela Ho
The Reelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating neocortical development. However, little is known about how Reelin controls the cytoskeleton during neuronal migration. Here, we identify CLASP2 as a key cytoskeletal effector in the Reelin signaling pathway. We demonstrate that CLASP2 has distinct roles during neocortical development regulating neuron production and controlling neuron migration, polarity, and morphogenesis. We found downregulation of CLASP2 in migrating neurons leads to mislocalized cells in deeper cortical layers, abnormal positioning of the centrosome-Golgi complex, and aberrant length/orientation of the leading process...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284467/moonlighting-motors-kinesin-dynein-and-cell-polarity
#12
REVIEW
Wen Lu, Vladimir I Gelfand
In addition to their well-known role in transporting cargoes in the cytoplasm, microtubule motors organize their own tracks - the microtubules. While this function is mostly studied in the context of cell division, it is essential for microtubule organization and generation of cell polarity in interphase cells. Kinesin-1, the most abundant microtubule motor, plays a role in the initial formation of neurites. This review describes the mechanism of kinesin-1-driven microtubule sliding and discusses its biological significance in neurons...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268126/actin-based-growth-cone-motility-and-guidance
#13
REVIEW
Omotola F Omotade, Stephanie L Pollitt, James Q Zheng
Nerve growth cones, the dilated tip of developing axons, are equipped with exquisite abilities to sense environmental cues and to move rapidly through complex terrains of developing brain, leading the axons to their specific targets for precise neuronal wiring. The actin cytoskeleton is the major component of the growth cone that powers its directional motility. Past research has provided significant insights into the mechanisms by which growth cones translate extracellular signals into directional migration...
March 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265560/functional-redundancy-of-septin-homologs-in-dendritic-branching
#14
Charlotte Kaplan, Mayra Steinmann, Natalia A Zapiorkowska, Helge Ewers
Septins are cytoskeletal GTPases present in nonpolar heteromeric complexes that assemble in a palindromic fashion from two to eight subunits. Mammalian septins function in several fundamental cellular processes at the membrane-cytoskeleton interface including dendritic branching in neurons. Sequence homology divides the 13 mammalian septin genes into four homology groups. Experimental findings suggest that septin function is redundant among septins from one homology group. This is best understood for the isoforms of the SEPT2 group, which form a homodimer at the center of septin complexes...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265338/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-brazilian-green-propolis-on-neurodegenerative-damage-in-human-neuronal-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
Junjun Ni, Zhou Wu, Jie Meng, Aiqin Zhu, Xin Zhong, Shizheng Wu, Hiroshi Nakanishi
Oxidative stress and synapse dysfunction are the major neurodegenerative damage correlated to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have found that Brazilian green propolis (propolis) improves the cognitive functions of mild cognitive impairment patients living at high altitude; however, mechanism underlying the effects of propolis is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propolis on oxidative stress, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), the critical factors of synapse efficacy, using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255385/reelin-and-its-receptors-vldlr-and-apoer2-in-melanocytic-nevi
#16
A Mihail, G Coman, F Staniceanu, L Coman, S Zurac, O A Coman
Reelin is an extracellular signaling protein synthesized by Cajal-Retius cells in utero and early after birth, its presence being signaled in adult life too. Reelin acts on its receptors, VLDLR and ApoER2, acting on cytoskeleton, controlling migration and subsequently positioning and stabilizing the cortical neurons. We investigated the reelin presence and its receptors, VLDLR and ApoER2, in melanocytic nevi considering the neural crest origin of the nevus cells and their migration into skin during embrionary period...
January 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246185/polarized-exocytosis
#17
Jingwen Zeng, Shanshan Feng, Bin Wu, Wei Guo
Polarized exocytosis is generally considered as the multistep vesicular trafficking process in which membrane-bounded carriers are transported from the Golgi or endosomal compartments to specific sites of the plasma membrane. Polarized exocytosis in cells is achieved through the coordinated actions of membrane trafficking machinery and cytoskeleton orchestrated by signaling molecules such as the Rho family of small GTPases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of polarized exocytosis is essential to our understanding of a wide range of pathophysiological processes from neuronal development to tumor invasion...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243821/the-impact-of-short-and-long-term-exercise-on-the-expression-of-arc-and-ampars-during-evolution-of-the-6-hydroxy-dopamine-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
P C Garcia, C C Real, L R Britto
The loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons typical in Parkinson's disease (PD) is responsible for hyperexcitability of medium spiny neurons resulting in abnormal corticostriatal glutamatergic synaptic drive. Considering the neuroprotective effect of exercise, the changes promoted by exercise on AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), and the role of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the AMPARs trafficking, we studied the impact of short and long-term treadmill exercise during evolution of the unilateral 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241067/cyclin-y-mediated-transcript-profiling-reveals-several-important-functional-pathways-regulated-by-cyclin-y-in-hippocampal-neurons
#19
I-Seul Joe, Jong-Hwan Kim, Hanna Kim, Jung-Hwa Hong, Mirang Kim, Mikyoung Park
Cyclin Y (CCNY), which is a cyclin protein known to play a role in cell division, is unexpectedly and thus interestingly expressed in non-proliferating neuronal cells. There have been only a few studies reporting the neuronal functions of CCNY in synapse remodeling and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Therefore, we here provide global and comprehensive information on the putative functions of CCNY in biological and functional pathways in neuronal systems. We adopted high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology for analyzing transcriptomes regulated by CCNY and utilized bioinformatics for identifying putative molecules, biological processes, and functional pathways that are possibly connected to CCNY functions in hippocampal neuronal cells of rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238949/defective-axonal-transport-a-common-pathological-mechanism-in-inherited-and-acquired-peripheral-neuropathies
#20
Robert Prior, Lawrence Van Helleputte, Veronick Benoy, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Peripheral neuropathies are characterized by a progressive and length-dependent loss of peripheral nerve function. This can be caused either by genetic defects, classified as 'inherited peripheral neuropathies', or they can be acquired throughout life. In that case, the disease is caused by various insults such as toxins and mechanical injuries, or it can arise secondary to medical conditions such as metabolic disorders, nutritional deficiencies, inflammation and infections. Peripheral neuropathies are not only very heterogeneous in etiology, but also in their pathology and clinical presentation...
February 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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