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Neuron cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221909/maintaining-the-active-zone-demand-supply-and-disposal-of-core-active-zone-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Noam E Ziv
Chemical synapses are sites of cell-cell contact specialized for transmission of signals between neurons and their respective targets. Neurotransmission occurs through the secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized presynaptic membrane regions known as Active Zones (AZs). AZ composition and function are now characterized quite well. Much less is known, however, on the manners by which these unique specializations are maintained for weeks, months, and presumably years. Here we focus on core AZ components that make up the Cytoskeleton associated with the AZ (CAZ) - their lifetimes, their supply and their disposal...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208348/nuclear-migration-in-mammalian-brain-development
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Bertipaglia, João Carlos Gonçalves, Richard Bert Vallee
During development of the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide and give rise to adult stem cells, glia and neurons, which migrate to their final locations. Nuclear migration is an important feature of neural stem cell (radial glia progenitor) proliferation and subsequent postmitotic neuronal migration. Defects in nuclear migration contribute to severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly and lissencephaly. In this review, we address the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nuclear migration during the radial glia cell cycle and postmitotic neuronal migration, with a particular focus on the role of molecular motors and cytoskeleton dynamics in regulating nuclear behavior...
December 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207487/diffuse-axonal-injury-and-oxidative-stress-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro Frati, Daniela Cerretani, Anna Ida Fiaschi, Paola Frati, Vittorio Gatto, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Pesce, Enrica Pinchi, Alessandro Santurro, Flavia Fraschetti, Vittorio Fineschi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the world's leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. TBI applies powerful rotational and translational forces to the brain parenchyma, which results in a traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) responsible for brain swelling and neuronal death. Following TBI, axonal degeneration has been identified as a progressive process that starts with disrupted axonal transport causing axonal swelling, followed by secondary axonal disconnection and Wallerian degeneration...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198755/differentiation-between-oppositely-oriented-microtubules-controls-polarized-neuronal-transport
#4
Roderick P Tas, Anaël Chazeau, Bas M C Cloin, Maaike L A Lambers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Lukas C Kapitein
Microtubules are essential for polarized transport in neurons, but how their organization guides motor proteins to axons or dendrites is unclear. Because different motors recognize distinct microtubule properties, we used optical nanoscopy to examine the relationship between microtubule orientations, stability, and modifications. Nanometric tracking of motors to super-resolve microtubules and determine their polarity revealed that in dendrites, stable and acetylated microtubules are mostly oriented minus-end out, while dynamic and tyrosinated microtubules are oriented oppositely...
November 28, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197584/depletion-of-transglutaminase-2-in-neurons-alters-expression-of-extracellular-matrix-and-signal-transduction-genes-and-compromises-cell-viability
#5
Laura Yunes-Medina, Alex Paciorkowski, Yan Nuzbrokh, Gail V W Johnson
The protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been implicated as a modulator of neuronal viability. TG2's role in mediating cell survival processes has been suggested to involve its ability to alter transcriptional events. The goal of this study was to examine the role of TG2 in neuronal survival and to begin to delineate the pathways it regulates. We show that depletion of TG2 significantly compromises the viability of neurons in the absence of any stressors. RNA sequencing revealed that depletion of TG2 dysregulated the expression of 86 genes with 59 of these being upregulated...
November 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196473/cell-scientist-to-watch-lukas-kapitein
#6
(no author information available yet)
Lukas Kapitein studied physics at the VU University in Amsterdam and graduated with a master's degree in experimental physics. He went on to do his PhD in the research groups of Christoph Schmidt and Erwin Peterman on the motility of mitotic kinesins, and in 2007, he won the biannual best thesis award from the Dutch society for Biophysics and Biomedical Technology. Lukas then joined the laboratory of Casper Hoogenraad at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam to work on the cytoskeleton and polarised cargo transport in neurons...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191370/linc-complexes-and-nuclear-positioning
#7
REVIEW
Yin Loon Lee, Brian Burke
One of the characteristics of eukaryotic cells is their structural plasticity associated with the ability to carry out a broad range of complex functions, both autonomously and as components of tissues and organs. Major cellular rearrangements can be observed in various systems from meiosis in fission yeast, through dermal differentiation in nematodes, to muscle and neuronal development in vertebrates. Each of these processes involves oftentimes dramatic relocation of the nucleus within the cell. During the last decade it has become apparent that the nuclear periphery represents a nexus of cytoskeletal interactions that are involved not only in nuclear movement but also in the distribution and dissemination of mechanical forces throughout the cell...
November 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187812/adrenomedullin-contributes-to-age-related-memory-loss-in-mice-and-is-elevated-in-aging-human-brains
#8
Ignacio M Larrayoz, Hilda Ferrero, Eva Martisova, Francisco J Gil-Bea, María J Ramírez, Alfredo Martínez
Memory decline is common in elderly individuals and is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory failure follows the loss of synaptic contacts in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, caused in part by cytoskeleton disruption. Adrenomedullin (AM) and its gene-related peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), are microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) whose expression has been identified as a potential biomarker for predicting progression from predementia to clinical AD. Here we analyze the connection between AM levels and memory preservation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186496/anterior-cingulate-cortex-tdp-43-pathology-in-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici
Neuronal constituents of the human anterior cingulate cortex displayed morphological changes related to the 43-kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) in advanced pathological stages of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS). By using nonphosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 immunocytochemistry, it was seen that the changes in susceptible pyramidal cells of the superficial cellular layers II-IIIab differed from those in the deep layers IIIc-Vb: A complete loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression (i...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174846/quantitative-proteomics-study-of-host-response-to-virulent-and-attenuated-pseudorabies-virus-infection-in-mouse-brain
#10
Hao-Long Zeng, Fei-Long Yu, Zhijian Zhang, Qing Yang, Jin Sen, Xiaobin He, Xi Chen, Ying Shen, Liming Cheng, Lin Guo, Fuqiang Xu
Bartha, the pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccine strain, is widely used in studies of neuronal circuit-tracing, due to its attenuated virulence and retrograde spreading. However, we know little regarding the molecular mechanisms of PRV infection and spreading between structurally connected neurons. In this study, we systematically analyzed the host brain proteomes after acute infection with PRV, attempting to identified the proteins involved in the processes. Mice were injected with PRV-Bartha and PRV-Becker (PRV-Bartha's wild-type parent strain) in the olfactory system, the proteomes of the brain and synaptosome were analyzed and compared at various infection intervals using mass spectrometry-based proteomics techniques...
November 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172947/crosstalk-between-wip-and-rho-family-gtpases
#11
Inés M Antón, Carla Gómez-Oro, Sergio Rivas, Francisco Wandosell
Through actin-binding proteins such as the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WASP-interacting protein (WIP), the Rho family GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 are major modulators of the cytoskeleton. (N-)WASP and WIP control Rho GTPase activity in various cell types, either by direct WIP/(N-)WASP/Cdc42 or potential WIP/RhoA binding, or through secondary links that regulate GTPase distribution and/or transcription levels. WIP helps to regulate filopodium generation and participates in the Rac1-mediated ruffle formation that determines cell motility...
November 26, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168207/abnormalities-in-interactions-of-rho-gtpases-with-scaffolding-proteins-contribute-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra Reichova, Martina Zatkova, Zuzana Bacova, Jan Bakos
Accumulating evidence suggests that Rho GTPases, together with scaffolding SHANK proteins, and associated signaling pathways play a role in the development of autism symptoms in various conditions. Research data have brought information on multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including Rho-associated protein kinases and serine/threonine-protein kinases involved in cytoskeleton rearranging. Alterations in downstream effectors of GTPase signaling pathways are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167405/the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-mediates-the-organization-of-microtubules-and-their-dynamic-exploration-of-actin-rich-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-of-cortical-growth-cones
#13
Sayantanee Biswas, Katherine Kalil
Proper organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton are essential for growth cone behaviors during axon growth and guidance. The microtubule associated protein tau is known to mediate actin/MT interactions in cell free systems but the role of tau in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in living neurons is unknown. We used cultures of cortical neurons from postnatal day 0 (P0)-P2 golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of either sex to study the role of tau in the organization and dynamics of the axonal growth cone cytoskeleton...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163025/bdnf-trkb-induction-of-calcium-transients-through-cav2-2-calcium-channels-in-motoneurons-corresponds-to-f-actin-assembly-and-growth-cone-formation-on-%C3%AE-2-chain-laminin-221
#14
Benjamin Dombert, Stefanie Balk, Patrick Lüningschrör, Mehri Moradi, Rajeeve Sivadasan, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Sibylle Jablonka
Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients and actin dynamics in primary motoneurons correspond to cellular differentiation such as axon elongation and growth cone formation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB support both motoneuron survival and synaptic differentiation. However, in motoneurons effects of BDNF/trkB signaling on spontaneous Ca(2+) influx and actin dynamics at axonal growth cones are not fully unraveled. In our study we addressed the question how neurotrophic factor signaling corresponds to cell autonomous excitability and growth cone formation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162704/tropomyosin-related-kinase-c-trkc-enhances-podocyte-migration-by-erk-mediated-wave2-activation
#15
Sascha Gromnitza, Carolin Lepa, Thomas Weide, Albrecht Schwab, Hermann Pavenstädt, Britta George
Podocyte malfunction is central to glomerular diseases and is marked by defective podocyte intercellular junctions and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Podocytes share many morphologic features with neurons, so that similar sets of proteins appear to regulate cell process formation. One such protein is the tropomyosin-related kinase C (TrkC). TrkC deficiency in mice leads to proteinuria as a surrogate of defective kidney filter function. Activation of endogenous TrkC by its ligand neurotrophin-3 resulted in increased podocyte migration-a surrogate of podocyte actin dynamics in vivo Employing a mutagenesis approach, we found that the Src homologous and collagen-like (Shc) binding site Tyr(516) within the TrkC cytoplasmic domain was necessary for TrkC-induced migration of podocytes...
November 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145435/functional-characterisation-of-filamentous-actin-probe-expression-in-neuronal-cells
#16
Shrujna Patel, Sandra Y Y Fok, Holly Stefen, Tamara Tomanić, Esmeralda Parić, Rosanna Herold, Merryn Brettle, Aleksandra Djordjevic, Thomas Fath
Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129728/paks-in-the-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Laura Civiero, Elisa Greggio
p21-Activated kinases (PAKs) comprise a family of proteins covering a central role in signal transduction. They are downstream effectors of Rho GTPases and can affect a variety of processes in different cell types and tissues by remodeling the cytoskeleton and by promoting gene transcription and cell survival. Given the relevance of cytoskeletal organization in neuronal development as well as synaptic function and the importance of pro-survival signals in controlling neuronal cell fate, accumulating studies investigated the role of PAKs in the nervous system...
November 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129529/profilin-directly-promotes-microtubule-growth-through-residues-mutated-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Jessica L Henty-Ridilla, M Angeles Juanes, Bruce L Goode
Profilin is an abundant actin monomer-binding protein with critical actin regulatory roles in vivo [1, 2]. However, profilin also influences microtubule dynamics in cells, which may be mediated in part through its interactions with formins that in turn bind microtubules [3, 4]. Specific residues on human profilin-1 (PFN1) are mutated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [5, 6]. However, the observation that some ALS-linked PFN1 mutants fail to alter cellular actin organization or dynamics [5-8] or in vitro actin-monomer affinity [9] has been perplexing, given that profilin is best understood as an actin regulator...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128904/pharmacological-rescue-of-hippocampal-fear-learning-deficits-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
Luis A Martinez, Maria Victoria Tejada-Simon
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability and results from loss of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In neurons, FMRP controls the translation of synaptic plasticity proteins that are implicated in learning and memory. FMRP also regulates development- and experience-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling within dendritic spines through the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Modulation of Rac1 activity is critical during synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103565/special-issue-on-cytoskeleton-dependent-regulation-of-neuronal-network-formation
#20
EDITORIAL
Thomas Fath, Alla S Kostyukova, Lisa Foa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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