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Transcription activator-like effectors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537271/tal-effector-driven-induction-of-a-sweet-gene-confers-susceptibility-to-bacterial-blight-of-cotton
#1
Kevin L Cox, Fanhong Meng, Katherine E Wilkins, Fangjun Li, Ping Wang, Nicholas J Booher, Sara C D Carpenter, Li-Qing Chen, Hui Zheng, Xiquan Gao, Yi Zheng, Zhangjun Fei, John Z Yu, Thomas Isakeit, Terry Wheeler, Wolf B Frommer, Ping He, Adam J Bogdanove, Libo Shan
Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum (Xcm) are essential for bacterial blight of cotton (BBC). Here, by combining transcriptome profiling with TAL effector-binding element (EBE) prediction, we show that GhSWEET10, encoding a functional sucrose transporter, is induced by Avrb6, a TAL effector determining Xcm pathogenicity. Activation of GhSWEET10 by designer TAL effectors (dTALEs) restores virulence of Xcm avrb6 deletion strains, whereas silencing of GhSWEET10 compromises cotton susceptibility to infections...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534435/genome-editing-technologies-and-patent-landscape-overview
#2
Fairouz Benahmed-Miniuk, Mat Kresz, Jitendra K Kanaujiya, Christopher D Southgate
Unlike with zinc finger nuclease and transcriptional activator-like effector nuclease DNA modification technologies that rely on lead proteins, developed through expensive and time-consuming processes, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system has rapidly emerged as the most promising gene-editing technology to date for the modification of any selected DNA sequence. CRISPR is receiving tremendous fanfare due, in part, to its potential to provide a means to fundamentally alter medical genetics and especially cancer medicine...
May 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527665/therapeutic-editing-of-hepatocyte-genome-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Amaia Lujambio
The recent development of gene editing platforms enables making precise changes in the genome of eukaryotic cells. Programmable nucleases, such as meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated nucleases, have revolutionized the way research is conducted as they facilitate the rapid production of mutant or knock-out cellular and animal models. These same genetic tools can potentially be applied to cure or alleviate a variety of diseases, including genetic diseases that lack an efficient therapy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527116/genome-editing-in-drosophila-melanogaster-from-basic-genome-engineering-to-the-multipurpose-crispr-cas9-system
#4
REVIEW
Xingjie Ren, Kristof Holsteens, Haiyi Li, Jin Sun, Yifan Zhang, Lu-Ping Liu, Qingfei Liu, Jian-Quan Ni
Nowadays, genome editing tools are indispensable for studying gene function in order to increase our knowledge of biochemical processes and disease mechanisms. The extensive availability of mutagenesis and transgenesis tools make Drosophila melanogaster an excellent model organism for geneticists. Early mutagenesis tools relied on chemical or physical methods, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and X-rays respectively, to randomly alter DNA at a nucleotide or chromosomal level. Since the discovery of transposable elements and the availability of the complete fly genome, specific genome editing tools, such as P-elements, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have undergone rapid development...
May 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515158/the-anti-psoriatic-drug-monomethylfumarate-increases-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-nrf2-levels-and-induces-aquaporin-3-aqp3-mrna-and-protein-expression
#5
Inas Helwa, Vivek Choudhary, Xunsheng Chen, Ismail Kaddour-Djebbar, Wendy B Bollag
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress contributes to inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis. Monomethylfumarate (MMF) is an anti-psoriatic agent with a poorly understood mechanism of action. In other cell types MMF increases the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates cellular anti-oxidant responses, to reduce oxidative stress like that observed in inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that MMF enhances Nrf2 activity in keratinocytes, thereby improving their capacity to counteract environmental stresses...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507037/systemic-activation-of-nrf2-alleviates-lethal-autoimmune-inflammation-in-scurfy-mice
#6
Takuma Suzuki, Shohei Murakami, Shyam S Biswal, Shimon Sakaguchi, Hideo Harigae, Masayuki Yamamoto, Hozumi Motohashi
The transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) plays crucial roles in the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and mediates anti-inflammatory actions in various pathological conditions. Recent studies have shown that the dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is directly linked to the initiation and progression of various autoimmune diseases. To determine the Treg-independent impact of NRF2 activation on autoimmune inflammation, we examined Scurfy (Sf) mice that are deficient in Tregs and succumb to severe multi-organ inflammation by 4 weeks of age...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494568/-the-research-advances-and-applications-of-genome-editing-in-hereditary-eye-diseases
#7
S W Cai, Y Zhang, M Z Hou, Y Liu, X R Li
Genome editing is a cutting-edge technology that generates DNA double strand breaks at the specific genomic DNA sequence through nuclease recognition and cleavage, and then achieves insertion, replacement, or deletion of the target gene via endogenous DNA repair mechanisms, such as non-homologous end joining, homology directed repair, and homologous recombination. So far, more than 600 human hereditary eye diseases and systemic hereditary diseases with ocular phenotypes have been found. However, most of these diseases are of incompletely elucidated pathogenesis and without effective therapies...
May 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493677/the-n6-position-of-adenine-is-a-blind-spot-for-tal-effectors-that-enables-effective-binding-of-methylated-and-fluorophore-labeled-dna
#8
Sarah Flade, Julia Jasper, Mario Giess, Matyas Juhasz, Andreas Dankers, Grzegorz Kubik, Oliver Koch, Elmar Weinhold, Daniel Summerer
Transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs) are programmable DNA binding proteins widely used for genome targeting. TALEs consist of multiple concatenated repeats, each selectively recognizing one nucleobase via a defined repeat variable diresidue (RVD). Effective use of TALEs requires knowledge about their binding ability to epigenetic and other modified nucleobases occurring in target DNA. However, aside from epigenetic cytosine-5 modifications, the binding ability of TALEs to modified DNA is unknown. We here study the binding of TALEs to the epigenetic nucleobase N6-methyladenine (6mA) found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes...
May 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492553/a-balance-of-mad-and-myc-expression-dictates-larval-cell-apoptosis-and-adult-stem-cell-development-during-xenopus-intestinal-metamorphosis
#9
Morihiro Okada, Thomas C Miller, Luan Wen, Yun-Bo Shi
The Myc/Mad/Max network has long been shown to be an important factor in regulating cell proliferation, death and differentiation in diverse cell types. In general, Myc-Max heterodimers activate target gene expression to promote cell proliferation, although excess of c-Myc can also induce apoptosis. In contrast, Mad competes against Myc to form Mad-Max heterodimers that bind to the same target genes to repress their expression and promote differentiation. The role of the Myc/Mad/Max network during vertebrate development, especially, the so-called postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals, is unclear...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489428/a-single-molecule-view-of-genome-editing-proteins-biophysical-mechanisms-for-tales-and-crispr-cas9
#10
Luke Cuculis, Charles M Schroeder
Exciting new advances in genome engineering have unlocked the potential to radically alter the treatment of human disease. In this review, we discuss the application of single-molecule techniques to uncover the mechanisms behind two premier classes of genome editing proteins: transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas). These technologies have facilitated a striking number of gene editing applications in a variety of organisms; however, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms governing the DNA editing properties of these systems...
May 10, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480886/live-cell-imaging-of-single-genomic-loci-with-quantum-dot-labeled-tales
#11
Yingxin Ma, Mingxiu Wang, Wei Li, Zhiping Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, Tianwei Tan, Xian-En Zhang, Zongqiang Cui
Single genomic loci are often related to specific cellular functions, genetic diseases, or pathogenic infections. Visualization of single genomic loci in live human cells is currently of great interest, yet it remains challenging. Here, we describe a strategy for live cell imaging of single genomic loci by combining transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) with a quantum dot labelling technique. We design and select a pair of TALEs that specifically target HIV-1 proviral DNA sequences, and use bioorthogonal ligation reactions to label them with different colour quantum dots (QDs)...
May 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460076/the-effect-of-increasing-numbers-of-repeats-on-tal-effector-dna-binding-specificity
#12
Fabio C Rinaldi, Lindsey A Doyle, Barry L Stoddard, Adam J Bogdanove
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) recognize their DNA targets via tandem repeats, each specifying a single nucleotide base in a one-to-one sequential arrangement. Due to this modularity and their ability to bind long DNA sequences with high specificity, TALEs have been used in many applications. Contributions of individual repeat-nucleotide associations to affinity and specificity have been characterized. Here, using in vitro binding assays, we examined the relationship between the number of repeats in a TALE and its affinity, for both target and non-target DNA...
April 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455196/maternal-il-17a-in-autism
#13
REVIEW
Helen Wong, Charles Hoeffer
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a strong genetic basis, its etiology is complex, with several genetic factors likely to be involved as well as environmental factors. Immune dysregulation has gained significant attention as a causal mechanism in ASD pathogenesis. ASD has been associated with immune abnormalities in the brain and periphery, including inflammatory disorders and autoimmunity in not only the affected individuals but also their mothers. Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for ASD...
April 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451378/plant-genome-editing-with-talen-and-crispr
#14
REVIEW
Aimee Malzahn, Levi Lowder, Yiping Qi
Genome editing promises giant leaps forward in advancing biotechnology, agriculture, and basic research. The process relies on the use of sequence specific nucleases (SSNs) to make DNA double stranded breaks at user defined genomic loci, which are subsequently repaired by two main DNA repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology directed repair (HDR). NHEJ can result in frameshift mutations that often create genetic knockouts. These knockout lines are useful for functional and reverse genetic studies but also have applications in agriculture...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448636/successful-vitrification-of-pronuclear-stage-pig-embryos-with-a-novel-cryoprotective-agent-carboxylated-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine
#15
Maki Kamoshita, Tsubasa Kato, Katsuyoshi Fujiwara, Takafumi Namiki, Kazuaki Matsumura, Suong-Hyu Hyon, Junya Ito, Naomi Kashiwazaki
Vitrification is a powerful tool for the efficient production of offspring derived from cryopreserved oocytes or embryos in mammalian species including domestic animals. Genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated (Cas)9 are now available even for domestic species, suggesting that the vitrification of embryos at the pronuclear stage (PN) will be more important because they could provide genomic host cells to be targeted by TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#16
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432336/structure-function-analysis-of-the-dna-binding-domain-of-a-transmembrane-transcriptional-activator
#17
Andreas Schlundt, Sophie Buchner, Robert Janowski, Thomas Heydenreich, Ralf Heermann, Jürgen Lassak, Arie Geerlof, Ralf Stehle, Dierk Niessing, Kirsten Jung, Michael Sattler
The transmembrane DNA-binding protein CadC of E. coli, a representative of the ToxR-like receptor family, combines input and effector domains for signal sensing and transcriptional activation, respectively, in a single protein, thus representing one of the simplest signalling systems. At acidic pH in a lysine-rich environment, CadC activates the transcription of the cadBA operon through recruitment of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to the two cadBA promoter sites, Cad1 and Cad2, which are directly bound by CadC...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#18
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427156/the-effects-of-dleu1-gene-expression-in-burkitt-lymphoma-bl-potential-mechanism-of-chemoimmunotherapy-resistance-in-bl
#19
Sanghoon Lee, Wen Luo, Tishi Shah, Changhong Yin, Timmy O'Connell, Tae-Hoon Chung, Sherrie L Perkins, Rodney R Miles, Janet Ayello, Erin Morris, Lauren Harrison, Carmella van de Ven, Mitchell S Cairo
Following a multivariant analysis we demonstrated that children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and a 13q14.3 deletion have a significant decrease in event free survival (EFS) despite identical short intensive multi-agent chemotherapy. However, how this deletion in the 13q14.3 region is associated with a significant decrease in EFS in children and adolescents with BL is largely unknown. The gene Deleted in Lymphocytic Leukemia 1 (DLEU1) is located in the region of 13q14.3. Here, we report that DLEU1 expression is implicated in the regulation of BL programmed cell death, cell proliferation, and expression of apoptotic genes in transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)s-induced DLEU1 knockdown and DLEU1 overexpressing BL cell lines...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421278/an-efficient-method-to-enrich-for-knock-out-and-knock-in-cellular-clones-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#20
Francesca Niccheri, Riccardo Pecori, Silvestro G Conticello
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools for genome editing. Here we report a method to increase the frequency of Cas9-targeted cellular clones. Our method is based on a chimeric construct with a Blasticidin S Resistance gene (bsr) placed out-of-frame by a surrogate target sequence. End joining of the CRISPR/Cas9-induced double-strand break on the surrogate target can place the bsr in frame, thus providing temporary resistance to Blasticidin S: this is used to enrich for cells where Cas9 is active...
April 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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