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vaccine, influenza

Kei Nakashima, Masahiro Aoshima, Satoko Ohfuji, Satoshi Yamawaki, Masahiro Nemoto, Shinya Hasegawa, Satoshi Noma, Masafumi Misawa, Naoto Hosokawa, Makito Yaegashi, Yoshihito Otsuka
It is unclear whether simultaneous administration of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) produces immunogenicity in older individuals. This study tested the hypothesis that the pneumococcal antibody response elicited by simultaneous administration of PPSV23 and QIV in older individuals is not inferior to that elicited by sequential administration of PPSV23 and QIV. We performed a single-center, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial comprising 162 adults aged ≥65 years randomly assigned to either the simultaneous (simultaneous injections of PPSV23 and QIV) or sequential (control; PPSV23 injected 2 weeks after QIV vaccination) groups...
March 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Samar Zaki, Asma Usman, Swaleha Tariq, Sameena Shah, Iqbal Azam, Waris Qidwai, Kashmira Nanji
Objective The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with adult immunization in patients visiting family medicine clinics at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2014 to March 2015 in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants more than 18 years were invited to participate in the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information. Data were entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 19...
January 17, 2018: Curēus
J Marin-Corral, C Climent, R Muñoz, M Samper, I Dot, C Vilà, J R Masclans, A Rodriguez, I Martin-Loeches, F Álvarez-Lerma
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the recommendations of the SEMICYUC (2012) on severe influenza A. DESIGN: A prospective multicenter observational study was carried out. SETTING: ICU. PATIENTS: Patients infected with severe influenza A (H1N1) from the GETGAG/SEMICYUC registry. INTERVENTIONS: Analysis of 2 groups according to the epidemic period of the diagnosis (2009-2011; 2013-2015). VARIABLES: Demographic, temporal, comorbidities, severity, treatments, mortality, late diagnosis and place of acquisition...
March 17, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Amit A Upadhyay, Robert C Kauffman, Amber N Wolabaugh, Alice Cho, Nirav B Patel, Samantha M Reiss, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Reem A Dawoud, Gregory K Tharp, Iñaki Sanz, Bali Pulendran, Shane Crotty, F Eun-Hyung Lee, Jens Wrammert, Steven E Bosinger
B cells play a critical role in the immune response by producing antibodies, which display remarkable diversity. Here we describe a bioinformatic pipeline, BALDR (BCR Assignment of Lineage using De novo Reconstruction) that accurately reconstructs the paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene sequences from Illumina single-cell RNA-seq data. BALDR was accurate for clonotype identification in human and rhesus macaque influenza vaccine and simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine induced vaccine-induced plasmablasts and naïve and antigen-specific memory B cells...
March 20, 2018: Genome Medicine
Tariq A Bhat, Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Paul N Bogner, Austin Miller, Paul V Lehmann, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Yasmin Thanavala
Despite advocacy to reduce smoking-related diseases, >1 billion people worldwide continue to smoke. Smoking is immunosuppressive and an important etiological factor in the development of several human disorders including respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is a critical gap in the knowledge of the role of secondhand smoke (SHS) in inflammation and immunity. We therefore studied the influence of SHS on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses to respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) recurrently found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Melinda M Pettigrew, Christian P Ahearn, Janneane F Gent, Yong Kong, Mary C Gallo, James B Munro, Adonis D'Mello, Sanjay Sethi, Hervé Tettelin, Timothy F Murphy
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mohammad Alfelali, Osamah Barasheed, Al-Mamoon Badahdah, Hamid Bokhary, Mohammed I Azeem, Turki Habeebullah, Marwan Bakarman, Atif Asghar, Robert Booy, Harunor Rashid
BACKGROUND: Hajj is the world's largest annual mass gathering that attracts two to three million Muslims from around the globe to a religious assemblage in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The risk of acquisition and transmission of influenza among Hajj pilgrims is high. Therefore, influenza vaccination is recommended, and was monitored frequently among pilgrims from different countries. However, the vaccination uptake among Saudi pilgrims has not been assessed in recent years. OBJECTIVE: This analysis aims to evaluate influenza vaccine uptake among Saudi Hajj pilgrims, and identify the key barriers to vaccination...
March 16, 2018: Vaccine
Joan Torres Puig-Gros, Rosa Mar Alzuria Alós
OBJECTIVE: Sometimes and when a registry is not available, influenza vaccination (IV) is based on vaccination records reported by citizens. When the opportunity of comparing both information sources exists, sometimes, discrepancies between both have been observed. The objectives of this study are: to know the IV coverage in pregnant women (both referred and recorded in the clinical history), to determine the concordance between both sources of information and to quantify the lost opportunities of IV due to errors in verbalization...
March 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Stephanie Ascough, Suzanna Paterson, Christopher Chiu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Richard L Hutchison, Janet O'Rear, Cindy Olson-Burgess, Angela L Myers
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of providing immediate access to the influenza vaccination for patients seen in a pediatric hand surgery clinic. Our hypothesis was that providing access would increase the rate of vaccination. METHODS: This pilot study was a randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial that included all patients seen by a single surgeon, on a single day each week, in a hospital-based pediatric hand surgery practice clinic from October 18, 2016, to March 14, 2017...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Tanaz Petigara, Dongmu Zhang
INTRODUCTION: This study examined pneumococcal vaccine coverage in adults aged 19-64 years newly diagnosed with diabetes, chronic heart, lung, or liver disease. These conditions are indicated for pneumococcal vaccination by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in 2016 using the Truven Health MarketScan® database. The study population was adults aged 19-64 years with at least one new chronic condition during 2009-2013 and continuous health plan enrolment for 2 years before and 1 year after the initial diagnosis...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko, Bernie Endyarni Medise, Hartono Gunardi, Rini Sekartini, Hindra Irawan Satari, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar, Rini Mulia Sari
INTRODUCTION: High rate of influenza infection in children made influenza vaccination strongly recommended for all person aged >6 months in Indonesia. Bio Farma Trivalent Influenza HA (Flubio®) vaccine has been used in adolescents and adults, resulted in increased seroconversion, seroprotection rates and geometric mean titer (GMT). However, no data is available regarding its efficacy and safety in children. This study aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Flubio® vaccine in infants and children...
March 15, 2018: Vaccine
Luiz Guilherme Darrigo, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Clarisse Martins Machado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the characteristics of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in transplant recipients and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cell/bone marrow grafts, organs, and blood transfusions can transmit CHIKV/DENV/ZIKV infections, which are clinically similar, resembling influenza-like illness. Laboratory confirmation is necessary. In the acute phase, RT-PCR is preferred. DENV and ZIKV serology may cross-react. Delayed engraftment and extended viruria is observed in ZIKV+/HSCT recipients, while longer viremia is observed in DENV+/HSCT patients...
March 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Brianne J Lindsay, Michal M Bonar, Ian N Costas-Cancelas, Kristin Hunt, Alexander I Makarkov, Sabrina Chierzi, Connie M Krawczyk, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward, Isabelle Rouiller
Plant-made virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that display wild-type influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are rapidly advancing through clinical trials. Produced by transient transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana, these novel vaccines are unusually immunogenic, eliciting both humoral and cellular responses. Here, we directly visualized VLPs bearing either HA trimers derived from strains A/California/7/2009 or A/Indonesia/5/05 using cryo-electron microscopy and determined the 3D organization of the VLPs using cryo-electron tomography...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Suvi Härmälä, Constantinos Parisinos, Laura Shallcross, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
INTRODUCTION: In advanced chronic liver disease, diseases caused by common bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza virus put people at an increased risk of serious health complications and death. The effectiveness of the available vaccines in reducing the risk of poor health outcomes, however, is less clear. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published reports on randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the effectiveness of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines in people with chronic liver disease...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
N Haber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Reinfections are common throughout adult life with more severe presentations occurring in immunocompromised individuals, subjects with underlying high-risk cardiopulmonary diseases, and in the elderly. There is now a significant body of literature indicating that the impact of RSV in elderly adults is similar to that of non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in nursing homes...
March 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Michaela K Nichols, Melissa K Andrew, Todd F Hatchette, Ardith Ambrose, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Ayman Chit, Gael Dos Santos, May ElSherif, Karen Green, Francois Haguinet, Scott A Halperin, Barbara Ibarguchi, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Phillipe Lagacé-Wiens, Joanne M Langley, Jason LeBlanc, Mark Loeb, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Anne McCarthy, Janet E McElhaney, Allison McGeer, Andre Poirier, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Anne Schuind, Makeda Semret, Vivek Shinde, Stephanie Smith, Daniel Smyth, Grant Stiver, Geoffrey Taylor, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Lingyun Ye, Shelly A McNeil
BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi, Min Ouyang, Marzieh Keshtkarjahromi, Samah Almed, Huifen Li, Jeremy D Walston, Rebeca Rios, Sean X Leng
Influenza immunization is recommended for older adults annually, and has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effects. TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), an inflammatory mediator implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases, could be a mechanism for such effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of influenza vaccine on TWEAK levels. Older persons over 70 years of age were recruited during 2007-2008 influenza season and immunized with the standard dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
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