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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926020/animal-health-economics-an-aid-to-decisionmaking-on-animal-health-interventions-case-studies-in-the-united-states-of-america
#1
T L Marsh, D Pendell, R Knippenberg
For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925801/mf59-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-fluad%C3%A2-elicits-higher-immune-responses-than-a-non-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-fluzone%C3%A2-a-randomized-multicenter-phase-iii-pediatric-trial-in-mexico
#2
Aurelio Cruz-Valdez, Gabriel Valdez-Zapata, Sanjay S Patel, Flavia V Castelli, Marcia G Garcia, Wim T Jansen, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Esther Heijnen
The poor immune response elicited by trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) in children can be enhanced by the addition of adjuvants. This observer-blind, randomized Phase III trial assessed the immunogenicity and safety of the MF59-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine FLUAD® (aTIV) and a non-adjuvanted TIV, in healthy children (aged 6 to <72 months) from 3 centers in Mexico, during the 2014-2015 season. The primary objectives were to assess the non-inferiority of aTIV to TIV, measured by geometric mean titers (GMTs), and the safety of aTIV and TIV...
September 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925795/application-of-replication-defective-west-nile-virus-vector-to-non-flavivirus-vaccine-targets
#3
Maryann Giel-Moloney, Michael Vaine, Linong Zhang, Mark Parrington, Beata Gajewska, Thorsten U Vogel, Svetlana O Pougatcheva, Xiaochu Duan, Timothy Farrell, Irina Ustyugova, Sanjay Phogat, Harry Kleanthous, Konstantin V Pugachev
The RepliVaxvaccine platform(RV) is based on flavivirus genomes that are rationally attenuated by deletion. The self-limiting infection provided by RV has been demonstrated to be safe, highly immunogenic and efficacious for several vaccine candidates against flaviviruses. Here respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F, influenza virus HA, and Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env proteins were expressed in place of either prM-E or C-prM-E gene deletions of the West Nile (WN) genome. The resulting RV-RSV, -influenza and -SIV vaccine prototypes replicated efficiently in complementing helper cells expressing the WN structural proteins in trans...
September 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925630/billing-for-the-new-influenza-vaccine
#4
Cindy Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Family Practice Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925296/vaccine-approaches-conferring-cross-protection-against-influenza-viruses
#5
Sai V Vemula, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
Annual vaccination is one of the most efficient and cost-effective strategies to prevent and control influenza epidemics. Most of the currently available influenza vaccines are strong inducers of antibody responses against viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), but are poor inducers of cell-mediated immune responses against conserved internal proteins. Moreover, due to the high variability of viral surface proteins because of antigenic drift or antigenic shift, many of the currently licensed vaccines confer little or no protection against drift or shift variants...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923425/the-influence-of-probiotics-on-vaccine-responses-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
The immunomodulatory effects of probiotics offer a relatively cheap means to improve vaccine efficacy and duration of protection. We systematically reviewed prospective randomised placebo-controlled studies in humans that have investigated the influence of probiotics on humoral vaccine responses. We found 26 studies, involving 3812 participants, investigating the use of 40 different probiotic strains on the efficacy of 17 different vaccines. A beneficial effect of probiotics was reported in about half of the studies...
September 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923405/positive-mood-on-the-day-of-influenza-vaccination-predicts-vaccine-effectiveness-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#7
Kieran Ayling, Lucy Fairclough, Paddy Tighe, Ian Todd, Vanessa Halliday, Jon Garibaldi, Simon Royal, Aljali Hamed, Heather Buchanan, Kavita Vedhara
Influenza vaccination is estimated to only be effective in 17-53% of older adults. Multiple patient behaviors and psychological factors have been shown to act as 'immune modulators' sufficient to influence vaccination outcomes. However, the relative importance of such factors is unknown as they have typically been examined in isolation. The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of multiple behavioral (physical activity, nutrition, sleep) and psychological influences (stress, positive mood, negative mood) on the effectiveness of the immune response to influenza vaccination in the elderly...
September 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922621/a-21-winter-seasons-retrospective-study-of-antibody-response-after-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-60-85%C3%A2-years-old-and-very-elderly-85%C3%A2-years-old-institutionalized-subjects
#8
Emilia Nunzi, Anna Maria Iorio, Barbara Camilloni
Influenza vaccination is considered the best mean for preventing the higher rates of mortality associated with influenza virus infection in the elderly as compared with younger people. Since the number of very elderly subjects, aged >85 years, is rapidly increasing, and some authors reported increments in influenza-associated mortality with age, the aim of this study was to increase the limited information available on the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccines in this age group. This was a retrospective study which analyzed the antibody response induced by commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in 1491 elderly subjects (60-85 years old) and 1139 very elderly subjects (>85 years old) during 21 winter seasons included between 1993-1994 and 2014-2015...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#9
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#10
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922318/vaccination-during-pregnancy-first-line-of-defense-for-expecting-mothers-and-vulnerable-young-infants
#11
Casidhe-Nicole Bethancourt, Tiffany L Wang, Joseph A Bocchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal vaccination is a well-tolerated and effective way to protect mothers, their developing fetuses, and their young infants from infectious diseases. Although influenza vaccine and diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine are recommended for all pregnant women, uptake rates in the United States remain low. This review will focus on the rationale, scientific evidence, and perceptions of vaccination during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that administration of influenza and Tdap vaccines during pregnancy is well tolerated and provides protection to the pregnant woman, her fetus, and young infant...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922083/strategies-in-recommending-influenza-vaccination-in-europe-and-us
#12
Caterina Rizzo, Gianni Rezza, Walter Ricciardi
There is potential for influenza vaccine programmes to make a substantial impact on the disease burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified young children, pregnant women, persons with chronic medical conditions, and the elderly as being at risk for severe influenza disease and therefore important groups to be considered for influenza vaccination. Applying the methodology of scoping review of grey and scientific literature we described the European and the US approach to influenza vaccine prevention...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922045/monomeric-m2e-antigen-in-vesivax%C3%A2-liposomes-stimulates-protection-against-type-a-strains-of-influenza-comparable-to-liposomes-with-multimeric-forms-of-m2e
#13
J P Adler-Moore, W Ernst, H Kim, N Ward, S M Chiang, T Do, G Fujii
Given the interest in the ectodomain of the matrix 2 (M2e) channel protein as a target for development of a universal influenza vaccine, we examined the role of the antigen configuration of M2e in generating a protective immune response. A series of M2e mutations and a truncated M2e segment were prepared as a means of controlling the formation of monomer, dimer, and higher order multimeric forms of M2e. Each of these M2e peptides was incorporated into a liposome-based vaccine technology platform previously shown to stimulate a protective response to influenza A infection using M2e as a mixture of monomers, dimers and multimers (L-M2e1-HD/MPL)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921955/characterization-of-site-specific-glycosylation-in-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-produced-by-spodoptera-frugiperda-insect-cell-line
#14
Yanjun Liu, Shiaw-Lin Wu, Kerry Routenberg Love, William S Hancock
Influenza hemagglutinin is a surface glycoprotein related to virus invasion and host immune system response. Understanding site specific glycosylation of hemagglutinin will increase our knowledge about virus evolution and can improve the design and quality of vaccines. In our study, we used glycoproteomic analysis based on multienzyme digestion followed by LC tandem MS analysis to determine the glycosylation of Influenza hemagglutinin (H1/A/California/04/2009) using the following steps: PNGaseF treatment combined with trypsin or pepsin digestion were used to determine the glycosites and glycan occupancy...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918667/poor-outcomes-among-elderly-patients-hospitalized-for-influenza-like-illness
#15
Mine Durusa Tanriover, Tülay Bagci Bosi, Lale Ozisik, Emre Bilgin, Özlem Güzel Tunçcan, Özge Özgen, Necla Tülek, Metin Özsoy, Hasan Tezer, Tugba Bedir Demirdağ, Ates Kara, Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu, Kubra Aykac, Aslinur Ozkaya-Parlakay, Belgin Gulhan, Serhat Unal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network is a worldwide initiative that aims to document the burden of influenza infections among acute admissions and the vaccine effectiveness in particular countries. As a partner of this platform, we aimed to determine the frequency of influenza infections among acute admissions with influenza like illness and the outcomes of the enrolled patients during the 2015-2016 influenza season in selected hospitals in Turkey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The investigators screened the hospital admission registries, chart review or available records, and screened all patients hospitalized in the previous 24-48 hours or overnight in the predefined wards or emergency room...
September 18, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918399/inactivated-influenza-vaccination-in-first-trimester-does-not-appear-to-increase-risk-of-birth-defects
#16
Annette Regan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918379/infanrix-hexa-and-sudden-death-a-review-of-the-periodic-safety-update-reports-submitted-to-the-european-medicines-agency
#17
Jacob Puliyel, C Sathyamala
There have been a number of spontaneous reports of sudden unexpected death soon after the administration of Infanrix hexa (combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine). The manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), submits confidential periodic safety update reports (PSURs) on Infanrix hexa to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The latest is the PSUR 19. Each PSUR contains an analysis of observed/expected sudden deaths, which shows that the number of observed deaths soon after immunisation is lower than that expected by chance...
September 5, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917539/hemagglutinin-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-following-2009-ph1n1-inactivated-split-vaccine-inoculation-in-humans
#18
Shuguang Tan, Shihong Zhang, Bin Wu, Yingze Zhao, Wei Zhang, Min Han, Ying Wu, Guoli Shi, Yingxia Liu, Jinghua Yan, Guizhen Wu, Hua Wang, George F Gao, Fengcai Zhu, William J Liu
Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccine's protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917536/birth-outcomes-following-immunization-of-pregnant-women-with-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-vaccine-2009-2010
#19
Abigail Eaton, Ned Lewis, Bruce Fireman, John Hansen, Roger Baxter, Julianne Gee, Nicola P Klein
BACKGROUND: Following the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, pregnant women were recommended to receive both seasonal (TIV) and H1N1 influenza vaccines. This study presents incidence of adverse birth and pregnancy outcomes among a population of pregnant women immunized with TIV and H1N1 vaccines at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2009-2010. METHODS: We telephone surveyed pregnant Kaiser Permanente Northern California members to assess non-medically-attended reactions following H1N1, TIV or both vaccines during 2009-2010 (n=5365) in a separate study...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917296/commentary-on-association-of-spontaneous-abortion-with-receipt-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-containing-h1n1pdm09-in-2010-11-and-2011-12
#20
Christina D Chambers, Ronghui Xu, Allen A Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
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