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Ashley L Severance, Keith E Latham
Oocyte meiotic spindles are associated with spindle-enriched mRNAs, phosphorylated ribosome protein S6, and phosphorylated variants of the key translational regulator EIF4EBP1, consistent with translational control of localized mRNAs by EIF4EBP1 in facilitating spindle formation and stability. Using specific kinase inhibitors, we determined which kinases regulate phosphorylation status of EIF4EBP1 associated with meiotic spindles in mouse oocytes, and effects of kinase inhibition on chromosome congression and spindle formation...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
S S Li, J J Loor, H Y Liu, L Liu, A Hosseini, W S Zhao, J X Liu
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and serve as key molecular components upstream of the signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of essential AA ratios on milk protein synthesis in vitro and to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms. Triplicate cultures of MAC-T cells and bovine mammary tissue explants (MTE) were incubated with the optimal AA ratio (OPAA; Lys:Met, 2.9:1; Thr:Phe, 1.05:1; Lys:Thr, 1.8:1; Lys:His, 2...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Li Zhou, Da Yuan, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Zhi-Yong Liang, Wei-Xun Zhou, Jian-Yu Yang, Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Lu, Tai-Ping Zhang, Lei You, Jun-Chao Guo, Yu-Pei Zhao
Thus far, clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mTOR signaling pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear, although it is involved in PDAC. In this study, total (t-) and phosphorylated (p-) mTOR, 4EBP1 and P70S6K, were investigated. It was found that most aforementioned proteins were related to malignant and progressive phenotypes, especially histological grade, in independent development and validation cohorts of PDAC. In the development cohort, high expression and/or phosphorylation of mTOR, 4EBP1 and P70S6K were all univariately associated with poor tumor-specific survival, whereas p-mTOR, p-4EBP1 and p-P70S6K, adjusted for clinicopathologic variables, unlike t-mTOR, t-4EBP1 and t-P70S6K, were shown to be independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis...
June 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
Richa Tiwari, Indrajit Sahu, Bihari Lal Soni, Gajanan J Sathe, Keshava K Datta, Pankaj Thapa, Shruti Sinha, Chella Krishna Vadivel, Bharti Dhaka, Harsha Gowda, Milind M Vaidya
Keratin 8/18, a simple epithelia specific keratin pair, is often aberrantly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) where its expression is correlated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. Majority of Keratin 8 (K8) functions are governed by its phosphorylation at Serine(73) (head-domain) and Serine(431) (tail-domain) residues. Although, deregulation of K8 phosphorylation is associated with progression of different carcinomas, its role in skin-SCC and the underlying mechanism is obscure. In this direction, we performed TMT-based quantitative phosphoproteomics by expressing K8 wild type, phosphodead and phosphomimetic mutants in K8-deficient A431 cells...
February 7, 2017: Proteomics
Wei Gao, Jacky Wei Kei Lam, John Zeng-Hong Li, Si-Qi Chen, Raymond King-Yin Tsang, Jimmy Yu-Wai Chan, Thian-Sze Wong
Radiation therapy is the standard treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MicroRNA regulates cancer responsiveness to radiation therapy by controlling the genes involved in radiation responses. Recent studies suggested that downregulation of microRNA-138-5p was clinically significant in NPC. Here, we evaluated the effect of miR-138-5p on radiosensitivity of NPC cells and explored the underlying mechanisms by identifying its target gene that impacted sensitivity to radiation. Our results revealed that overexpression of miR-138-5p reduced the ability to form colonies, inhibited proliferation, and enhanced radiation-induced DNA damage and autophagy in NPC cells upon radiation treatment...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
Ismael Riquelme, Oscar Tapia, Jaime A Espinoza, Pamela Leal, Kurt Buchegger, Alejandra Sandoval, Carolina Bizama, Juan Carlos Araya, Richard M Peek, Juan Carlos Roa
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that deregulation of this pathway has a role promoting gastric cancer (GC). The aim was to assess the expression of genes involved in this pathway by qPCR in 23 tumor and 23 non-tumor gastric mucosa samples from advanced GC patients, and in AGS, MKN28 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines. Results showed a slight overexpression of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT1, MTOR, RPS6KB1, EIF4EBP1 and EIF4E genes, and a slightly decreased PTEN and TSC1 expression...
October 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Witold Szaflarski, Marta M Fay, Nancy Kedersha, Maciej Zabel, Paul Anderson, Pavel Ivanov
Resistance to chemotherapy drugs is a serious therapeutic problem and its underlying molecular mechanisms are complex. Stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes assembled in cells exposed to stress, are implicated in various aspects of cancer cell metabolism and survival. SGs promote the survival of stressed cells by reprogramming gene expression and inhibiting pro-apoptotic signaling cascades. We show that the vinca alkaloid (VA) class of anti-neoplastic agents potently activates a SG-mediated stress response program...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Tianhao Sun, Frankie Leung, William W Lu
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion...
February 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Lee, Eun Jae Kim, Myung Jae Jeon
The aim of the present study was to identify the specific miRNAs involved in regulation of EIF4EBP1 expression in ovarian cancer and to define their biological function. miRNA mimics and miRNA inhibitors were used in quantitative PCR, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays to assess cell migration, invasiveness, and viability. miR-125a and miR-125b were downregulated in ovarian cancer tissue and cell lines relative to healthy controls. Increased expression of miR-125a and miR-125b inhibited invasion and migration of SKOV3 and OVCAR-429 ovarian cancer cells and was associated with a decrease in EIF4EBP1 expression...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Min Yuan, Jingxin Cheng, Yaxin Liu, Wei Su, Yu Zhang, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA) in HPV16-positive squamous carcinoma of the cervix in the Uygur of southern Xinjiang and to predict the target genes of the miRNAs.
 METHODS: Samples of HPV16-positive squamous carcinoma of the cervix from 5 Uygurs were collected for miRNA microarray assay. The differentially expressed miRNAs were selected for further verification by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The software, including targetscan, miRwalk, miRanda and pictar, were used to predict the target genes of the verified miRNAs...
July 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Shervi Lie, Janna L Morrison, Olivia Williams-Wyss, Catherine M Suter, David T Humphreys, Susan E Ozanne, Song Zhang, Severence M MacLaughlin, David O Kleemann, Simon K Walker, Claire T Roberts, I Caroline McMillen
In this study, we determined the effect of maternal undernutrition in the periconceptional (PCUN: ~80 days before to 6 days after conception) and preimplantation (PIUN: 0-6 days after conception) periods on the mRNA and protein abundance of key factors regulating myogenesis and protein synthesis, and on the relationship between the abundance of these factors and specific microRNA expression in the quadriceps muscle of singleton and twin fetal sheep at 135-138 days of gestation. PCUN and PIUN resulted in a decrease in the protein abundance of MYF5, a factor which determines the myogenic lineage, in singletons and twins...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
Phillip T Newton, Karuna K Vuppalapati, Thibault Bouderlique, Andrei S Chagin
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) complex 1 (MTORC1) is a protein-signaling complex at the fulcrum of anabolic and catabolic processes, which acts depending on wide-ranging environmental cues. It is generally accepted that lysosomes facilitate MTORC1 activation by generating an internal pool of amino acids. Amino acids activate MTORC1 by stimulating its translocation to the lysosomal membrane where it forms a super-complex involving the lysosomal-membrane-bound vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase) proton pump...
2015: Autophagy
Chiao-Fang Teng, Wen-Chuan Hsieh, Han-Chieh Wu, Yih-Jyh Lin, Hung-Wen Tsai, Wenya Huang, Ih-Jen Su
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S2 mutant can induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress to activate mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) signaling. The association of metabolic syndrome with HBV-related HCC raises the possibility that pre-S2 mutant-induced MTOR activation may drive the development of metabolic disorders to promote tumorigenesis in chronic HBV infection. To address this issue, glucose metabolism and gene expression profiles were analyzed in transgenic mice livers harboring pre-S2 mutant and in an in vitro culture system...
2015: PloS One
Paulina Szymańska, Katie R Martin, Jeffrey P MacKeigan, William S Hlavacek, Tomasz Lipniacki
We constructed a mechanistic, computational model for regulation of (macro)autophagy and protein synthesis (at the level of translation). The model was formulated to study the system-level consequences of interactions among the following proteins: two key components of MTOR complex 1 (MTORC1), namely the protein kinase MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and the scaffold protein RPTOR; the autophagy-initiating protein kinase ULK1; and the multimeric energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Inputs of the model include intrinsic AMPK kinase activity, which is taken as an adjustable surrogate parameter for cellular energy level or AMP:ATP ratio, and rapamycin dose, which controls MTORC1 activity...
2015: PloS One
Yin-Lian Cha, Pin-Dong Li, Lin-Jing Yuan, Mei-Yin Zhang, Yao-Jun Zhang, Hui-Lan Rao, Hui-Zhong Zhang, X F Steven Zheng, Hui-Yun Wang
OBJECTIVE: EIF4EBP1 acts as a crucial effector in mTOR signaling pathway. Studies have suggested that EIF4EBP1 plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. However, the clinical significance and biological role of EIF4EBP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of EIF4EBP1 in HCC. METHODS: Total 128 cases of HCCs were included in this study. EIF4EBP1 expression in HCC tissues was detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
2015: PloS One
Yunyan Gu, Pengfei Li, Fuduan Peng, Mengmeng Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Haihai Liang, Wenyuan Zhao, Lishuang Qi, Hongwei Wang, Chenguang Wang, Zheng Guo
Autophagy is a process that degrades intracellular constituents, such as long-lived or damaged proteins and organelles, to buffer metabolic stress under starvation conditions. Deregulation of autophagy is involved in the progression of cancer. However, the predictive value of autophagy for breast cancer prognosis remains unclear. First, based on gene expression profiling, we found that autophagy genes were implicated in breast cancer. Then, using the Cox proportional hazard regression model, we detected autophagy prognostic signature for breast cancer in a training dataset...
March 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Maria Cristina De Martino, Richard A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder, Peter M van Koetsveld, Fadime Dogan, Joseph A M J L Janssen, A Marlijn Waaijers, Claudia Pivonello, Steven W J Lamberts, Annamaria Colao, Ronald R de Krijger, Rosario Pivonello, Leo J Hofland
The mTOR pathway has recently been suggested as a new potential target for therapy in adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs). The aim of the current study is to describe the expression of the mTOR pathway in normal adrenals (NAs) and pathological adrenals and to explore whether there are correlation between the expression of these proteins and the in vitro response to sirolimus. For this purpose, the MTOR, S6K1 (RPS6KB1), and 4EBP1 (EIF4EBP1) mRNA expression were evaluated in ten NAs, ten adrenal hyperplasias (AHs), 17 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and 17 ACCs by qPCR, whereas total(t)/phospho(p)-MTOR, t/p-S6K, and t/p-4EBP1 protein expression were assessed in three NAs, three AHs, six ACAs, and 20 ACCs by immunohistochemistry...
August 2014: Endocrine-related Cancer
Bing Han, Hongyu Luo, John Raelson, Jie Huang, Yun Li, Johanne Tremblay, Bing Hu, Shijie Qi, Jiangping Wu
Transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI/βIG-H3), also known as βig-H3, is a protein inducible by TGFβ1 and secreted by many cell types. It binds to collagen, forms part of the extracellular matrix and interacts with integrins on the cell surface. Recombinant TGFBI and transgenic TGFBI overexpression can promote both islet survival and function. In this study, we generated TGFBI KO mice and further assessed TGFBI function and signaling pathways in islets. Islets from KO mice were of normal size and quantity, and these animals were normoglycemic...
September 1, 2014: Human Molecular Genetics
Yi Liu, Hua Song, Jing Pan, Jing Zhao
Prostate cancer (PC) depends on androgenic signaling for growth and survival. To data, the exact molecular mechanism of hormone controlling proliferation and tumorigenesis in the PC remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we explored the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and identified featured genes related to hormone stimulus from PC. Two sets of gene expression data, including PC and normal control sample, were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The t-test was used to identify DEGs between PC and controls...
February 2014: Journal of Applied Genetics
Zhi Rong Qian, Monica Ter-Minassian, Jennifer A Chan, Yu Imamura, Susanne M Hooshmand, Aya Kuchiba, Teppei Morikawa, Lauren K Brais, Anastassia Daskalova, Rachel Heafield, Xihong Lin, David C Christiani, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Matthew H Kulke
PURPOSE: Clinical studies have implicated the mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase; MTOR) pathway in the regulation of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) growth. We explored whether expression of MTOR pathway components has prognostic significance in NET patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of MTOR and phospho (p) -MTOR; its downstream targets RPS6KB1, RPS6, and EIF4EBP1; and its upstream regulators, in a cohort of 195 archival neuroendocrine tumors...
September 20, 2013: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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