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T Xu, A S M Alharthi, F Batistel, A Helmbrecht, C Parys, E Trevisi, X Shen, J J Loor
The study investigated whether methionine supply during late pregnancy is associated with liver mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway phosphorylation, plasma biomarkers, and growth in heifer calves born to cows fed a control diet (CON) or the control diet plus ethylcellulose rumen-protected methionine (MET; 0.09% of dry matter intake) for the last 28 d prepartum. Calves were fed and managed similarly during the first 56 d of age. Plasma was harvested at birth and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 50 d of age and was used for biomarker profiling...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yulong Tang, Bie Tan, Guangran Li, Jianjun Li, Peng Ji, Yulong Yin
Amino acid transporters play an important role in cell growth and metabolism. MeAIB, a transporter-selective substrate, often represses the adaptive regulation of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which may act as a receptor and regulate cellular amino acid contents, therefore modulating cellular downstream signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MeAIB to SNAT2 on cell proliferation, protein turnover, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in porcine enterocytes...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mei Ding, Theodorus H Van der Kwast, Ravi N Vellanki, Warren D Foltz, Trevor D McKee, Nahum Sonenberg, Pier P Pandolfi, Marianne Koritzinsky, Bradly G Wouters
The mTOR signaling pathway is a central regulator of protein synthesis and cellular metabolism in response to the availability of energy, nutrients, oxygen, and growth factors. mTOR activation leads to phosphorylation of multiple downstream targets including the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding proteins-1 and -2 (EIF4EBP1/4E-BP1 and EIF4EBP2/4E-BP2). These binding proteins inhibit protein synthesis, but are inactivated by mTOR to stimulate cell growth and metabolism. However, the role of these proteins in the context of aberrant activation of mTOR, which occurs frequently in cancers through loss of PTEN or mutational activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, is unclear...
April 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Ashley L Severance, Keith E Latham
Oocytes uniquely accumulate cytoplasmic constituents to support early embryogenesis. This unique specialization is accompanied by acquisition of a large size and by execution of asymmetric meiotic divisions that preserve precious ooplasm through the expulsion of minimal size polar bodies. While often taken for granted, these basic features of oogenesis necessitate unique specializations of the meiotic apparatus. These include a chromatin-sourced RanGTP gradient that restricts spindle size by defining a spatial domain where meiotic spindles form, acentriolar centrosomes that rely on microtubule organizing centers to form spindle poles, and an actin-based mechanism for asymmetric spindle positioning...
March 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Abolfazl Bahrami, Seyed Reza Miraie-Ashtiani, Mostafa Sadeghi, Ali Najafi, Reza Ranjbar
BACKGROUND: TEK signaling plays a very important role in folliculogenesis. It activates Ras/ERK/MYC, PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 and ovarian steroidogenesis activation pathways. These are the main pathways for cell growth, differentiation, migration, adhesion, proliferation, survival and protein synthesis. RESULTS: TEK signaling on each of the two important pathways where levels of pERK, pMYC, pAkt, pMCL1 and pEIF4EBP1 are increased in dominant follicles and pMYC is decreased in dominant follicles...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
Md Shaki Mostaid, Ting Ting Lee, Gursharan Chana, Suresh Sundram, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Ian Everall, Chad Bousman
Investigation of peripheral gene expression patterns of transcripts within the NRG-ErbB signaling pathway, other than neuregulin-1 ( NRG1 ), among patients with schizophrenia and more specifically treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is limited. The present study built on our previous work demonstrating elevated levels of NRG1 EGFα, EGFβ, and type I(Ig2) containing transcripts in TRS by investigating 11 NRG-ErbB signaling pathway mRNA transcripts ( NRG2, ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, PIK3CD, PIK3R3, AKT1, mTOR, P70S6K, eIF4EBP1 ) in whole blood of TRS patients ( N  = 71) and healthy controls ( N  = 57)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tao Zhang, Yuanping Ma, Jiansong Fang, Chang Liu, Liangrong Chen
BACKGROUND: Molecular switches in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway may serve as potential targets for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aims to profile the gene alterations involved in PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in patients with CRC. METHODS: Tumoral and matched peritumoral tissues were collected from 15 CRC patients who went routine surgery. A human PI3K-AKT signaling pathway polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array, which profiled the transcriptional changes of a total number of 84 genes involved in the PI3K-AKT pathway, was then applied to determine the gene alterations in CRC tumoral tissue with matched peritumoral tissue as a healthy control...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Ashley L Severance, Keith E Latham
Oocyte meiotic spindles are associated with spindle-enriched mRNAs, phosphorylated ribosome protein S6, and phosphorylated variants of the key translational regulator, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (eIF4E-BP1), consistent with translational control of localized mRNAs by eIF4E-BP1 in facilitating spindle formation and stability. Using specific kinase inhibitors, we determined which kinases regulate phosphorylation status of eIF4E-BP1 associated with meiotic spindles in mouse oocytes and effects of kinase inhibition on chromosome congression and spindle formation...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
S S Li, J J Loor, H Y Liu, L Liu, A Hosseini, W S Zhao, J X Liu
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and serve as key molecular components upstream of the signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of essential AA ratios on milk protein synthesis in vitro and to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms. Triplicate cultures of MAC-T cells and bovine mammary tissue explants (MTE) were incubated with the optimal AA ratio (OPAA; Lys:Met, 2.9:1; Thr:Phe, 1.05:1; Lys:Thr, 1.8:1; Lys:His, 2...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Li Zhou, Da Yuan, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Zhi-Yong Liang, Wei-Xun Zhou, Jian-Yu Yang, Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Lu, Tai-Ping Zhang, Lei You, Jun-Chao Guo, Yu-Pei Zhao
Thus far, clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mTOR signaling pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear, although it is involved in PDAC. In this study, total (t-) and phosphorylated (p-) mTOR, 4EBP1 and P70S6K, were investigated. It was found that most aforementioned proteins were related to malignant and progressive phenotypes, especially histological grade, in independent development and validation cohorts of PDAC. In the development cohort, high expression and/or phosphorylation of mTOR, 4EBP1 and P70S6K were all univariately associated with poor tumor-specific survival, whereas p-mTOR, p-4EBP1 and p-P70S6K, adjusted for clinicopathologic variables, unlike t-mTOR, t-4EBP1 and t-P70S6K, were shown to be independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis...
June 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
Richa Tiwari, Indrajit Sahu, Bihari Lal Soni, Gajanan J Sathe, Keshava K Datta, Pankaj Thapa, Shruti Sinha, Chella Krishna Vadivel, Bharti Dhaka, Harsha Gowda, Milind M Vaidya
Keratin 8/18, a simple epithelia specific keratin pair, is often aberrantly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) where its expression is correlated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. Majority of Keratin 8 (K8) functions are governed by its phosphorylation at Serine(73) (head-domain) and Serine(431) (tail-domain) residues. Although, deregulation of K8 phosphorylation is associated with progression of different carcinomas, its role in skin-SCC and the underlying mechanism is obscure. In this direction, we performed tandem mass tag-based quantitative phosphoproteomics by expressing K8 wild type, phosphodead, and phosphomimetic mutants in K8-deficient A431 cells...
April 2017: Proteomics
Wei Gao, Jacky Wei Kei Lam, John Zeng-Hong Li, Si-Qi Chen, Raymond King-Yin Tsang, Jimmy Yu-Wai Chan, Thian-Sze Wong
Radiation therapy is the standard treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MicroRNA regulates cancer responsiveness to radiation therapy by controlling the genes involved in radiation responses. Recent studies suggested that downregulation of microRNA-138-5p was clinically significant in NPC. Here, we evaluated the effect of miR-138-5p on radiosensitivity of NPC cells and explored the underlying mechanisms by identifying its target gene that impacted sensitivity to radiation. Our results revealed that overexpression of miR-138-5p reduced the ability to form colonies, inhibited proliferation, and enhanced radiation-induced DNA damage and autophagy in NPC cells upon radiation treatment...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
Ismael Riquelme, Oscar Tapia, Jaime A Espinoza, Pamela Leal, Kurt Buchegger, Alejandra Sandoval, Carolina Bizama, Juan Carlos Araya, Richard M Peek, Juan Carlos Roa
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that deregulation of this pathway has a role promoting gastric cancer (GC). The aim was to assess the expression of genes involved in this pathway by qPCR in 23 tumor and 23 non-tumor gastric mucosa samples from advanced GC patients, and in AGS, MKN28 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines. Results showed a slight overexpression of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT1, MTOR, RPS6KB1, EIF4EBP1 and EIF4E genes, and a slightly decreased PTEN and TSC1 expression...
October 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Witold Szaflarski, Marta M Fay, Nancy Kedersha, Maciej Zabel, Paul Anderson, Pavel Ivanov
Resistance to chemotherapy drugs is a serious therapeutic problem and its underlying molecular mechanisms are complex. Stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes assembled in cells exposed to stress, are implicated in various aspects of cancer cell metabolism and survival. SGs promote the survival of stressed cells by reprogramming gene expression and inhibiting pro-apoptotic signaling cascades. We show that the vinca alkaloid (VA) class of anti-neoplastic agents potently activates a SG-mediated stress response program...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Tianhao Sun, Frankie Leung, William W Lu
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion...
February 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Lee, Eun Jae Kim, Myung Jae Jeon
The aim of the present study was to identify the specific miRNAs involved in regulation of EIF4EBP1 expression in ovarian cancer and to define their biological function. miRNA mimics and miRNA inhibitors were used in quantitative PCR, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays to assess cell migration, invasiveness, and viability. miR-125a and miR-125b were downregulated in ovarian cancer tissue and cell lines relative to healthy controls. Increased expression of miR-125a and miR-125b inhibited invasion and migration of SKOV3 and OVCAR-429 ovarian cancer cells and was associated with a decrease in EIF4EBP1 expression...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Min Yuan, Jingxin Cheng, Yaxin Liu, Wei Su, Yu Zhang, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA) in HPV16-positive squamous carcinoma of the cervix in the Uygur of southern Xinjiang and to predict the target genes of the miRNAs.
 METHODS: Samples of HPV16-positive squamous carcinoma of the cervix from 5 Uygurs were collected for miRNA microarray assay. The differentially expressed miRNAs were selected for further verification by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The software, including targetscan, miRwalk, miRanda and pictar, were used to predict the target genes of the verified miRNAs...
July 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Shervi Lie, Janna L Morrison, Olivia Williams-Wyss, Catherine M Suter, David T Humphreys, Susan E Ozanne, Song Zhang, Severence M MacLaughlin, David O Kleemann, Simon K Walker, Claire T Roberts, I Caroline McMillen
In this study, we determined the effect of maternal undernutrition in the periconceptional (PCUN: ~80 days before to 6 days after conception) and preimplantation (PIUN: 0-6 days after conception) periods on the mRNA and protein abundance of key factors regulating myogenesis and protein synthesis, and on the relationship between the abundance of these factors and specific microRNA expression in the quadriceps muscle of singleton and twin fetal sheep at 135-138 days of gestation. PCUN and PIUN resulted in a decrease in the protein abundance of MYF5, a factor which determines the myogenic lineage, in singletons and twins...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
Phillip T Newton, Karuna K Vuppalapati, Thibault Bouderlique, Andrei S Chagin
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) complex 1 (MTORC1) is a protein-signaling complex at the fulcrum of anabolic and catabolic processes, which acts depending on wide-ranging environmental cues. It is generally accepted that lysosomes facilitate MTORC1 activation by generating an internal pool of amino acids. Amino acids activate MTORC1 by stimulating its translocation to the lysosomal membrane where it forms a super-complex involving the lysosomal-membrane-bound vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase) proton pump...
2015: Autophagy
Chiao-Fang Teng, Wen-Chuan Hsieh, Han-Chieh Wu, Yih-Jyh Lin, Hung-Wen Tsai, Wenya Huang, Ih-Jen Su
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S2 mutant can induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress to activate mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) signaling. The association of metabolic syndrome with HBV-related HCC raises the possibility that pre-S2 mutant-induced MTOR activation may drive the development of metabolic disorders to promote tumorigenesis in chronic HBV infection. To address this issue, glucose metabolism and gene expression profiles were analyzed in transgenic mice livers harboring pre-S2 mutant and in an in vitro culture system...
2015: PloS One
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