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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527036/osteogenesis-ability-of-cad-cam-porous-zirconia-scaffolds-enriched-with-nano-hydroxyapatite-particles
#1
Moustafa N Aboushelib, Rehab Shawky
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate osteogenesis ability of CAD/CAM porous zirconia scaffolds enriched with hydroxy apatite used to augment large boney defects in a dog model. METHODS: Surgical defects were made bilaterally on the lower jaw of 12 Beagle dogs. Cone beam CT images were used to create three dimensional images of the healed defects. Porous zirconia scaffolds were fabricated by milling custom made CAD/CAM blocks into the desired shape. After sintering, the pores of half of the scaffolds were filled with a nano-hydroxy apatite (HA) powder while the other half served as control...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526745/identification-and-characterisation-of-nanobodies-targeting-the-epha4-receptor
#2
Lies Schoonaert, Laura Rué, Bart Roucourt, Mieke Timmers, Susan Little, Lucía Chávez Gutiérrez, Maarten Dewilde, Peter Joyce, Adam Curnock, Peter Weber, Jurgen Haustraete, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Bart De Strooper, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Philip Van Damme, Robin Lemmens, Wim Robberecht
The ephrin receptor A4 (EphA4) is one of the receptors in the ephrin system that plays a pivotal role in a variety of cell-cell interactions, mostly studied during development. In addition, EphA4 has been found to play a role in cancer biology as well as in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological blocking of EphA4 has been suggested to be a therapeutic strategy for these disorders...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517113/differences-between-two-strains-of-ceriporiopsis-subvermispora-on-improving-the-nutritive-value-of-wheat-straw-for-ruminants
#3
Nazri Nayan, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Wouter H Hendriks, John W Cone
AIM: The present study evaluated differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value and in vitro degradability of wheat straw. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wheat straw was treated with the fungi for 7 weeks. Weekly samples were analyzed for ergosterol content, in vitro gas production (IVGP), chemical composition and lignin degrading enzyme activity. Ergosterol data showed CS1 to have a faster initial growth than CS2 and reaching a stationary phase after 3 weeks...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507390/high-quality-pvd-graphene-growth-by-fullerene-decomposition-on-cu-foils
#4
J Azpeitia, G Otero-Irurueta, I Palacio, J I Martinez, N Ruiz Del Árbol, G Santoro, A Gutiérrez, L Aballe, M Foerster, M Kalbac, V Vales, F J Mompeán, M García-Hernández, J A Martín-Gago, C Munuera, M F López
We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C60 molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Unzipping of C60 is thermally promoted by annealing the substrate at 800ºC during evaporation. The graphene layer extends over areas larger than the Cu crystallite size, although it is changing its orientation with respect to the surface in the wrinkles and grain boundaries, producing a modulated ring in the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern...
August 2017: Carbon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502709/organizational-innovation-of-apical-actin-filaments-drives-rapid-pollen-tube-growth-and-turning
#5
Xiaolu Qu, Ruihui Zhang, Meng Zhang, Min Diao, Yongbiao Xue, Shanjin Huang
Polarized tip growth is a fundamental cellular process in many eukaryotes. In this study, we examined the dynamic restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton and its relationship to vesicle transport during pollen tip growth in Arabidopsis. We found that actin filaments originating from the apical membrane form a specialized structure consisting of longitudinally aligned actin bundles at the cortex and inner cytoplasmic filaments with a distinct distribution. Using actin-based pharmacological treatments and genetic mutants in combination with FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) technology to visualize the transport of vesicles within the growth domain of pollen tubes, we demonstrate that cortical actin filaments facilitate tip-ward vesicle transport...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#6
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483977/uncoupling-of-unc5c-with-polymerized-tubb3-in-microtubules-mediates-netrin-1-repulsion
#7
Qiangqiang Shao, Tao Yang, Huai Huang, Farrah Alarmanazi, Guofa Liu
Modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is a key event of cytoskeleton remodeling in the growth cone (GC) during axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Our previous studies have shown that the direct interaction of netrin receptor DCC and DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3, a neuron-specific MT subunit in the brain, is required for netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth, branching and attraction. Here, we show that uncoupling of polymerized TUBB3 with netrin-1 repulsive receptor UNC5C is involved in netrin-1-mediated axonal repulsion...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477140/chondroitin-sulfate-impairs-neural-stem-cell-migration-through-rock-activation
#8
Layla T Galindo, Mayara T V V Mundim, Agnes S Pinto, Gabrielly M D Chiarantin, Maíra E S Almeida, Marcelo L Lamers, Alan R Horwitz, Marinilce F Santos, Marimelia Porcionatto
Brain injuries such as trauma and stroke lead to glial scar formation by reactive astrocytes which produce and secret axonal outgrowth inhibitors. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) constitute a well-known class of extracellular matrix molecules produced at the glial scar and cause growth cone collapse. The CSPG glycosaminoglycan side chains composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are responsible for its inhibitory activity on neurite outgrowth and are dependent on RhoA activation. Here, we hypothesize that CSPG also impairs neural stem cell migration inhibiting their penetration into an injury site...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476946/in-vivo-calcium-signaling-during-synaptic-refinement-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#9
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
Neural activity plays a key role in pruning aberrant synapses in various neural systems, including the mammalian cortex, where low frequency (0.01 Hz) calcium oscillations refine topographic maps. However, the activity-dependent molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Activity-dependent pruning also occurs at embryonic Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), where low frequency Ca(2+) oscillations are required for synaptic refinement and the response to the muscle-derived chemorepellant Sema2a...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473757/the-kinesin-adaptor-calsyntenin-1-organizes-microtubule-polarity-and-regulates-dynamics-during-sensory-axon-arbor-development
#10
Tristan J Lee, Jacob W Lee, Elizabeth M Haynes, Kevin W Eliceiri, Mary C Halloran
Axon growth and branching, and development of neuronal polarity are critically dependent on proper organization and dynamics of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. MTs must organize with correct polarity for delivery of diverse cargos to appropriate subcellular locations, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating MT polarity remain poorly understood. Moreover, how an actively branching axon reorganizes MTs to direct their plus ends distally at branch points is unknown. We used high-speed, in vivo imaging of polymerizing MT plus ends to characterize MT dynamics in developing sensory axon arbors in zebrafish embryos...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472086/mild-and-repetitive-very-mild-axonal-stretch-injury-triggers-cystoskeletal-mislocalization-and-growth-cone-collapse
#11
Yiing C Yap, Anna E King, Rosanne M Guijt, Tongcui Jiang, Catherine A Blizzard, Michael C Breadmore, Tracey C Dickson
Diffuse axonal injury is a hallmark pathological consequence of non-penetrative traumatic brain injury (TBI) and yet the axonal responses to stretch injury are not fully understood at the cellular level. Here, we investigated the effects of mild (5%), very mild (0.5%) and repetitive very mild (2×0.5%) axonal stretch injury on primary cortical neurons using a recently developed compartmentalized in vitro model. We found that very mild and mild levels of stretch injury resulted in the formation of smaller growth cones at the tips of axons and a significantly higher number of collapsed structures compared to those present in uninjured cultures, when measured at both 24 h and 72 h post injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471537/orientation-changes-in-the-cruciate-ligaments-of-the-knee-during-skeletal-growth-a-porcine-model
#12
Stephanie G Cone, Sean G Simpson, Jorge A Piedrahita, Lynn A Fordham, Jeffrey T Spang, Matthew B Fisher
Musculoskeletal injuries in pediatric patients, including significant increases in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, are on the rise. Previous studies have found major anatomical changes during skeletal growth in the soft tissues of the knee. Specifically, the ACL and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) change in their relative orientation to the tibial plateau throughout growth. In order to develop age-specific treatments for ACL injuries the purpose of this study was to characterize orientation changes in the cruciate ligaments of the Yorkshire pig, a common pre-clinical model, during skeletal growth in order to verify the applicability of this model for pediatric musculoskeletal studies...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465232/identification-of-glaikit-in-a-genome-wide-expression-profiling-for-axonal-bifurcation-of-the-mushroom-body-in-drosophila
#13
Yohei Nitta, Atsushi Sugie
Axonal branching is a fundamental requirement for sending electrical signals to multiple targets. However, despite the importance of axonal branching in neural development and function, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. Previous studies have hardly addressed the intracellular signaling cascade of axonal bifurcation characterized by growth cone splitting. Recently we reported that DISCO interacting protein 2 (DIP2) regulates bifurcation of mushroom body axons in Drosophila melanogaster...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463486/scalable-indium-phosphide-thin-film-nanophotonics-platform-for-photovoltaic-and-photoelectrochemical-devices
#14
Qingfeng Lin, Debarghya Sarkar, Yuanjing Lin, Matthew Yeung, Louis Blankemeier, Jubin Hazra, Wei Wang, Shanyuan Niu, Jayakanth Ravichandran, Zhiyong Fan, Rehan Kapadia
Recent developments in nanophotonics have provided a clear roadmap for improving the efficiency of photonic devices through control over absorption and emission of devices. These advances could prove transformative for a wide variety of devices, such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical devices, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. However, it is often challenging to physically create the nanophotonic designs required to engineer the optical properties of devices. Here, we present a platform based on crystalline indium phosphide that enables thin-film nanophotonic structures with physical morphologies that are impossible to achieve through conventional state-of-the-art material growth techniques...
May 4, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457263/survival-of-labial-inversely-impacted-maxillary-central-incisors-a-retrospective-cone-beam-computed-tomography-2-year-follow-up
#15
Han Hu, Rongdang Hu, Huixi Jiang, Zhensheng Cao, Hao Sun, Chenrui Jin, Chaofan Sun, Yu Fang
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to analyze the development and stability of roots and alveolar bone in orthodontically treated labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors in a long-term follow-up by cone-beam computed tomography. Comparisons were made between the labial inversely impacted maxillary central incisors after treatment and normally erupted mature contralateral incisors. METHODS: The sample consisted of 12 participants, with a mean age of 7...
May 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445456/floor-plate-derived-netrin-1-is-dispensable-for-commissural-axon-guidance
#16
Chloé Dominici, Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Sergi Roig Puiggros, Quentin Rappeneau, Nicolas Rama, Pauline Vieugue, Agns Bernet, Patrick Mehlen, Alain Chédotal
Netrin-1 is an evolutionarily conserved, secreted extracellular matrix protein involved in axon guidance at the central nervous system midline. Netrin-1 is expressed by cells localized at the central nervous system midline, such as those of the floor plate in vertebrate embryos. Growth cone turning assays and three-dimensional gel diffusion assays have shown that netrin-1 can attract commissural axons. Loss-of-function experiments further demonstrated that commissural axon extension to the midline is severely impaired in the absence of netrin-1 (refs 3, 7, 8, 9)...
May 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444817/microtubule-stabilization-promoted-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-root-avulsion
#17
Heng Li, Wutian Wu
A spinal root avulsion injury disconnects spinal roots with the spinal cord. The rampant motoneuron death, inhibitory CNS/PNS transitional zone (TZ) for axonal regrowth and limited regeneration speed together lead to motor dysfunction. Microtubules rearrange to assemble a new growth cone and disorganized microtubules underline regeneration failure. It's been shown that microtubule-stabilizing drug, Epothilone B, enhanced axonal regeneration and attenuated fibrotic scaring after spinal cord injury. Here, we are reporting that after spinal root avulsion+ re-implantation in adult rats, EpoB treatment improved motor functional recovery and potentiated electrical responses of motor units...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440470/proliferation-and-differentiation-of-direct-co%C3%A2-culture-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-pigmented-cells-from-the-ciliary-margin
#18
Yan Li, Xinzheng He, Jun Li, Fangfang Ni, Qingqing Sun, Yan Zhou
Damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the major consequence of glaucoma and regeneration of RGCs is extremely difficult once the damage has occurred. Retinal stem cells (RSCs) are considered an ideal choice for RGC regeneration. Pigmented cells from the ciliary margin (PCMs) have great retinal differentiation potential and may be an ideal RSC candidate. However, the ciliary margin is too small, so the number of cells that can be obtained is limited. Bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are another type of stem cell that have been previously investigated for RGC regeneration...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415948/use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-for-regeneration-in-non-vital-immature-permanent-teeth-clinical-and-cone-beam-computed-tomography-evaluation
#19
Adel Alagl, Sumit Bedi, Khalid Hassan, Jehan AlHumaid
Objective This study was performed to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of a revascularization procedure in immature teeth with apical periodontitis using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The PRP protocol and conventional revascularization protocol, which used a blood clot as the scaffold, were compared. Methods Thirty non-vital immature permanent teeth were randomly categorized into two groups. After disinfecting the root canal space with triple antibiotic paste (1:1:1 ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and cefaclor), a tissue scaffold was created using either PRP or a blood clot (control) and covered with white mineral trioxide aggregate...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414870/three-dimensional-skeletal-mandibular-changes-associated-with-herbst-appliance-treatment
#20
B Q Souki, P L C Vilefort, D D Oliveira, I Andrade, A C Ruellas, M S Yatabe, T Nguyen, L Franchi, J A McNamara, L H S Cevidanes
OBJECTIVES: Three-dimensional evaluation of skeletal mandibular changes following Herbst appliance treatment. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Retrospective case-control study, based on a sample size calculation. Twenty-five pubertal patients treated with Herbst appliance (HAG), and 25 matched Class II patients who received other non-orthopaedic dental treatments (CG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three-dimensional models were generated from pre-treatment (T0) and post-treatment (T1) cone beam computed tomograms...
May 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
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