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Growth cone

Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Ivan Rayment, Susan P Gilbert
KIF3C is one subunit of the functional microtubule-based kinesin-2 KIF3AC motor, an anterograde cargo transporter in neurons. However, KIF3C has also been implicated as an injury-specific kinesin that is a key regulator of axonal growth and regeneration by promoting microtubule dynamics for reorganization at the neuronal growth cone. To test its potential role as a modulator of microtubule dynamics in vitro, an engineered homodimeric KIF3CC was incorporated into a dynamic microtubule assay and examined by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Angela R Filous, Jan M Schwab
The mechanisms that underlie recovery after injury of the central nervous system have rarely been definitively established. Axon re-growth remains the major prerequisite for plasticity, regeneration, circuit formation, and eventually functional recovery. The attributed functional relevance of axon regrowth however will depend on a number of subsequent conditional neurobiological modifications, including myelination and synapse formation but also pruning of aberrant connectivity. Despite the ability to revamp axon outgrowth by altering an increasing number of extracellular and intracellular targets, disentangling which axons are responsible for the recovery of function from those that are functionally silent, or even contributing to aberrant functions, remains a crucial link between enhancing axonal growth profiles to functional improvement...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
Lijia Guo, Seiko Min, Yingying Su, Jianxia Tang, Juan Du, Bee Tin Goh, Leonardo Saigo, Songlin Wang, Sahar Ansari, Alireza Moshaverinia, Homayoun H Zadeh, Yi Liu
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is an FDA-approved therapy for nonunion tibia fracture, though it has a number of biological and practical disadvantages. Our research group has developed a novel tissue engineering strategy termed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration. This entails application of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to capture endogenous BMP's to mediate in vivo bone formation. This has been documented in a number of animal models. The present exploratory study sought to investigate the application of antibody-mediated osseous regeneration for repair of nonunion tibia defect in a nonhuman primate model...
October 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Dong Li, Shu-Zhuo Zhang, Yu-Hong Yao, Yun Xiang, Xiao-Yun Ma, Xiao-Li Wei, Hai-Tao Yan, Xiao-Yan Liu
INTRODUCTION: Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) are unique endoplasmic reticulum proteins that have been implicated in both neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Sig-1R plays a role in neuroprotection and axon outgrowth. The underlying mechanisms of Sig-1R-mediated neuroprotection have been well elucidated. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of Sig-1R on axon outgrowth are not fully understood. METHODS: To clarify this issue, we utilized immunofluorescence to compare the axon lengths of cultured naïve hippocampal neurons before and after the application of the Sig-1R agonist, SA4503...
October 8, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Álvaro Díaz-Fernández, Leonor Chico, Francisco Dominguez-Adame
In IV-VI semiconductor heterojunctions with band-inversion, such as those made of Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te or Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Se, interface states are properly described by a two-band model, predicting the appearance of a Dirac cone in single junctions. However, in quantum wells the interface dispersion is quadratic in momentum and the energy spectrum presents a gap. We show that the interface gap shrinks under an electric field parallel to the growth direction. Therefore, the interface gap can be dynamically tuned in experiments on double-gated quantum wells based on band-inverted compounds...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Brett J Hilton, Frank Bradke
In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons typically fail to regenerate their axons after injury. During development, by contrast, neurons extend axons effectively. A variety of intracellular mechanisms mediate this difference, including changes in gene expression, the ability to form a growth cone, differences in mitochondrial function/axonal transport and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In turn, these intracellular processes are linked to extracellular differences between the developing and adult CNS...
October 1, 2017: Development
Yuta Saito, Paul Fons, Kotaro Makino, Kirill V Mitrofanov, Fumihiko Uesugi, Masaki Takeguchi, Alexander V Kolobov, Junji Tominaga
Growth of Bi-Te films by helicon-wave magnetron sputtering is systematically explored using alloy targets. The film compositions obtained are found to strongly depend on both the sputtering and antenna-coil powers. The obtainable film compositions range from Bi55Te45 to Bi43Te57 when a Bi2Te3 alloy target is used, and from Bi42Te58 to Bi40Te60 (Bi2Te3) for a Te-rich Bi30Te70 target. All films show strong orientation of the van der Waals layers (00l planes) parallel to the substrate. The atomic level stacking of Bi2Te3 quintuple and Bi bi-layers has been directly observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Mathilde Bettembourg, Audrey Dardou, Alain Audebert, Emilie Thomas, Julien Frouin, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Nourollah Ahmadi, Christophe Perin, Anne Dievart, Brigitte Courtois
BACKGROUND: Plant root systems play a major role in anchoring and in water and nutrient uptake from the soil. The root cone angle is an important parameter of the root system architecture because, combined with root depth, it helps to determine the volume of soil explored by the plant. Two genes, DRO1 and SOR1, and several QTLs for root cone angle have been discovered in the last 5 years. RESULTS: To find other QTLs linked to root cone angle, a genome-wide association mapping study was conducted on two panels of 162 indica and 169 japonica rice accessions genotyped with two sets of SNP markers (genotyping-by-sequencing set with approximately 16,000 markers and high-density-rice-array set with approximately 300,000 markers)...
October 2, 2017: Rice
Dan Wei, Nannan Gao, Lei Li, Jing-Xiang Zhu, Lei Diao, Jiansong Huang, Qing-Jian Han, Shaogang Wang, Huaqing Xue, Qiong Wang, Qing-Feng Wu, Xu Zhang, Lan Bao
Axon growth is tightly controlled to establish functional neural circuits during brain development. Despite the belief that cytoskeletal dynamics is critical for cell morphology, how microtubule acetylation regulates axon development in the mammalian central nervous system remains unclear. Here, we report that loss of α-tubulin acetylation by ablation of MEC-17 in mice predisposes neurons to axon overbranching and overgrowth. Introduction of MEC-17F183A lacking α-tubulin acetyltransferase activity into MEC-17-deficient neurons failed to rescue axon defects...
September 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Motohiro Nozumi, Michihiro Igarashi
Growth cones, which are the highly motile tips of extending neuronal processes in developing neurons, have many vesicles. These vesicles are likely essential for the membrane expansion that is required for nerve growth, and probably coordinate with rearrangement of the cytoskeletons. Such mechanisms are poorly understood from molecular and cell biological aspects. Recently, we used superresolution microscopic approaches and described new mechanisms that are involved in the interaction between the vesicles and F-actin in the leading edge of the peripheral domain...
September 26, 2017: Neurochemistry International
Ibrahim Tuncer, Cagri Delilbasi, Ediz Deniz, Merva Soluk Tekkesin, Vakur Olgac, Kemal Sencift
PURPOSE: Bisphosphonates are commonly used drugs in pediatric patients in the treatment of osteoporotic diseases and various types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pamidronate administration on mandibular growth and tooth eruption in new born rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study and divided into four groups as; 14th day pamidronate group, 30th day pamidronate group, 14th day control group and 30th day control group...
2017: J Istanb Univ Fac Dent
Fan Liang, Stephen L-K Yen, Thomas Imahiyerobo, Luke Sanborn, Leia Yen, Daniel Yen, Sheila Nazarian, Breanna Jedrzejewski, Mark Urata, Jeffrey Hammoudeh
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a demineralized bone matrix scaffold is a comparable alternative to iliac bone autograft in the setting of secondary alveolar cleft repair. Postreconstruction occlusal radiographs demonstrate improved bone stock when rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffold is used but lack the capacity to evaluate bone growth in three dimensions. This study uses cone beam computed tomography to provide the first clinical evaluation of volumetric and density comparisons between these two treatment modalities...
October 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Sai Kang, Xiaoxia Chen, Siyi Gong, Panpan Yu, SukYu Yau, Zhenghui Su, Libing Zhou, Jiandong Yu, Guangjin Pan, Lingling Shi
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into neural progenitor cells (NPC) under proper conditions. NPC can be used as a model and is a useful tool for disease mechanism exploration and drug screening. However, the characteristics of the cells in various stages from NPC to functional neurons have not been fully described. This study investigated the characteristics of iPSC-derived NPCs during differentiation. Morphological characteristics of the NPCs, including soma area, neurite length, and the number of neurite branches, were examined on selected differentiation days...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Johannes Uhlig, Uwe Fischer, Eva von Fintel, Vera Stahnke, Christina Perske, Joachim Lotz, Susanne Wienbeck
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether contrast enhancement on cone-beam breast-CT (CBBCT) could aid in discrimination of breast cancer subtypes and receptor status. METHODS: This study included female patients age >40 years with malignant breast lesions identified on contrast-enhanced CBBCT. Contrast enhancement of malignant breast lesions was standardized to breast fat tissue contrast enhancement. All breast lesions were approved via image-guided biopsy or surgery. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for expression of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and Ki-67 index...
September 22, 2017: Translational Oncology
Federico Carosio, Alessandro Di Pierro, Jenny Alongi, Alberto Fina, Guido Saracco
This work deals with the Layer by Layer (LbL) assembly of hybrid organic/inorganic flame retardant coatings made of Octa-ammonium POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) and sodium montmorillonite clay on polyester (PET) fabrics. The effects of ionic strength on the achieved flame retardancy properties were investigated. The coating growth asa function of different ionic strengths was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. 0.10M NaCl was found able to promote the highest adsorption of each coating species at each deposition step strongly affecting clay stacking as evaluated by X-ray diffraction measurements...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Aya Shimazaki, Hitoshi Kimura, Norio Inou, Koutaro Maki
Devices called functional appliances are commonly used in orthodontics for treating maxillary protrusion. These devices mechanically force the mandible forward to apply traction force to the mandibular condyle. This promotes cartilaginous growth in the small mandible. However, no studies have clarified how much traction force is applied to the mandibular condyle. Moreover, it remains unknown as to how anatomical characteristics affect this traction force. Therefore, in this study, we developed a device for measuring the amount of force generated while individual patients wore functional appliances, and we investigated the relationship between forces with structures surrounding the mandibular condyle...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Jiawei Li, Qingqing Wang, Haoli Wang, Yanqing Wu, Jiayu Yin, Jian Chen, Zengming Zheng, Ting Jiang, Ling Xie, Fenzan Wu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Huazi Xu, Jian Xiao
Fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13), a nonsecretory protein of the FGF family, plays a crucial role in developing cortical neurons by stabilizing the microtubule. In previous studies, we showed that regulation of microtubule dynamic was instrumental for both growth cone initiation and for promoting regrowth of injured axon. However, the expression and effect of FGF13 in spinal cord or after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains undefined. Here, we demonstrated a role of FGF13 in regulating microtubule dynamics and in enhancing axon regeneration after SCI...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rajiv Sainath, Lorena Armijo-Weingart, Andrea Ketscheck, Zhuxuan Xu, Shuxin Li, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix that inhibit the extension and regeneration of axons. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are functionally inter-linked organelles important to axon development and maintenance. We report that CSPGs impair the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cones of chicken embryonic sensory axons. The effect of CSPGs on the targeting of mitochondria is blocked by inhibition of the LAR receptor for CSPGs...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
H Kimura, Y Fujita, T Kawabata, K Ishizuka, C Wang, Y Iwayama, Y Okahisa, I Kushima, M Morikawa, Y Uno, T Okada, M Ikeda, T Inada, A Branko, D Mori, T Yoshikawa, N Iwata, H Nakamura, T Yamashita, N Ozaki
Reticulon 4 receptor (RTN4R) plays an essential role in regulating axonal regeneration and plasticity in the central nervous system through the activation of rho kinase, and is located within chromosome 22q11.2, a region that is known to be a hotspot for schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, rare variants such as copy-number variants and single-nucleotide variants have been a focus of research because of their large effect size associated with increased susceptibility to SCZ and ASD and the possibility of elucidating the pathophysiology of mental disorder through functional analysis of the discovered rare variants...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Keisuke Onishi, Yimin Zou
Commissural axons switch on responsiveness to Wnt attraction during midline crossing and turn anteriorly only after exiting the floor plate. We report here that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Smoothened signaling downregulates Shisa2, which inhibits the glycosylation and cell surface presentation of Frizzled3 in rodent commissural axon growth cones. Constitutive Shisa2 expression causes randomized turning of post-crossing commissural axons along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Loss of Shisa2 led to precocious anterior turning of commissural axons before or during midline crossing...
September 8, 2017: ELife
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