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Growth cone

Verena Surrey, Caren Zöller, Alicia Andrea Lork, Mehri Moradi, Stefanie Balk, Benjamin Dombert, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Michael Briese, Silke Appenzeller, Utz Fischer, Sibylle Jablonka
Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a fatal motoneuron disorder in children with unknown etiology. The disease is caused by mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene, encoding a Super Family 1 (SF1)-type RNA/DNA helicase. IGHMBP2 is a cytosolic protein that binds to ribosomes and polysomes, suggesting a role in mRNA metabolism. Here we performed morphological and functional analyses of isolated Ighmbp2 deficient motoneurons to address the question whether the SMARD1 phenotype results from de-regulation of protein biosynthesis...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Ibrahim K Alsulami, Thaar M D Alharbi, David P Harvey, Christopher T Gibson, Colin L Raston
Micromixing of an o-xylene solution of C60 with N-N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature under continuous flow in a vortex fluidic device (VFD) results in the formation of symmetrical right cones in high yield with diameters 0.5 to 2.5 μm, pitch angle 25° to 55° and wall thickness 120 to 310 nm. Their formation is in the absence of surfactants and any other reagents, and is scalable. The cones are formed at specific operating parameters of the VFD, including rotational speed, flow rate and concentration, and varying these results in other structures such as grooved fractals...
June 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jacob E Montgomery, Sarah Wahlstrom-Helgren, Timothy D Wiggin, Brittany M Corwin, Christina Lillesaar, Mark A Masino
Serotonin (5HT) is a modulator of many vital processes in the spinal cord (SC), such as production of locomotion. In the larval zebrafish, intraspinal serotonergic neurons (ISNs) are a source of spinal 5HT that, despite the availability of numerous genetic and optical tools, has not yet been directly shown to affect the spinal locomotor network. In order to better understand the functions of ISNs, we used a combination of strategies to investigate ISN development, morphology, and function. ISNs were optically isolated from one another by photoconverting Kaede fluorescent protein in individual cells, permitting morphometric analysis as they developed in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Wei Yao, Eryin Wang, Changhua Bao, Yiou Zhang, Kenan Zhang, Kejie Bao, Chun Kai Chan, Chaoyu Chen, Jose Avila, Maria C Asensio, Junyi Zhu, Shuyun Zhou
The interlayer coupling can be used to engineer the electronic structure of van der Waals heterostructures (superlattices) to obtain properties that are not possible in a single material. So far research in heterostructures has been focused on commensurate superlattices with a long-ranged Moiré period. Incommensurate heterostructures with rotational symmetry but not translational symmetry (in analogy to quasicrystals) are not only rare in nature, but also the interlayer interaction has often been assumed to be negligible due to the lack of phase coherence...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kai Liao, Lingmei Sun
Honokiol, a bioactive compound isolated from the cone and bark of Magnolia officinalis , has been shown to have various activities including the inhibitionof the growth of Candida albicans . We here investigated the roles of Hsp90-calcineurin pathway in the antifungal activity of honokiol.The pharmacologic tool was employed to evaluate the effect of Hsp90 and calcineurin in the antifungal activity of honokiol. We also evaluated the protective effects of calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) on honokiol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by fluorescence staining method...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Oriol Ros, Pablo José Barrecheguren, Tiziana Cotrufo, Martina Schaettin, Cristina Roselló-Busquets, Alba Vílchez-Acosta, Marc Hernaiz-Llorens, Ramón Martínez-Marmol, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo, Eduardo Soriano
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover. Recent studies indicate that whereas axonal attraction requires exocytosis, chemorepulsion relies on endocytosis. Indeed, our own studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX1)...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Genetics
María E Ferrari, María E Bernis, Faye McLeod, Marina Podpolny, Romina P Coullery, Inelia M Casadei, Patricia C Salinas, Silvana B Rosso
The formation of complex dendritic arbors is crucial for the assembly of functional networks as abnormal dendrite formation underlies several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Many extracellular factors have been postulated as regulators of dendritic growth. Wnt proteins play a critical role in neuronal development and circuit formation. We previously demonstrated that Wnt7b acts through the scaffold protein Dishevelled (Dvl) to modulate dendrite arborization by activating a Wnt non-canonical signalling pathway...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Georges Tawil, Mike Barbeck, Ronald Unger, Peter Tawil, Franck Witte
PURPOSE: Sinus floor elevation using the lateral approach and bone window repositioning and a xenogeneic bone substitute (Cerabone) has been well documented clinically. The purpose of this histologic and histomorphometric study was to determine the fate of the window, its contributing role in the healing process, and the osseoconductivity and resorption potential of the high-temperature sintered bovine bone used, as well as to correlate the histomorphometric results with sinus depth and lateral wall thickness as determined on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Bor Luen Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Mohd Adnan, Eyad Alshammari, Syed Amir Ashraf, Kartik Patel, Kishan Lad, Mitesh Patel
Currently, there is an absolute concern for all nations in agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population. In recent time, biosurfactants produced by diverse group of microorganisms are used to achieve such demands as it is known for its ecofriendly use in elimination of plant pathogens and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrients for plants. Endophytic fungi are the important source of secondary metabolites and novel bioactive compounds for different biological applications. In the present study, endophytic fungi Xylaria regalis (X...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jian-Long Zou, Jia-Hui Sun, Shuai Qiu, Shi-Hao Chen, Fu-Lin He, Jia-Chun Li, Hai-Quan Mao, Xiao-Lin Liu, Da-Ping Quan, Yuan-Shan Zeng, Qing-Tang Zhu
CSPGs are components of the extracellular matrix in the nervous system, where they serve as cues for axon guidance during development. After a peripheral nerve injury, CSPGs switch roles and become axon inhibitors and become diffusely distributed at the injury site. To investigate whether the spatial distribution of CSPGs affects their role, we combined in vitro DRG cultures with CSPG stripe or coverage assays to simulate the effect of a patterned substrate or dispersive distribution of CSPGs on growing neurites...
May 28, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Bryce T McLelland, Bin Lin, Anuradha Mathur, Robert B Aramant, Biju B Thomas, Gabriel Nistor, Hans S Keirstead, Magdalene J Seiler
Purpose: To investigate whether sheets of retina organoids derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate, integrate, and improve visual function in an immunodeficient rat model of severe retinal degeneration (RD). Methods: 3D hESC-derived retina organoids were analyzed by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Sheets dissected from retina organoids (30-65 days of differentiation) were transplanted into the subretinal space of immunodeficient rho S334ter-3 rats...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Meng-Jiao Ruan, Gui Chen, Tian-Min Xu
OBJECTIVE: We compared tooth movement under maximum anchorage control with mini-screw implants in growing and non-growing patients. METHODS: In total, 15 adolescent (G1) and 19 adult (G2) patients with prognathic profiles were selected. All patients underwent first premolar extraction treatment with mini-screw implants for maximum anchorage control. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data were obtained immediately after implant placement (T1) and at the end of anterior tooth retraction (T2)...
2018: PloS One
Javier A Teco-Cortes, Peter Grube-Pagola, Vicente A Saldaña-Quiroz, Georgia Alderete-Vázquez
Background: Mullerian adenosarcoma is a rare gynecological malignancy with a low malignant potential, with biphasic growth, consisting of a benign epithelial element and a malignant mesenchymal element. It occurs in all ages predominating in postmenopausal women. Cervical localization of Mullerian adenosarcomas is rare; however, it is associated with a presentation in young women. The diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of the lesion and immunohistochemistry. The prognosis is generally good although the recurrence rate is high...
2018: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Stig Isidor, Gabriele Di Carlo, Marie A Cornelis, Flemming Isidor, Paolo M Cattaneo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess three-dimensionally the upper airway changes following functional appliance treatment in growing Class II patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-and post-treatment Cone beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients (age range: 9 to 12; mean: 11.4 ± 1.0 years) were retrieved from the list of patients previously treated with functional appliances in the Postgraduate Clinic at the Section of Orthodontics, Aarhus University, Denmark...
May 29, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Stephanie A Mauriac, Yeri E Hien, Jonathan E Bird, Steve Dos-Santos Carvalho, Ronan Peyroutou, Sze Chim Lee, Maite M Moreau, Jean-Michel Blanc, Aysegul Gezer, Chantal Medina, Olivier Thoumine, Sandra Beer-Hammer, Thomas B Friedman, Lukas Rüttiger, Andrew Forge, Bernd Nürnberg, Nathalie Sans, Mireille Montcouquiol
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14907.
May 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Souvik Modi, Nathalie F Higgs, David Sheehan, Lewis D Griffin, Josef T Kittler
Neurons communicate with each other through synapses, which show enrichment for specialized receptors. Although many studies have explored spatial enrichment and diffusion of these receptors in dissociated neurons using single particle tracking, much less is known about their dynamic properties at synapses in complex tissue like brain slices. Here we report the use of smaller and highly specific quantum dots conjugated with a recombinant single domain antibody fragment (VHH fragment) against green fluorescent protein to provide information on diffusion of adhesion molecules at the growth cone and neurotransmitter receptors at synapses...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Pranetha Baskaran, Christopher Shaw, Sarah Guthrie
TDP-43-mediated proteinopathy is a key factor in the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A potential underlying mechanism is dysregulation of the cytoskeleton. Here we investigate the effects of expressing TDP-43 wild-type and M337V and Q331K mutant isoforms on cytoskeletal integrity and function, using rat cortical neurons in vitro. We find that TDP-43 protein becomes mislocalised in axons over 24-72 hours in culture, with protein aggregation occurring at later timepoints (144 hours). Quantitation of cell viability showed toxicity of both wild-type and mutant constructs which increased over time, especially of the Q331K mutant isoform...
2018: PloS One
Satish R Ghimire, Evan M Ratzan, Michael R Deans
The cochlea is innervated by neurons that relay sound information from hair cells to central auditory targets. A subset of these are the type II spiral ganglion neurons, which have nociceptive features and contribute to feedback circuits providing neuroprotection in extreme noise. Type II neurons make a distinctive 90° turn towards the cochlear base to synapse with 10-15 outer hair cells. We demonstrate that this axon turning event requires planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling and is disrupted in Vangl2 and Celsr1 knockout mice, and that VANGL2 acts non-autonomously from the cochlea to direct turning...
June 14, 2018: Development
Justin R King, Nadine Kabbani
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel that plays an important role in cellular calcium signaling contributing to synaptic development and plasticity, and is a key drug target for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that α7 nAChR mediated calcium signals in differentiating PC12 cells activate the proteolytic enzyme calpain leading to spectrin breakdown, microtubule retraction, and attenuation in neurite growth. Imaging in growth cones confirms that α7 activation decreases EB3 comet motility in a calcium dependent manner as demonstrated by the ability of α7 nAChR, ryanodine, or IP3 receptor antagonists to block the effect of α7 nAChR on growth...
2018: PloS One
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