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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339693/neuronal-signaling-repertoire-in-the-mammalian-sperm-functionality
#1
Alfredo Ramírez-Reveco, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil, Ilona I Concha
The common embryonic origin has been a recurrent explanation to understand the presence of "neural receptors" in sperm. However, this designation has conditioned a bias marked by the classical neurotransmission model, dismissing the possibility that neurotransmitters can play specific roles in the sperm function by themselves. For instance, the launching of acrosome reaction, a fundamental sperm function, includes several steps that recall the process of presynaptic secretion. Unlike of postsynaptic neuron, whose activation is mediated by molecular interaction between neurotransmitter and postsynaptic receptors, the oocyte activation is not mediated by receptors, but by cytosolic translocation of sperm phospholipase (PLCζ)...
February 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326709/-cone-beam-computed-tomography-analysis-of-the-bony-structure-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-during-two-phase-treatment-with-herbst-appliance
#2
Chen Weiwei, Sang Ting, Huang Zhen, Wu Jun
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance on the bony structure of the temporomandibular joint via cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis. METHODS: This study selected 15 patients exhibiting early permanent dentition and classⅡmalocclusion combined with mandibular retrusion treated by a two phase treatment (Herbst and fixed appliance). The CBCT scans of the patients were obtained at the following stages: 2 weeks before Herbst treatment (T1), at the start of treatment when the Herbst appliance was set in place (T2), immediately after removal of the Herbst appliance (T3), and immediately after removal of the edgewise appliance (T4)...
October 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322231/alix-is-required-during-development-for-normal-growth-of-the-mouse-brain
#3
Marine H Laporte, Christine Chatellard, Victoria Vauchez, Fiona J Hemming, Jean-Christophe Deloulme, Frédérique Vossier, Béatrice Blot, Sandrine Fraboulet, Rémy Sadoul
Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X) drives deformation and fission of endosomal and cell surface membranes and thereby intervenes in diverse biological processes including cell proliferation and apoptosis. Using embryonic fibroblasts of Alix knock-out mice, we recently demonstrated that Alix is required for clathrin-independent endocytosis. Here we show that mice lacking Alix suffer from severe reduction in the volume of the brain which affects equally all regions examined. The cerebral cortex of adult animals shows normal layering but is reduced in both medio-lateral length and thickness...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321435/amyloid-precursor-protein-family-as-unconventional-go-coupled-receptors-and-the-control-of-neuronal-motility
#4
REVIEW
Jenna M Ramaker, Philip F Copenhaver
Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) generates amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer Disease (AD), but APP is also upregulated by developing and injured neurons, suggesting that it regulates neuronal motility. APP can also function as a G protein-coupled receptor that signals via the heterotrimeric G protein Gαo, but evidence for APP-Gαo signaling in vivo has been lacking. Using Manduca as a model system, we showed that insect APP (APPL) regulates neuronal migration in a Gαo-dependent manner...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320970/borc-kinesin-1-ensemble-drives-polarized-transport-of-lysosomes-into-the-axon
#5
Ginny G Farías, Carlos M Guardia, Raffaella De Pace, Dylan J Britt, Juan S Bonifacino
The ability of lysosomes to move within the cytoplasm is important for many cellular functions. This ability is particularly critical in neurons, which comprise vast, highly differentiated domains such as the axon and dendrites. The mechanisms that control lysosome movement in these domains, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that an ensemble of BORC, Arl8, SKIP, and kinesin-1, previously shown to mediate centrifugal transport of lysosomes in nonneuronal cells, specifically drives lysosome transport into the axon, and not the dendrites, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320840/k-channel-kv3-4-is-essential-for-axon-growth-by-limiting-the-influx-of-ca-2-into-growth-cones
#6
Chia-Yi Huang, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chau-Fu Cheng, Ting-Yun Yen, Chieh-Ju Chen, Meei-Ling Tsaur
Membrane excitability in the axonal growth cones of embryonic neurons influences axon growth. Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are key factors in controlling membrane excitability, but whether they regulate axon growth remains unclear. Here, we report that Kv3.4 is expressed in the axonal growth cones of embryonic spinal commissural neurons, motoneurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells and callosal projection neurons during axon growth. Our in vitro (cultured dorsal spinal neurons of chick embryos) and in vivo (developing chick spinal commissural axons and rat callosal axons) findings demonstrate that knockdown of Kv3...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287145/hyaluronan-synthesis-by-developing-cortical-neurons-in-vitro
#7
Tania M Fowke, Rashika N Karunasinghe, Ji-Zhong Bai, Shawn Jordan, Alistair J Gunn, Justin M Dean
Hyaluronan is a linear glycosaminoglycan that forms the backbone of perineuronal nets around neurons in the cerebral cortex. However, it remains controversial whether neurons are capable of independent hyaluronan synthesis. Herein, we examined the expression of hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthases (HASs) throughout cortical neuron development in vitro. Enriched cultures of cortical neurons were established from E16 rats. Neurons were collected at days in vitro (DIV) 0 (4 h), 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for qPCR or immunocytochemistry...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283883/a-three-dimensional-culture-system-with-matrigel-promotes-purified-spiral-ganglion-neuron-survival-and-function-in-vitro
#8
Wenqing Yan, Wenwen Liu, Jieyu Qi, Qiaojun Fang, Zhaomin Fan, Gaoying Sun, Yuechen Han, Daogong Zhang, Lei Xu, Mingming Wang, Jianfeng Li, Fangyi Chen, Dong Liu, Renjie Chai, Haibo Wang
In vitro culture of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is a useful approach to investigate numerous aspects of neuronal behavior and to identify potential therapeutic targets for SGN protection and regeneration. However, the isolation of SGNs and the long-term maintenance of their structure and function in vitro remain challenging. In this study, we isolated SGNs from Bhlhb5-cre and Rosa26-tdTomato mice with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and determined the cell purity. We then encapsulated the pure SGNs in matrigel and cultured the SGNs in vitro...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268126/actin-based-growth-cone-motility-and-guidance
#9
REVIEW
Omotola F Omotade, Stephanie L Pollitt, James Q Zheng
Nerve growth cones, the dilated tip of developing axons, are equipped with exquisite abilities to sense environmental cues and to move rapidly through complex terrains of developing brain, leading the axons to their specific targets for precise neuronal wiring. The actin cytoskeleton is the major component of the growth cone that powers its directional motility. Past research has provided significant insights into the mechanisms by which growth cones translate extracellular signals into directional migration...
March 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254884/a-functional-coupling-between-crmp1-and-nav1-7-for-retrograde-propagation-of-semaphorin3a-signaling
#10
Masayuki Yamane, Naoya Yamashita, Tomonobu Hida, Yoshinori Kamiya, Fumio Nakamura, Pappachan Kolattukudy, Yoshio Goshima
Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is a secreted type of axon guidance molecules that regulates axon wiring through neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and PlexinAs (PlexAs) receptor complex. Sema3A regulates the dendritic branching through a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive retrograde axonal transport of PlexAs and Tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) complex. We here demonstrate that Nav1.7, a TTX-sensitive Na(+) channel, by coupling with collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1), mediates the Sema3A-induced retrograde transport. In mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, Sema3A increased co-localization of PlexA4 and TrkA in the growth cones and axons...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249165/coordinated-movement-of-vesicles-and-actin-bundles-during-nerve-growth-revealed-by-superresolution-microscopy
#11
Motohiro Nozumi, Fubito Nakatsu, Kaoru Katoh, Michihiro Igarashi
The growth cone is an essential structure for nerve growth. Although its membrane and cytoskeleton are likely to interact coordinately during nerve growth, the mechanisms are unknown due to their close proximity. Here, we used superresolution microscopy to simultaneously observe vesicles and F-actin in growth cones. We identified a novel vesicular generation mechanism that is independent of clathrin and dependent on endophilin-3- and dynamin-1 and that occurs proximal to the leading edge simultaneously with fascin-1-dependent F-actin bundling...
February 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246604/directional-transport-of-a-bead-bound-to-lamellipodial-surface-is-driven-by-actin-polymerization
#12
Daisuke Nobezawa, Sho-Ichi Ikeda, Eitaro Wada, Takashi Nagano, Hidetake Miyata
The force driving the retrograde flow of actin cytoskeleton is important in the cellular activities involving cell movement (e.g., growth cone motility in axon guidance, wound healing, or cancer metastasis). However, relative importance of the forces generated by actin polymerization and myosin II in this process remains elusive. We have investigated the retrograde movement of the poly-d-lysine-coated bead attached with the optical trap to the edge of lamellipodium of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The velocity of the attached bead drastically decreased by submicromolar concentration of cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, or jasplakinolide, indicating the involvement of actin turnover...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246119/differential-roles-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-actin-in-axon-growth-and-collateral-branch-formation-in-motoneurons
#13
Mehri Moradi, Rajeeve Sivadasan, Lena Saal, Patrick Lüningschrör, Benjamin Dombert, Reena Jagdish Rathod, Daniela C Dieterich, Robert Blum, Michael Sendtner
Axonal branching and terminal arborization are fundamental events during the establishment of synaptic connectivity. They are triggered by assembly of actin filaments along axon shafts giving rise to filopodia. The specific contribution of the three actin isoforms, Actα, Actβ, and Actγ, to filopodia stability and dynamics during this process is not well understood. Here, we report that Actα, Actβ, and Actγ isoforms are expressed in primary mouse motoneurons and their transcripts are translocated into axons...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245531/rack1-is-necessary-for-the-formation-of-point-contacts-and-regulates-axon-growth
#14
Leah Kershner, Kristy Welshhans
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a multi-functional ribosomal scaffolding protein that can interact with multiple signaling molecules concurrently through its seven WD40 repeats. We recently found that RACK1 is localized to mammalian growth cones, prompting an investigation into its role during neural development. Here we show for the first time that RACK1 localizes to point contacts within mouse cortical growth cones. Point contacts are adhesion sites that link the actin network within growth cones to the extracellular matrix, and are necessary for appropriate axon guidance...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245069/synapsins-regulate-bdnf-mediated-synaptic-potentiation-and-axon-elongation-by-acting-on-membrane-rafts
#15
Hung-Teh Kao, Kanghyun Ryoo, Albert Lin, Stephen R Janoschka, George J Augustine, Barbara Porton
In neurons, intracellular membrane rafts are essential for specific actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which include the regulation of axon outgrowth, growth cone turning and synaptic transmission. Virtually all the actions of BDNF are mediated by binding to its receptor, TrkB. The association of TrkB with the tyrosine kinase, Fyn, is critical for its localization to intracellular membrane rafts. Here, we show that synapsins, a family of highly amphipathic neuronal phosphoproteins, regulate membrane raft lipid composition and consequently, the ability of BDNF to regulate axon/neurite development and potentiate synaptic transmission...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243788/quantifying-filopodia-in-cultured-astrocytes-by-an-algorithm
#16
Georg Aumann, Felix Friedländer, Matthias Thümmler, Fabian Keil, Robert Brunkhorst, Horst-Werner Korf, Amin Derouiche
Astrocytes in vivo extend thin processes termed peripheral astrocyte processes (PAPs), in particular around synapses where they can mediate glia-neuronal communication. The relation of PAPs to synapses is not based on coincidence, but it is not clear which stimuli and mechanisms lead to their formation and are active during process extension/ retraction in response to neuronal activity. Also, the molecular basis of the extremely fine PAP morphology (often 50 to 100 nm) is not understood. These open questions can be best investigated under in vitro conditions studying glial filopodia...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238735/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-matrix-non-peptidase-mnp-1-is-required-for-neuronal-cell-migration-and-interacts-with-the-ror-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-cam-1
#17
Teresa R Craft, Wayne C Forrester
Directed cell migration is critical for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans development many neuronal, muscle and other cell types migrate. Multiple classes of proteins have been implicated in cell migration including secreted guidance cues, receptors for guidance cues and intracellular proteins that respond to cues to polarize cells and produce the forces that move them. In addition, cell surface and secreted proteases have been identified that may clear the migratory route and process guidance cues...
April 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228333/the-interplay-of-axonal-energy-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-anchoring
#18
REVIEW
Zu-Hang Sheng
Mitochondria are key cellular power plants essential for neuronal growth, survival, function, and regeneration after injury. Given their unique morphological features, neurons face exceptional challenges in maintaining energy homeostasis at distal synapses and growth cones where energy is in high demand. Efficient regulation of mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring is critical for neurons to meet altered energy requirements. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport have been implicated in several major neurological disorders...
February 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224988/post-endocytic-sorting-of-plexin-d1-controls-signal-transduction-and-development-of-axonal-and-vascular-circuits
#19
Katja Burk, Erik Mire, Anaïs Bellon, Mélanie Hocine, Jeremy Guillot, Filipa Moraes, Yutaka Yoshida, Michael Simons, Sophie Chauvet, Fanny Mann
Local endocytic events involving receptors for axon guidance cues play a central role in controlling growth cone behaviour. Yet, little is known about the fate of internalized receptors, and whether the sorting events directing them to distinct endosomal pathways control guidance decisions. Here, we show that the receptor Plexin-D1 contains a sorting motif that interacts with the adaptor protein GIPC1 to facilitate transport to recycling endosomes. This sorting process promotes colocalization of Plexin-D1 with vesicular pools of active R-ras, leading to its inactivation...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222310/circulating-mirna-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-military-combat-veterans
#20
Christiana G Martin, Hyungsuk Kim, Sijung Yun, Whitney Livingston, Joseph Fetta, Vincent Mysliwiec, Tristin Baxter, Jessica M Gill
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects many returning combat veterans, but underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. In order to compare circulating micro RNA (miRNA) of combat veterans with and without PTSD, peripheral blood from 24 subjects was collected following deployment, and isolated miRNA was sequenced. PTSD was associated with 8 differentially expressed miRNA. Pathway analysis shows that PTSD is related to the axon guidance and Wnt signaling pathways, which work together to support neuronal development through regulation of growth cones...
May 2017: Psychiatry Research
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