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Growth cone

Nicolas Unsain, Martin D Bordenave, Gaby F Martinez, Sami Jalil, Catalina von Bilderling, Federico M Barabas, Luciano A Masullo, Aaron D Johnstone, Philip A Barker, Mariano Bisbal, Fernando D Stefani, Alfredo O Cáceres
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April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yingcai Fan, Xiaobiao Liu, Junru Wang, Haoqiang Ai, Mingwen Zhao
Using first-principles calculations, we show that the recently synthesized two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered material indium selenide (InSe) nanosheets can serve as a suitable substrate for silicene and germanene, which form commensurate and stable silicene/InSe (Si/InSe) and germanene/InSe (Ge/InSe) heterolayers (HLs). The buckled honeycomb geometries and Dirac-cone-like band structures of silicene and germanene are well preserved in these HLs. The interaction between silicene (or germanene) and the InSe substrate opens up a band gap of 141 meV (or 149 meV) at the Dirac points, while electron effective masses (EEM) remain as small as 0...
April 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Céline Braïni, Angelo Mottolese, Ivan Ferrante, Sylvain Monnier, Catherine Villard
Volume is an important parameter regarding physiological and pathological characteristics of neurons at different time scales. Neurons are quite unique cells regarding their extended ramified morphologies and consequently raise several methodological challenges for volume measurement. In the particular case of in vitro neuronal growth, the chosen methodology should include sub-micrometric axial resolution combined with full-field observation on time scales from minutes to hours or days. Unlike other methods like cell shape reconstruction using confocal imaging, electrically-based measurements or Atomic Force Microscopy, the recently developed Fluorescence eXclusion method (FXm) has the potential to fulfill these challenges...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hiroki Umeshima, Ken-Ichi Nomura, Shuhei Yoshikawa, Marcel Hörning, Motomu Tanaka, Shinya Sakuma, Fumihito Arai, Makoto Kaneko, Mineko Kengaku
Somal translocation in long bipolar neurons is regulated by actomyosin contractile forces, yet the precise spatiotemporal sites of force generation are unknown. Here we investigate the force dynamics generated during somal translocation using traction force microscopy. Neurons with a short leading process generated a traction force in the growth cone and counteracting forces in the leading and trailing processes. In contrast, neurons with a long leading process generated a force dipole with opposing traction forces in the proximal leading process during nuclear translocation...
April 5, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Josy Augustine, Sofia Pavlou, Michael O'Hare, Kevin Harkin, Alan Stitt, Tim Curtis, Heping Xu, Mei Chen
Purpose: Müller glia are critical for the survival of retinal neurons and the integrity of retinal blood vessels. Müller glial cultures are important tools for investigating Müller glial pathophysiology. Here, we report a spontaneously immortalized Müller glial cell line originally cultured and subsequently cloned from mouse pups. The cell line, Queen's University Murine Müller glia Clone-1 (QMMuC-1), has been cultured for over 60 passages, has morphologic features like primary Müller cell (PMC) cultures and remains stable...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Fausto Ulloa, Tiziana Cotrufo, Delia Ricolo, Eduardo Soriano, Sofia J Araújo
Through complex mechanisms that guide axons to the appropriate routes towards their targets, axonal growth and guidance lead to neuronal system formation. These mechanisms establish the synaptic circuitry necessary for the optimal performance of the nervous system in all organisms. Damage to these networks can be repaired by neuroregenerative processes which in turn can re-establish synapses between injured axons and postsynaptic terminals. Both axonal growth and guidance and the neuroregenerative response rely on correct axonal growth and growth cone responses to guidance cues as well as correct synapses with appropriate targets...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Roger Keynes, Geoffrey Cook
The chick embryo has provided a prominent model system for the study of segmental patterning in the nervous system. During early development, motor and sensory axon growth cones traverse the anterior/rostral half of each somite, so avoiding the developing vertebral components and ensuring separation of spinal nerves from vertebral bones. A glycoprotein expressed on the surface of posterior half-somite cells confines growth cones to the anterior half-somites by a contact repulsive mechanism. Hindbrain segmentation is also a conspicuous feature of chick brain development...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Feng Li, Masao Kakoki, Marcela Smid, Kim Boggess, Jennifer Wilder, Sylvia Hiller, Carol Bounajim, Scott E Parnell, Kathleen K Sulik, Oliver Smithies, Nobuyo Maeda-Smithies
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. An association between an EDN1 gene polymorphism with high ET-1 and preeclampsia was reported in humans, but their cause and effect relationships have not been defined. We examined the pregnancy effects in mice with a modified Edn1 allele that increases mRNA stability and thus ET-1 production. Heterozygous Edn1 H/+ females showed no obvious abnormalities before pregnancy, but when mated with wild-type (WT) males developed a full spectrum of preeclampsia-like phenotypes, including increased systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular endotheliosis, and intrauterine fetal growth restriction...
April 2, 2018: Hypertension
Serge B Poda, Dieudonné D Soma, Aristide Hien, Moussa Namountougou, Olivier Gnankiné, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Florence Fournet, Thierry Baldet, Santiago Mas-Coma, Beatriz Mosqueira, Roch K Dabiré
BACKGROUND: A novel strategy applying an organophosphate-based insecticide paint on doors and windows in combination with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) was tested for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in a village setting in Vallée du Kou, a rice-growing area west of Burkina Faso. METHODS: Insecticide Paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, comprised of two organophosphates and an insect growth regulator, was applied to doors and windows and tested in combination with pyrethroid-treated LLINs...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mohamed Bazina, Lucia Cevidanes, Antonio Ruellas, Manish Valiathan, Faisal Quereshy, Ali Syed, Rongning Wu, J Martin Palomo
INTRODUCTION: Superimposition of 2 cone-beam computed tomography images is possible by using landmarks, surfaces, or density information (voxel-based). Voxel-based superimposition is automated and uses the most image content, providing accurate results. Until recently, this superimposition was extremely laborious, but a user-friendly voxel-based superimposition has recently been introduced. Our aim was to evaluate the precision and reliability of Dolphin 3-dimensional voxel-based superimposition (Dolphin Imaging, Chatsworth, Calif)...
April 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Olga Iuliano, Azumi Yoshimura, Marie-Thérèse Prospéri, René Martin, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Evelyne Coudrier
Single-headed myosin 1 has been identified in neurons, but its function in these cells is still unclear. We demonstrate that depletion of myosin 1b (Myo1b), inhibition of its motor activity, or its binding to phosphoinositides impairs the formation of the axon, whereas overexpression of Myo1b increases the number of axon-like structures. Myo1b is associated with growth cones and actin waves, two major contributors to neuronal symmetry breaking. We show that Myo1b controls the dynamics of the growth cones and the anterograde propagation of the actin waves...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
M L Pearn, J M Schilling, M Jian, J Egawa, C Wu, C D Mandyam, M J Fannon-Pavlich, U Nguyen, J Bertoglio, M Kodama, S K Mahata, C DerMardirossian, B P Lemkuil, R Han, W C Mobley, H H Patel, P M Patel, B P Head
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the developing brain to propofol results in cognitive deficits. Recent data suggest that inhibition of neuronal apoptosis does not prevent cognitive defects, suggesting mechanisms other than neuronal apoptosis play a role in anaesthetic neurotoxicity. Proper neuronal growth during development is dependent upon growth cone morphology and axonal transport. Propofol modulates actin dynamics in developing neurones, causes RhoA-dependent depolymerisation of actin, and reduces dendritic spines and synapses...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Robert M Hoffman, Sumiyuki Mii, Jennifer Duong, Yasuyuki Amoh
Nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells reside mainly in the bulge area (BA) of the hair follicle but also in the dermal papilla (DP). The BA appears to be origin of HAP stem cells. Long-term Gelfoam® histoculture was established of whiskers isolated from transgenic mice, in which there is nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). HAP stem cells trafficked from the BA toward the DP area and extensively grew out onto Gelfoam® forming nerve-like structures. These fibers express the neuron marker β-III tubulin-positive fibers and consisted of ND-GFP-expressing cells and extended up to 500 mm from the whisker nerve stump in Gelfoam® histoculture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jingyu Jin, Sharada Tilve, Zhonghai Huang, Libing Zhou, Herbert M Geller, Panpan Yu
As one major component of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the central nervous system, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have long been known as inhibitors enriched in the glial scar that prevent axon regeneration after injury. Although many studies have shown that CSPGs inhibited neurite outgrowth in vitro using different types of neurons, the mechanism by which CSPGs inhibit axonal growth remains poorly understood. Using cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) culture, in this study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of both immobilized and soluble CSPGs on neuronal growth, including cell adhesion, spreading and neurite growth...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ji Cheng Ding, Teng Fei Zhang, Zhi Xin Wan, Hai Juan Mei, Myung Chang Kang, Qi Min Wang, Kwang Ho Kim
The Cr-Cu-N coatings with various Cu contents (0-25.18 (±0.17) at.%) were deposited on Si wafer and stainless steel (SUS 304) substrates in reactive Ar+N2 gas mixture by a hybrid coating system combining pulsed DC and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. The influence of Cu content on the coating composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties was investigated. The microstructure of the coatings was significantly altered by the introduction of Cu. The deposited coatings exhibit solid solution structure with different compositions in all of the samples...
2018: Scanning
Oriane Blanquie, Frank Bradke
Recent years have seen cytoskeleton dynamics emerging as a key player in axon regeneration. The cytoskeleton, in particular microtubules and actin, ensures the growth of neuronal processes and maintains the singular, highly polarized shape of neurons. Following injury, adult central axons are tipped by a dystrophic structure, the retraction bulb, which prevents their regeneration. Abnormal cytoskeleton dynamics are responsible for the formation of this growth-incompetent structure but pharmacologically modulating cytoskeleton dynamics of injured axons can transform this structure into a growth-competent growth cone...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tatsuya Yamada, Makoto Nishiyama, Shigeyuki Oba, Henri Claver Jimbo, Kazushi Ikeda, Shin Ishii, Kyonsoo Hong, Yuichi Sakumura
Biological cells express intracellular biomolecular information to the extracellular environment as various physical responses. We show a novel computational approach to estimate intracellular biomolecular pathways from growth cone electrophysiological responses. Previously, it was shown that cGMP signaling regulates membrane potential (MP) shifts that control the growth cone turning direction during neuronal development. We present here an integrated deterministic mathematical model and Bayesian reversed-engineering framework that enables estimation of the molecular signaling pathway from electrical recordings and considers both the system uncertainty and cell-to-cell variability...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong Duan, Luis F de Navas, Fuqu Hu, Kailiang Sun, Yannis E Mavromatakis, Kayla Viets, Cyrus Zhou, Joshua Kavaler, Robert J Johnston, Andrew Tomlinson, Eric C Lai
Photoreceptors in the crystalline Drosophila eye are recruited by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signaling, mediated by the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) and Sevenless receptor. Analyses of an allelic deletion series of the mir-279/996 locus, along with a panel of modified genomic rescue transgenes, show that normal Drosophila eye patterning depends on both miRNAs. Transcriptional reporter and activity sensor transgenes reveal expression and function of miR-279/996 in non-neural cells of the developing eye...
March 14, 2018: Development
Coralie Fassier, Amélie Fréal, Laïla Gasmi, Christian Delphin, Daniel Ten Martin, Stéphanie De Gois, Monica Tambalo, Christophe Bosc, Philippe Mailly, Céline Revenu, Leticia Peris, Susanne Bolte, Sylvie Schneider-Maunoury, Corinne Houart, Fatiha Nothias, Jean-Christophe Larcher, Annie Andrieux, Jamilé Hazan
During neural circuit assembly, extrinsic signals are integrated into changes in growth cone (GC) cytoskeleton underlying axon guidance decisions. Microtubules (MTs) were shown to play an instructive role in GC steering. However, the numerous actors required for MT remodeling during axon navigation and their precise mode of action are far from being deciphered. Using loss- and gain-of-function analyses during zebrafish development, we identify in this study the meiotic clade adenosine triphosphatase Fidgetin-like 1 (Fignl1) as a key GC-enriched MT-interacting protein in motor circuit wiring and larval locomotion...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Jean-Michel Cioni, Hovy Ho-Wai Wong, Dario Bressan, Lay Kodama, William A Harris, Christine E Holt
The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are topographically sorted before they arrive at the optic tectum. This pre-target sorting, typical of axon tracts throughout the brain, is poorly understood. Here, we show that cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting proteins (CYFIPs) fulfill non-redundant functions in RGCs, with CYFIP1 mediating axon growth and CYFIP2 specifically involved in axon sorting. We find that CYFIP2 mediates homotypic and heterotypic contact-triggered fasciculation and repulsion responses between dorsal and ventral axons...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
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