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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819108/spag6-mutant-mice-have-defects-in-development-and-function-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons-apoptosis-and-higher-sensitivity-to-paclitaxel
#1
Xiaofei Li, Lei Xu, Gaoying Sun, Xianmin Wu, Xiaohui Bai, Jianfeng Li, Jerome F Strauss, Zhibing Zhang, Haibo Wang
Mammalian Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus. Recent studies showed that Spag6 has a role in brain neuronal proliferation and differentiation. The mammalian spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are specialzed bipolar neurons in the inner ear. However, the role of SPAG6 in SGN has not been elucidated. Therefore, We hypothesized that a Spag6 knockout would affect the development and function of SGNs. We utilized Spag6-deficient mice and SGN explants to define the role of SPAG6...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809040/a-mobile-app-for-sharing-contacts-on-your-cell-an-editorial-highlight-for-the-physiological-role-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-app-as-an-adhesion-molecule-in-the-developing-nervous-system-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14122
#2
EDITORIAL
George William Rebeck, Daniel T S Pak
This is an Editorial for a review that Sosa and coworkers present in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry of physiological functions for amyloid precursor protein (APP) at dynamic cellular contact sites such as growth cones, neuronal migration tracts, and synapses. Here, APP physically links the extracellular and intracellular milieus through a multitude of binding partners. From these observations, the authors offer a model of APP as a cell adhesion molecule in the brain, providing a context for understanding its role in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804736/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-its-receptor-upar-promote-neurorepair-in-the-ischemic-brain
#3
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Manuel Yepes
Despite the fact that ischemic stroke has been considered a leading cause of mortality in the world, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ischemic injury and the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients have led to a sharp decrease in the number of stroke deaths. However, this decrease in stroke mortality has also led to an increase in the number of patients that survive the acute ischemic injury with different degrees of disability. Unfortunately, to this date we do not have an effective therapeutic strategy to promote neurological recovery in these growing population of stroke survivors...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801261/long-wavelength-red-light-produces-hyperopia-in-juvenile-and-adolescent-tree-shrews
#4
Timothy J Gawne, Alexander H Ward, Thomas T Norton
In infant tree shrews, exposure to narrow-band long-wavelength (red) light, that stimulates long-wavelength sensitive cones almost exclusively, slows axial elongation and produces hyperopia. We asked if red light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent animals, ages when plus lenses are ineffective. Animals were raised in fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux) until they began 13 days of red-light treatment at 11 (n=5, "infant"), 35 (n=5, "juvenile") or 95 (n=5, "adolescent") days of visual experience (DVE)...
August 8, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798490/investigation-of-neuronal-pathfinding-and-construction-of-artificial-neuronal-networks-on-3d-arranged-porous-fibrillar-scaffolds-with-controlled-geometry
#5
Dongyoon Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Seyeong Lee, Myung-Han Yoon
Herein, we investigated the neurite pathfinding on electrospun microfibers with various fiber densities, diameters, and microbead islands, and demonstrated the development of 3D connected artificial neuronal network within a nanofiber-microbead-based porous scaffold. The primary culture of rat hippocampal embryonic neurons was deposited on geometry-controlled polystyrene (PS) fiber scaffolds while growth cone morphology, neurite outgrowth patterns, and focal adhesion protein expression were cautiously examined by microscopic imaging of immunostained and live neuronal cells derived from actin-GFP transgenic mice...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794445/igf-1-receptor-regulates-dynamic-changes-in-neuronal-polarity-during-cerebral-cortical-migration
#6
Álvaro F Nieto Guil, Mariana Oksdath, Linnea A Weiss, Diego J Grassi, Lucas J Sosa, Marta Nieto, Santiago Quiroga
During cortical development, neurons undergo polarization, oriented migration and layer-type differentiation. The biological and biochemical mechanisms underlying these processes are not completely understood. In neurons in culture we showed that IGF-1 receptor activation is important for growth cone assembly and axonal formation. However, the possible roles of the insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) on neuronal differentiation and polarization in vivo in mammals have not yet been studied. Using in utero electroporation, we show here that the IGF-1R is essential for neocortical development...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792499/revisiting-chemoaffinity-theory-chemotactic-implementation-of-topographic-axonal-projection
#7
Honda Naoki
Neural circuits are wired by chemotactic migration of growth cones guided by extracellular guidance cue gradients. How growth cone chemotaxis builds the macroscopic structure of the neural circuit is a fundamental question in neuroscience. I addressed this issue in the case of the ordered axonal projections called topographic maps in the retinotectal system. In the retina and tectum, the erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, are expressed in gradients. According to Sperry's chemoaffinity theory, gradients in both the source and target areas enable projecting axons to recognize their proper terminals, but how axons chemotactically decode their destinations is largely unknown...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765332/n1-src-kinase-is-required-for-primary-neurogenesis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#8
Philip A Lewis, Isobel C Bradley, Alastair R Pizzey, Harry V Isaacs, Gareth J O Evans
The presence of the neuronal-specific N1-Src splice variant of the C-Src tyrosine kinase is conserved through vertebrate evolution, suggesting an important role in complex nervous systems. Alternative splicing involving a N1-Src specific microexon leads to a five or six amino acid insertion into the SH3 domain of Src. A prevailing model suggests that N1-Src regulates neuronal differentiation via cytoskeletal dynamics in the growth cone. Here we have investigated the role of n1-src in the early development of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis, and find that n1-src expression is regulated in embryogenesis, with highest levels detected during the phases of primary and secondary neurogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765051/how-does-calcium-interact-with-the-cytoskeleton-to-regulate-growth-cone-motility-during-axon-pathfinding
#9
REVIEW
Robert J Gasperini, Macarena Pavez, Adrian C Thompson, Camilla B Mitchell, Holly Hardy, Kaylene M Young, John K Chilton, Lisa Foa
The precision with which neurons form connections is crucial for the normal development and function of the nervous system. The development of neuronal circuitry in the nervous system is accomplished by axon pathfinding: a process where growth cones guide axons through the embryonic environment to connect with their appropriate synaptic partners to form functional circuits. Despite intense efforts over many years to understand how this process is regulated, the complete repertoire of molecular mechanisms that govern the growth cone cytoskeleton and hence motility, remain unresolved...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760769/filopodyan-an-open-source-pipeline-for-the-analysis-of-filopodia
#10
Vasja Urbančič, Richard Butler, Benjamin Richier, Manuel Peter, Julia Mason, Frederick J Livesey, Christine E Holt, Jennifer L Gallop
Filopodia have important sensory and mechanical roles in motile cells. The recruitment of actin regulators, such as ENA/VASP proteins, to sites of protrusion underlies diverse molecular mechanisms of filopodia formation and extension. We developed Filopodyan (filopodia dynamics analysis) in Fiji and R to measure fluorescence in filopodia and at their tips and bases concurrently with their morphological and dynamic properties. Filopodyan supports high-throughput phenotype characterization as well as detailed interactive editing of filopodia reconstructions through an intuitive graphical user interface...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759071/current-voltage-characteristics-of-borophene-and-borophane-sheets
#11
Sahar Izadi Vishkayi, Meysam Bagheri Tagani
Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical research on a monolayer of boron atoms, borophene, the current-voltage characteristics of three different borophene sheets, 2Pmmn, 8Pmmn, and 8Pmmm, are calculated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Borophene sheets with two and eight atoms in a unit cell are considered. Their band structure, electron density, and structural anisotropy are analyzed in detail. The results show that the 8Pmmn and 8Pmmm structures that have eight atoms in the unit cell have less anisotropy than 2Pmmn...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754948/parameterization-of-phosphine-ligands-demonstrates-enhancement-of-nickel-catalysis-via-remote-steric-effects
#12
Kevin Wu, Abigail G Doyle
The field of Ni-catalysed cross-coupling has seen rapid recent growth because of the low cost of Ni, its earth abundance, and its ability to promote unique cross-coupling reactions. Whereas advances in the related field of Pd-catalysed cross-coupling have been driven by ligand design, the development of ligands specifically for Ni has received minimal attention. Here, we disclose a class of phosphines that enable the Ni-catalysed Csp(3) Suzuki coupling of acetals with boronic acids to generate benzylic ethers, a reaction that failed with known ligands for Ni and designer phosphines for Pd...
August 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754185/association-between-maxillary-anterior-supernumerary-teeth-and-impacted-incisors-in-mixed-dentition
#13
Dongmei He, Li Mei, Yan Wang, Jialing Li, Huang Li
BACKGROUND: Few researchers have investigated the relationship between supernumerary teeth (ST) and impacted incisors. The authors investigated the relationship between ST and impacted incisors in the maxillary anterior area in the mixed dentition. METHODS: Using cone-beam computed tomography, the authors diagnosed 417 ST among 294 patients (age range, 6-12 years; 220 boys and 74 girls). The number, morphology, growth orientation, and position of ST were recorded along with the presence of impacted incisors...
August 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753354/out-of-time-ordered-density-correlators-in-luttinger-liquids
#14
Balázs Dóra, Roderich Moessner
Information scrambling and the butterfly effect in chaotic quantum systems can be diagnosed by out-of-time-ordered (OTO) commutators through an exponential growth and large late time value. We show that the latter feature shows up in a strongly correlated many-body system, a Luttinger liquid, whose density fluctuations we study at long and short wavelengths, both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. We find rich behavior combining robustly universal and nonuniversal features. The OTO commutators display temperature- and initial-state-independent behavior and grow as t^{2} for short times...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736221/scaffold-curvature-mediated-novel-biomineralization-process-originates-a-continuous-soft-tissue-to-bone-interface
#15
Michael Paris, Andreas Götz, Inga Hettrich, Cécile M Bidan, John W C Dunlop, Hajar Razi, Ivo Zizak, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Peter Fratzl, Georg N Duda, Wolfgang Wagermaier, Amaia Cipitria
A myriad of shapes are found in biological tissues, often naturally evolved to fulfill a particular function. In the field of tissue engineering, substrate geometry influences cell behavior and tissue formation in-vitro, yet little is known how this translates to an in-vivo scenario. Here we investigate scaffold curvature-induced tissue growth, without additional growth factors or cells, in an ovine animal model. We show that soft tissue formation follows a curvature-driven tissue growth model. The highly organized endogenous soft matrix, potentially under mechanical strain, leads to a non-standard form of biomineralization, whereby the pre-existing organic matrix is mineralized without collagen remodeling and without an intermediate cartilage ossification phase...
July 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735346/anatomical-relation-between-nasal-septum-deviation-and-oropharynx-volume-in-different-facial-patterns-evaluated-through-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#16
Ana Márcia Viana Wanzeler, Maria Daniela Oliveira Renda, Maria Eduarda de Oliveira Pereira, Sérgio Melo Alves-Junior, Fabricio Mesquita Tuji
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to establish the anatomical relation between nasal septum deviation (NSD) and oropharynx volume in different facial patterns using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Ninety CBCT examinations were analyzed. InVivoDental software was used to evaluate cephalometric image reconstructions in terms of facial type, determined from cephalometric measurements indicative of growth direction; the presence of NSD was also evaluated...
July 22, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734871/the-role-of-temporal-contrast-and-blue-light-in-emmetropization
#17
Frances Rucker, Mark Henriksen, Tiffany Yanase, Christopher Taylor
A previous experiment showed that blue light (as a component of white light) protected against low temporal frequency dependent eye growth. This experiment investigated the role of temporal contrast. White leghorn chicks were exposed to white (with blue) or yellow (without blue) LED lighting modulated at either low (0.2Hz) or high (10Hz) temporal frequencies. Four cone contrast conditions were used: low (16%), medium (32%), medium-high (60%) and very-high (80%). Chicks were exposed to the lighting condition for 3days (mean 680lux)...
August 1, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726574/rise-of-the-pigs-utilization-of-the-porcine-model-to-study-musculoskeletal-biomechanics-and-tissue-engineering-during-skeletal-growth
#18
Stephanie G Cone, Paul B Warren, Matthew B Fisher
Large animal models play an essential role in the study of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as biomechanics.  The porcine model has been increasingly used to study the musculoskeletal system, including specific joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joints, and tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and ligaments. In particular, pigs have been utilized to evaluate the role of skeletal growth on the biomechanics and engineered replacements of these joints and tissues. In this review, we explore the publication history of the use of pig models in biomechanics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine studies, discuss inter-species comparative studies, highlight studies on the effect of skeletal growth and other biological considerations in the porcine model, and present challenges and emerging opportunities for using this model to study functional tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725380/from-the-ground-up-biotic-and-abiotic-features-that-set-the-course-from-genes-to-ecosystems
#19
Craig W Benkman, Sierra Jech, Matthew V Talluto
Spatial variation in cone serotiny in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) across Yellowstone National Park influences initial pine recruitment after stand-replacing fire with tremendous population, community, and ecosystem consequences. A previous study showed that much of the spatial variation in serotiny results from the balance of selection arising from high frequencies of fire favoring serotiny countered by opposing selection exerted by American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) as seed predators...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722651/ephrin-a-epha-specific-co-adaptation-as-a-novel-mechanism-in-topographic-axon-guidance
#20
Felix Fiederling, Markus Weschenfelder, Martin Fritz, Anne von Philipsborn, Martin Bastmeyer, Franco Weth
Genetic hardwiring during brain development provides computational architectures for innate neuronal processing. Thus, the paradigmatic chick retinotectal projection, due to its neighborhood preserving, topographic organization, establishes millions of parallel channels for incremental visual field analysis. Retinal axons receive targeting information from quantitative guidance cue gradients. Surprisingly, novel adaptation assays demonstrate that retinal growth cones robustly adapt towards ephrin-A/EphA forward and reverse signals, which provide the major mapping cues...
July 19, 2017: ELife
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