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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#1
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203001/-effect-of-concentrated-growth-factors-on-the-treatment-of-degree-ii-furcation-involvements-of-mandibular-molars
#2
J Qiao, J Y Duan, Y Chu, C Z Sun
OBJECTIVE: Concentrated growth factors (CGF), a new generation of platelet concentrate products, appears to have more abundant growth factors because of its special centrifugation process. However, there are few studies supporting this. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CGFs in the treatment of II° furcations of mandibular molars. METHODS: In the present study, thirty-one II° furcation involvements in twenty mandiblular molars were included and randomly divided into two groups...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202041/the-microtubule-plus-end-tracking-protein-tacc3-promotes-persistent-axon-outgrowth-and-mediates-responses-to-axon-guidance-signals-during-development
#3
Burcu Erdogan, Garrett M Cammarata, Eric J Lee, Benjamin C Pratt, Andrew F Francl, Erin L Rutherford, Laura Anne Lowery
BACKGROUND: Formation of precise neuronal connections requires proper axon guidance. Microtubules (MTs) of the growth cone provide a critical driving force during navigation of the growing ends of axons. Pioneer MTs and their plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are thought to play integrative roles during this navigation. TACC3 is a + TIP that we have previously implicated in regulating MT dynamics within axons. However, the role of TACC3 in axon guidance has not been previously explored...
February 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199019/the-role-of-drebrin-in-neurons
#4
REVIEW
Tomoaki Shirao, Kenji Hanamura, Noriko Koganezawa, Yuta Ishizuka, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin is an actin-binding protein that changes the helical pitch of actin filaments (F-actin), and drebrin-decorated F-actin shows slow treadmilling and decreased rate of depolymerization. Moreover, the characteristic morphology of drebrin-decorated F-actin enables it to respond differently to the same signals from other actin cytoskeletons. Drebrin consists of two major isoforms, drebrin E and drebrin A. In the developing brain, drebrin E appears in migrating neurons and accumulates in the growth cones of axons and dendrites...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197551/ephrina5-signaling-is-required-for-the-distinctive-targeting-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-in-the-forebrain
#5
Teng Teng, Afsaneh Gaillard, Aude Muzerelle, Patricia Gaspar
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the brain relies on a widespread axon terminal network originating from the hindbrain raphe nuclei. These projections are topographically organized such that the dorsal (DR), and median raphe (MnR) nuclei have different brain targets. However, the guidance molecules involved in this selective targeting in development are unknown. Here, we show the implication of ephrinA5 signaling in this process. We find that the EphA5 gene is selectively expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons during embryonic and postnatal development...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197202/expression-changes-of-nerve-cell-adhesion-molecules-l1-and-semaphorin-3a-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#6
Qian-Ru He, Meng Cong, Qing-Zhong Chen, Ya-Feng Sheng, Jian Li, Qi Zhang, Fei Ding, Yan-Pei Gong
The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178528/quantitative-map-of-proteome-dynamics-during-neuronal-differentiation
#7
Christian K Frese, Marina Mikhaylova, Riccardo Stucchi, Violette Gautier, Qingyang Liu, Shabaz Mohammed, Albert J R Heck, A F Maarten Altelaar, Casper C Hoogenraad
Neuronal differentiation is a multistep process that shapes and re-shapes neurons by progressing through several typical stages, including axon outgrowth, dendritogenesis, and synapse formation. To systematically profile proteome dynamics throughout neuronal differentiation, we took cultured rat hippocampal neurons at different developmental stages and monitored changes in protein abundance using a combination of stable isotope labeling and high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161362/ngf-dependent-axon-growth-and-regeneration-are-altered-in-sympathetic-neurons-of-dystrophic-mdx-mice
#8
Loredana Lombardi, Irene Persiconi, Alessandra Gallo, Casper C Hoogenraad, Maria Egle De Stefano
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal disease, determined by lack of dystrophin (Dp427), a muscular cytoskeletal protein also expressed by selected neuronal populations. Consequently, besides muscular wasting, both human patients and DMD animal models suffer several neural disorders. In previous studies on the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of wild type and dystrophic mdx mice (Lombardi et al. 2008), we hypothesized that Dp427 could play some role in NGF-dependent axonal growth, both during development and adulthood...
February 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153164/growth-changes-in-the-anterior-and-middle-cranial-bases-assessed-with-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-adolescents
#9
Mona Afrand, Heesoo Oh, Carlos Flores-Mir, Manuel O Lagravère-Vich
INTRODUCTION: Initially, cone-beam computed tomography images from dry skulls were used to 3 dimensionally evaluate intrarater and interrater reliabilities and accuracy of selected 3-dimensional landmarks located in the anterior and middle cranial bases. Thereafter, dimensional changes of the anterior and middle cranial bases with growth were evaluated by using the previously selected landmarks. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography images of 10 dry skulls were used to identify useful landmarks from different areas of the anterior and middle cranial bases based on their reliability and accuracy...
February 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147273/mir-182-regulates-slit2-mediated-axon-guidance-by-modulating-the-local-translation-of-a-specific-mrna
#10
Anaïs Bellon, Archana Iyer, Simone Bridi, Flora C Y Lee, Cesaré Ovando-Vázquez, Eloina Corradi, Sara Longhi, Michela Roccuzzo, Stephanie Strohbuecker, Sindhu Naik, Peter Sarkies, Eric Miska, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Christine E Holt, Marie-Laure Baudet
During brain wiring, cue-induced axon behaviors such as directional steering and branching are aided by localized mRNA translation. Different guidance cues elicit translation of subsets of mRNAs that differentially regulate the cytoskeleton, yet little is understood about how specific mRNAs are selected for translation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical translational regulators that act through a sequence-specific mechanism. Here, we investigate the local role of miRNAs in mRNA-specific translation during pathfinding of Xenopus laevis retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137836/dscam-promotes-axon-fasciculation-and-growth-in-the-developing-optic-pathway
#11
Freyja M Bruce, Samantha Brown, Jonathan N Smith, Peter G Fuerst, Lynda Erskine
Although many aspects of optic pathway development are beginning to be understood, the mechanisms promoting the growth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons toward visual targets remain largely unknown. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) is expressed by mouse RGCs shortly after they differentiate at embryonic day 12 and is essential for multiple aspects of postnatal visual system development. Here we show that Dscam is also required during embryonic development for the fasciculation and growth of RGC axons...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137433/an-improved-method-for-growing-neurons-comparison-with-standard-protocols
#12
Diletta Pozzi, Jelena Ban, Federico Iseppon, Vincent Torre
BACKGROUND: Since different culturing parameters - such as media composition or cell density - lead to different experimental results, it is important to define the protocol used for neuronal cultures. The vital role of astrocytes in maintaining homeostasis of neurons - both in vivo and in vitro - is well established: the majority of improved culturing conditions for primary dissociated neuronal cultures rely on astrocytes. NEW METHOD: Our culturing protocol is based on a novel serum-free preparation of astrocyte - conditioned medium (ACM)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124181/drosophila-dunc-115-mediates-axon-projection-through-actin-binding
#13
Christopher Roblodowski, Qi He
A central step in organizing the central nervous system development is the growth cone of an axon navigating through guidance cues to reach its specific target. While a great deal of this process has been understood especially in identifying the extracellular guidance cues and their membrane receptors, much less is known about how guidance signals are further relayed to the actin filaments that are central to the mobility of the growth cone. The previous results from our laboratory have shown that Drosophila gene dunc-115 regulates axon projection in the eye and the central nervous system...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121164/herbst-appliance-effects-on-pharyngeal-airway-ventilation-evaluated-using-computational-fluid-dynamics
#14
Tomonori Iwasaki, Hideo Sato, Hokuto Suga, Ayaka Minami, Yuushi Yamamoto, Yoshihiko Takemoto, Emi Inada, Issei Saitoh, Eriko Kakuno, Ryuzo Kanomi, Youichi Yamasaki
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a Herbst appliance on ventilation of the pharyngeal airway (PA) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one Class II patients (10 boys; mean age, 11.7 years) who required Herbst therapy with edgewise treatment underwent cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) before and after treatment. Nineteen Class I control patients (8 boys; mean age, 11.9 years) received edgewise treatment alone. The pressure and velocity of the PA were compared between the groups using CFD based on three-dimensional CBCT images of the PA...
January 25, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114243/facial-growth-patterns-and-insertion-sites-of-miniscrew-implants
#15
Fariborz Amini, Minoo Alipanahi, Vahid Rakhshan, Shahriar Shahab, Anooshe Niktash
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the associations between the craniofacial growth pattern with interradicular distances (IRDs), cortical widths (CWs), and jaw heights (JHs). Also, we mapped safe zones for miniscrew implantation. METHODS: Cone-beam computerized tomography data pertaining to 60 Class-I patients were divided into 3 growth groups: normal, horizontal, and vertical. IRDs and CWs were measured for bimaxillary canines to second molars, on buccal and lingual sides, at 3 transverse planes (1, 3, and 5 mm apically to the alveolar crest)...
February 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114100/the-genetics-of-axon-guidance-and-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Andrew D Chisholm, Harald Hutter, Yishi Jin, William G Wadsworth
The correct wiring of neuronal circuits depends on outgrowth and guidance of neuronal processes during development. In the past two decades, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of axon outgrowth and guidance. Genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has played a key role in elucidating conserved pathways regulating axon guidance, including Netrin signaling, the slit Slit/Robo pathway, Wnt signaling, and others. Axon guidance factors were first identified by screens for mutations affecting animal behavior, and by direct visual screens for axon guidance defects...
November 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111510/poisson-type-inequalities-for-growth-properties-of-positive-superharmonic-functions
#17
Kuan Luan, John Vieira
In this paper, we present new Poisson-type inequalities for Poisson integrals with continuous data on the boundary. The obtained inequalities are used to obtain growth properties at infinity of positive superharmonic functions in a smooth cone.
2017: J Inequal Appl
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110092/cutin-synthase2-maintains-progressively-developing-cuticular-ridges-in-arabidopsis-sepals
#18
Lilan Hong, Joel Brown, Nicholas A Segerson, Jocelyn K C Rose, Adrienne H K Roeder
The cuticle is a crucial barrier on the aerial surfaces of land plants. In many plants, including Arabidopsis, the sepals and petals form distinctive nanoridges in their cuticles. Yet little is known about how the formation and maintenance of these nanostructures is coordinated with the growth and development of the underlying cells. Here we characterize the cutin synthase 2 (cus2) mutant, which causes a great reduction in cuticular ridges on the mature sepal epidermis, but only a moderate effect on petal cone cell ridges...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102933/what-if-a-tumor-is-significantly-enlarged-just-before-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Hung-Jen Chen, Ji-An Liang, Chih-Yi Chen, Yang-Hao Yu, Chun-Ru Chien
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plays an important role in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Tumor growth before radiotherapy planning (RTP) or during SBRT has been reported in lung cancer patients; however, little is known of growth during the period in-between (i.e. after RTP but before SBRT). An 83-year-old man referred to our hospital and diagnosed with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer was noted to have significant tumor progression on day 1 of cone beam computed tomography just before the planned SBRT delivery...
November 18, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098209/crystal-growth-of-dirac-semimetal-zrsis-with-high-magnetoresistance-and-mobility
#20
Raman Sankar, G Peramaiyan, I Panneer Muthuselvam, Christopher J Butler, Klauss Dimitri, Madhab Neupane, G Narsinga Rao, M-T Lin, F C Chou
High quality single crystal ZrSiS as a theoretically predicted Dirac semimetal has been grown successfully using a vapor phase transport method. The single crystals of tetragonal structure are easy to cleave into perfect square-shaped pieces due to the van der Waals bonding between the sulfur atoms of the quintuple layers. Physical property measurement results including resistivity, Hall coefficient (RH), and specific heat are reported. The transport and thermodynamic properties suggest a Fermi liquid behavior with two Fermi pockets at low temperatures...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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