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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207324/microenvironments-to-study-migration-and-somal-translocation-in-cortical-neurons
#1
Shifang Zhao, Wenqiang Fan, Xiang Guo, Longjian Xue, Benedikt Berninger, Marcelo J Salierno, Aránzazu Del Campo
Migrating post-mitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex undergo terminal somal translocation (ST) when they reach their final destination in the cortical plate. This process is crucial for proper cortical layering and its perturbation can lead to brain dysfunction. Here we present a reductionist biomaterials platform that faithfully supports and controls the distinct phases of terminal ST in vitro. We developed microenvironments with different adhesive molecules to support neuronal attachment, neurite extension, and migration in distinct manners...
November 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204067/heterozygous-mutation-in-otx2-associated-with-early-onset-retinal-dystrophy-with-atypical-maculopathy
#2
Maram Ea Abdalla-Elsayed, Patrik Schatz, Christine Neuhaus, Arif O Khan
Purpose: Heterozygous mutations in OTX2 have been associated with a range of ocular and pituitary abnormalities. We report a novel heterozygous deletion in OTX2 underlying early-onset retinal dystrophy with atypical maculopathy. Methods: Clinical examination included electroretinography and multimodal retinal imaging. Molecular genetic testing was composed of next-generation sequencing of a panel of retinal dystrophy genes. Results: A now 17-year-old boy presented 12 years earlier with a history of progressively poor vision since birth, nyctalopia, and early-onset retinal dystrophy with atypical maculopathy...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196712/effects-of-neuroactive-agents-on-axonal-growth-and-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-generated-from-human-stem-cells
#3
Tadashi Yokoi, Taku Tanaka, Emiko Matsuzaka, Fuminobu Tamalu, Shu-Ichi Watanabe, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma
We recently established a novel method for generating functional human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs). Here, we confirmed that RGCs can also be generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We investigated the usefulness of human RGCs with long axons for assessing the effects of chemical agents, such as the neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), and the chemorepellent factors, semaphorin 3 A (SEMA3A) and SLIT1. The effects of direct and local administration of each agent on axonal projection were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time imaging, in which the filopodia of the growth cone served as an excellent marker...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184495/polygalae-radix-extract-prevents-axonal-degeneration-and-memory-deficits-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Tomoharu Kuboyama, Keisuke Hirotsu, Tetsuya Arai, Hiroo Yamasaki, Chihiro Tohda
Memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur due to degenerated axons and disrupted neural networks. Since only limited recovery is possible after the destruction of neural networks, preventing axonal degeneration during the early stages of disease progression is necessary to prevent AD. Polygalae Radix (roots of Polygala tenuifolia; PR) is a traditional herbal medicine used for sedation and amnesia. In this study, we aimed to clarify and analyze the preventive effects of PR against memory deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model, 5XFAD...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183014/mechanosensitivity-of-embryonic-neurites-promotes-their-directional-extension-and-schwann-cells-progenitors-migration
#5
Gonzalo Rosso, Peter Young, Victor Shahin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Migration of Schwann cells (SCs) progenitors and neurite outgrowth from embryonic dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) are two central events during the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). How these two enthralling events preceding myelination are promoted is of great relevance from basic research and clinical aspects alike. Recent evidence demonstrates that biophysical cues (extracellular matrix stiffness) and biochemical signaling act in concert to regulate PNS myelination...
November 29, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177068/carbonate-rich-dendrolitic-cones-insights-into-a-modern-analog-for-incipient-microbialite-formation-little-hot-creek-long-valley-caldera-california
#6
James A Bradley, Leslie K Daille, Christopher B Trivedi, Caitlin L Bojanowski, Blake W Stamps, Bradley S Stevenson, Heather S Nunn, Hope A Johnson, Sean J Loyd, William M Berelson, Frank A Corsetti, John R Spear
Ancient putative microbial structures that appear in the rock record commonly serve as evidence of early life on Earth, but the details of their formation remain unclear. The study of modern microbial mat structures can help inform the properties of their ancient counterparts, but modern mineralizing mat systems with morphological similarity to ancient structures are rare. Here, we characterize partially lithified microbial mats containing cm-scale dendrolitic coniform structures from a geothermal pool ("Cone Pool") at Little Hot Creek, California, that if fully lithified, would resemble ancient dendrolitic structures known from the rock record...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175953/distinct-roles-of-different-pre-and-post-synaptic-ncam-isoforms-in-early-motoneuron-myotube-interactions-required-for-functional-synapse-formation
#7
Katsusuke Hata, Yuka Maeno-Hikichi, Norihiro Yumoto, Steven J Burden, Lynn T Landmesser
The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is expressed both pre- and postsynaptically during neuromuscular junction formation. Genetic deletion in mice of all three isoforms (180kD, 140kD and 120 kD), or just the 180 isoform, suggested that different isoforms played distinct roles in synaptic maturation. Here we characterized in mice of either sex the earliest adhesive contacts between the growth cones of motoneurons and myotubes and their subsequent maturation into functional synapses in co-cultures of motoneurons and myotubes, that expressed their normal complement of NCAM isoforms, or were lacking all isoforms either pre- or post-synaptically...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167405/the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-mediates-the-organization-of-microtubules-and-their-dynamic-exploration-of-actin-rich-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-of-cortical-growth-cones
#8
Sayantanee Biswas, Katherine Kalil
Proper organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton are essential for growth cone behaviors during axon growth and guidance. The microtubule associated protein tau is known to mediate actin/MT interactions in cell free systems but the role of tau in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in living neurons is unknown. We used cultures of cortical neurons from postnatal day 0 (P0)-P2 golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of either sex to study the role of tau in the organization and dynamics of the axonal growth cone cytoskeleton...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164860/high-quality-gan-epilayers-achieved-by-facet-controlled-epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth-on-sputtered-aln-pss-templates
#9
Chenguang He, Wei Zhao, Kang Zhang, Longfei He, Hualong Wu, Ningyang Liu, Shan Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Zhitao Chen
It is widely believed that the lack of high-quality GaN wafers severely hinders the progress in GaN-based devices, especially for defect-sensitive devices. Here, low-cost AlN buffer layers were sputtered on cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) to obtain high-quality GaN epilayers. Without any mask or regrowth, facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO) was realized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The uniform coating of sputtered AlN buffer layer and the optimized multiple-modulation guaranteed the high growth selectivity and uniformity of GaN epilayer...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163025/bdnf-trkb-induction-of-calcium-transients-through-cav2-2-calcium-channels-in-motoneurons-corresponds-to-f-actin-assembly-and-growth-cone-formation-on-%C3%AE-2-chain-laminin-221
#10
Benjamin Dombert, Stefanie Balk, Patrick Lüningschrör, Mehri Moradi, Rajeeve Sivadasan, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Sibylle Jablonka
Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients and actin dynamics in primary motoneurons correspond to cellular differentiation such as axon elongation and growth cone formation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB support both motoneuron survival and synaptic differentiation. However, in motoneurons effects of BDNF/trkB signaling on spontaneous Ca(2+) influx and actin dynamics at axonal growth cones are not fully unraveled. In our study we addressed the question how neurotrophic factor signaling corresponds to cell autonomous excitability and growth cone formation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159770/jip3-localises-to-exocytic-vesicles-and-focal-adhesions-in-the-growth-cones-of-differentiated-pc12-cells
#11
Patrick T Caswell, Martin Dickens
The JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3) is a molecular scaffold, expressed predominantly in neurons, that serves to coordinate the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by binding to JNK and the upstream kinases involved in its activation. The JNK pathway is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes including the control of cell survival, cell death and differentiation. JIP3 also associates with microtubule motor proteins such as kinesin and dynein and is likely an adapter protein involved in the tethering of vesicular cargoes to the motors involved in axonal transport in neurons...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155813/post-guidance-signaling-by-extracellular-matrix-associated-slit-slit-n-maintains-fasciculation-and-position-of-axon-tracts-in-the-nerve-cord
#12
Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Axon-guidance by Slit-Roundabout (Robo) signaling at the midline initially guides growth cones to synaptic targets and positions longitudinal axon tracts in discrete bundles on either side of the midline. Following the formation of commissural tracts, Slit is found also in tracts of the commissures and longitudinal connectives, the purpose of which is not clear. The Slit protein is processed into a larger N-terminal peptide and a smaller C-terminal peptide. Here, I show that Slit and Slit-N in tracts interact with Robo to maintain the fasciculation, the inter-tract spacing between tracts and their position relative to the midline...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146916/deposition-of-topological-silicene-germanene-and-stanene-on-graphene-covered-sic-substrates
#13
Filipe Matusalem, Daniel S Koda, Friedhelm Bechstedt, Marcelo Marques, Lara K Teles
Growth of X-enes, such as silicene, germanene and stanene, requires passivated substrates to ensure the survival of their exotic properties. Using first-principles methods, we study as-grown graphene on polar SiC surfaces as suitable substrates. Trilayer combinations with coincidence lattices with large hexagonal unit cells allow for strain-free group-IV monolayers. In contrast to the Si-terminated SiC surface, van der Waals-bonded honeycomb X-ene/graphene bilayers on top of the C-terminated SiC substrate are stable...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142874/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-activity-and-efficacy-of-herbal-oils-and-extracts-in-disinfection-of-gutta-percha-cones-before-obturation
#14
Chetana S Makade, Pratima R Shenoi, Elakshi Morey, Ameya V Paralikar
Objectives: Literature has shown that micro-organisms contaminate gutta percha (GP) during storage and manipulation. Till date herbal extracts are not explored as an alternative medicament for pre-operative chairside disinfection of GP cones. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and efficacy of lemon grass oil (LG), basil oil (BO), and obicure tea extract (OT) in disinfecting GP cones before obturation. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of LG, BO, OT, and sodium hypochlorite (control) against common contaminants, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans...
November 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142173/effect-of-dibutyltin-on-placental-and-fetal-toxicity-in-rat
#15
Satoshi Furukawa, Naho Tsuji, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Yoshikazu Yamagishi, Seigo Hayashi, Masayoshi Abe, Yusuke Kuroda, Masayuki Kimura, Chisato Hayakawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
In order to elucidate the effect of chorioallantoic and yolk sac placenta on the embryonic/fetal toxicity in dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl)-exposed rats, we examined the histopathological changes and the tissue distribution of dibutyltin in the placentas and embryos. DBTCl was orally administered to the groups at doses of 0 mg/kg during gestation days (GD)s 7-9 (control group) and 20 mg/kg during GDs 7-9 (GD7-9 treated group), and GDs 10-12 (GD10-12 treated group). The total fetal mortality was increased, and malformations characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism were detected in the GD7-9 treated group...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141686/anisotropic-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-scaffolding-supports-a-multiplex-lattice-mosaic-of-photoreceptors-in-zebrafish-retina
#16
Mikiko Nagashima, Jeremy Hadidjojo, Linda K Barthel, David K Lubensky, Pamela A Raymond
BACKGROUND: The multiplex, lattice mosaic of cone photoreceptors in the adult fish retina is a compelling example of a highly ordered epithelial cell pattern, with single cell width rows and columns of cones and precisely defined neighbor relationships among different cone types. Cellular mechanisms patterning this multiplex mosaic are not understood. Physical models can provide new insights into fundamental mechanisms of biological patterning. In earlier work, we developed a mathematical model of photoreceptor cell packing in the zebrafish retina, which predicted that anisotropic mechanical tension in the retinal epithelium orients planar polarized adhesive interfaces to align the columns as cone photoreceptors are generated at the retinal margin during post-embryonic growth...
November 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#17
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135453/analysis-of-subcellular-structural-tension-in-axonal-growth-of-neurons
#18
Yi Chen Guo, Yu Xuan Wang, Yan Ping Ge, Lu Jia Yu, Jun Guo
The growth and regeneration of axons are the core processes of nervous system development and functional recovery. They are also related to certain physiological and pathological conditions. For decades, it has been the consensus that a new axon is formed by adding new material at the growth cone. However, using the existing technology, we have studied the structural tension of the nerve cell, which led us to hypothesize that some subcellular structural tensions contribute synergistically to axonal growth and regeneration...
November 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121420/obesity-during-pregnancy-in-the-mouse-alters-the-netrin-1-responsiveness-of-fetal-arcuate-nucleus-npy-neurons
#19
Tessa R Sanders, Kelly A Glendining, Christine L Jasoni
When individuals undergo gestation in an obese dam, they are at increased risk for impairments in the brain's ability to regulate body weight. In rodents, gestation in an obese dam leads to a number of changes to the development of the hypothalamic neurons that regulate body weight, including reduced neuronal connectivity at birth. Here, we sought to gain a clearer picture of how this neural circuitry develops normally, and to explore the mechanism underpinning the deficiency in connectivity seen in fetuses developing in obese dams...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121057/trafficking-and-processing-of-bacterial-proteins-by-mammalian-cells-insights-from-chondroitinase-abc
#20
Elizabeth Muir, Mansoor Raza, Clare Ellis, Emily Burnside, Fiona Love, Simon Heller, Matthew Elliot, Esther Daniell, Debayan Dasgupta, Nuno Alves, Priscilla Day, James Fawcett, Roger Keynes
BACKGROUND: There is very little reported in the literature about the relationship between modifications of bacterial proteins and their secretion by mammalian cells that synthesize them. We previously reported that the secretion of the bacterial enzyme Chondroitinase ABC by mammalian cells requires the strategic removal of at least three N-glycosylation sites. The aim of this study was to determine if it is possible to enhance the efficacy of the enzyme as a treatment for spinal cord injury by increasing the quantity of enzyme secreted or by altering its cellular location...
2017: PloS One
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