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Physical exercise in the elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682778/multivariate-generalized-hidden-markov-regression-models-with-random-covariates-physical-exercise-in-an-elderly-population
#1
Antonio Punzo, Salvatore Ingrassia, Antonello Maruotti
A time-varying latent variable model is proposed to jointly analyze multivariate mixed-support longitudinal data. The proposal can be viewed as an extension of hidden Markov regression models with fixed covariates (HMRMFCs), which is the state of the art for modelling longitudinal data, with a special focus on the underlying clustering structure. HMRMFCs are inadequate for applications in which a clustering structure can be identified in the distribution of the covariates, as the clustering is independent from the covariates distribution...
April 22, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682218/influence-of-physical-exercise-on-micrornas-in-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-aging-and-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Simona Ultimo, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with remarkable plasticity and its growth and regeneration are highly organized, with the activation of specific transcription factors, proliferative pathways and cytokines. The decline of skeletal muscle tissue with age, is one of the most important causes of functional loss of independence in older adults. Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. Physical activity represents one of the most effective preventive agents for muscle decay in aging...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682215/oxidative-stress-role-of-physical-exercise-and-antioxidant-nutraceuticals-in-adulthood-and-aging
#3
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, Gianni Sacchetti, Arianna Gonelli, Luca M Neri
Physical exercise is considered to be one of the beneficial factors of a proper lifestyle and is nowadays seen as an indispensable element for good health, able to lower the risk of disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine and osteomuscular apparatus, immune system diseases and the onset of potential neoplasms. A moderate and programmed physical exercise has often been reported to be therapeutic both in the adulthood and in aging, since capable to promote fitness. Regular exercise alleviates the negative effects caused by free radicals and offers many health benefits, including reduced risk of all-cause mortality, sarcopenia in the skeletal muscle, chronic disease, and premature death in elderly people...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679658/effective-multicomponent-interventions-in-comparison-to-active-control-and-no-interventions-on-physical-capacity-cognitive-function-and-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-elderly-people-with-and-without-mild-impaired-cognition-a-systematic-review-and
#4
REVIEW
Marina Bruderer-Hofstetter, Anne-Kathrin Rausch-Osthoff, André Meichtry, Thomas Münzer, Karin Niedermann
Multicomponent interventions (MCT) combine physical exercises and cognitive training and seem to be most effective in improving cognition in elderly people. However, literature is inconclusive if MCTs are superior to active comparison interventions, if delivery modes matter, and if people can transfer achieved effects to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This network meta-analysis aimed to a) identify MCTs that were effective on physical capacity and/or cognitive function and able to transfer these effects into IADL in elderly people with normal cognition (NC) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); b) provide a rating on the best interventions per outcome; c) evaluate MCTs' mode of delivery...
April 18, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673837/movements-of-older-adults-during-exergaming-interventions-that-are-associated-with-the-systems-framework-for-postural-control-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Robin Tahmosybayat, Katherine Baker, Alan Godfrey, Nick Caplan, Gill Barry
One in three older adults fall annually, in part due to impairments in the physiological systems that make up the postural control (PC) system. Exercise, particularly balance training, helps to prevent deterioration and even to improve outcomes in the PC system. Exergaming (exercise-gaming) is interactive computer gaming whereby an individual moves the body in response to onscreen cues in a playful format. Exergaming is an alternative method to standard practice for improving PC outcomes, which has been shown to reduce the risk of falling...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667159/physical-activity-throughout-the-adult-life-span-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-old-age-a-systematic-review-of-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-data
#6
REVIEW
Tobias Engeroff, Tobias Ingmann, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years...
April 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662308/hypoglycemic-and-antioxidant-effect-of-tai-chi-exercise-training-in-older-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez, Taide Laurita Arista-Ugalde, Juana Rosado-Pérez, Mirna Ruiz-Ramos, Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio
Introduction: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tai chi (TC) exercise training in healthy older adults has been demonstrated. However, there are no studies on this effect in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TC exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in older adults with MetS. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out with a sample of 110 older sedentary volunteers with clinical diagnoses of MetS: (i) a control group, n = 50, of individuals who do not participate in physical exercise, of which 37 fulfilled the entire study protocol, and (ii) an experimental group, n = 60, of subjects enrolled in a TC exercise training program (eight-form easy), 5 days a week for 6 months, in sessions of 50 min, under the supervision of a qualified instructor, of which 48 fulfilled the entire study protocol...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644763/correlation-of-quality-of-life-with-risk-factors-for-first-incident-hip-fracture-in-postmenopausal-women
#8
Fang-Ping Chen, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Yu-Ching Lin, Chih-Ming Fan
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and risk factors of first-incidence hip fracture in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This case-control study included 99 postmenopausal women with first-incident hip fracture and 101 women without hip fracture who were matched according to age. Evaluation consisted of clinical factors, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density of hip and spine...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643594/the-effect-of-a-vr-exercise-program-on-falls-and-depression-in-the-elderly-with-mild-depression-in-the-local-community
#9
Jong-Eun Yang, Tac-Young Lee, Jin-Kyung Kim
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of a VR exercise program on falls and depression in the elderly with mild depression who reside in the local community. [Subjects and Methods] This study was performed by targeting 15 elderly subjects with mild depression who resided in the local community. The targeted subjects voluntarily selected 3 VR exercise programs (each lasting 10 minutes) among 4 activities, and a resting time of 5 minutes was given for an interval after each activity. The VR exercise program was performed for total 12 weeks (36 times), 3 times a week, 45 minutes per session...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628812/exercise-therapy-for-a-patient-with-parkinson-disease-and-back-pain-a-case-report
#10
Christina L Rosarion
Objective: The purpose of this report is to describe an exercise intervention for an elderly patient with Parkinson disease with a chief complaint of lower back pain. Clinical Features: The patient was an 85-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Parkinson disease and kyphosis. Back pain was preventing him from carrying out activities of daily living. He was referred for physical therapy for treatment to reduce lower back pain and increase function. An initial examination consisted of testing flexibility and range of motion and administering a pain severity scale and a Lower Extremity Functional Index (LEFI); the patient's initial LEFI score was 14/80...
March 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628040/-patterns-of-brain-ageing
#11
Carlos Fernández Viadero, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627040/insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-test-performance-in-elderly-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#12
Ayesha Z Sherzai, Magda Shaheen, Jeffrey J Yu, Konrad Talbot, Dean Sherzai
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and cognitive test performance among population≥60years in a national database. HYPOTHESIS: Higher insulin resistance is associated with lower cognitive test performance score in the population≥60years. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2001-2002. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive test performance was measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) exercise score...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620558/effect-of-low-intensity-versus-high-intensity-resistance-training-on-the-functioning-of-the-institutionalized-frail-elderly
#13
Ulku K Sahin, Nuray Kirdi, Ergun Bozoglu, Aydin Meric, Galip Buyukturan, Ahmet Ozturk, Huseyin Doruk
Frailty has emerged as an important risk factor for disability. Age-related declines in physical and physiological function lead to increased risk of loss of independence and poor quality of life. Recent evidence has shown the effectiveness of physical exercise programmes in preventing or reversing frailty. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the functioning of frail elderly individuals after undergoing resistance training for 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The effectiveness of exercise training was investigated in 48 frail elderly individuals who were randomly assigned to the following intervention groups: high-intensity (HI; n=16; age: 69-96 years) or low-intensity (LI; n=16; age: 77-93 years) strength training groups or a control group (n=16; age: 76-93 years) with no specific exercise programme...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619934/assessing-synovitis-with-conventional-static-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
Robert Gc Riis
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the most common causes of physical disability in the elderly population. With an increasing ageing and obese population, the prevalence of KOA is expected to rise substantially. The needs for a better understanding of the disease and tools that can predict the course of the disease, for example following treatment, are therefore imperative. 

Inflammation has over the last years been recognised as an important factor for both the symptomatology and disease course in KOA...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617448/ranking-of-osteogenic-potential-of-physical-exercises-in-postmenopausal-women-based-on-femoral-neck-strains
#15
Pim Pellikaan, Georgios Giarmatzis, Jos Vander Sloten, Sabine Verschueren, Ilse Jonkers
The current study aimed to assess the potential of different exercises triggering an osteogenic response at the femoral neck in a group of postmenopausal women. The osteogenic potential was determined by ranking the peak hip contact forces (HCFs) and consequent peak tensile and compressive strains at the superior and inferior part of the femoral neck during activities such as (fast) walking, running and resistance training exercises. Results indicate that fast walking (5-6 km/h) running and hopping induced significantly higher strains at the femoral neck than walking at 4 km/h which is considered a baseline exercise for bone preservation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601135/effects-of-knee-loading-on-obesity-related-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-an-ovariectomized-mouse-model-with-high-fat-diet
#16
Nian Tan, Xinle Li, Lidong Zhai, Daquan Liu, Jie Li, Hiroki Yokota, Ping Zhang
AIM: Hormonal and nutritional disorders are the main causes of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, especially in the elderly and postmenopausal women. Although physical activity may alleviate these disorders, the elderly may often have difficulty in conducting physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of knee loading, a new form of physical stimulation, on the symptom of obesity and fatty liver. METHODS: Using ovariectomized mice with high fat diet, we evaluated the effect of knee loading that applies gentle cyclic loads to the knee...
March 30, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600837/the-effects-of-functional-and-traditional-strength-training-on-different-parameters-of-strength-elderly-women-a-trial-randomized-and-controlled
#17
José C Aragão-Santos, Antônio G de Resende-Neto, Albernon Costa Nogueira, M Lourdes Feitosa-Neta, Leandro H Albuquerque Brandão, Leury M da Silva Chaves, Marzo E da Silva-Grigoletto
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is the main strategy for improving physical fitness in elderly population. However, it is not clear which training method lead to greater adaptations on maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, muscle endurance and isometric strength in this population. Thus, our aim was to compare the effects of functional and traditional training on these variables in the elderly. METHODS: This study lasted twelve weeks, where forty-four elderly women were randomly divided into three groups: Functional (FT; n = 18); Traditional (TT; n = 15); and Control (CG; n = 11)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593907/effects-of-a-12-week-exercise-training-program-on-physical-function-in-institutionalized-frail-elderly
#18
Cristiane Batisti Ferreira, Pâmela Dos Santos Teixeira, Geiane Alves Dos Santos, Athila Teles Dantas Maya, Paula Americano do Brasil, Vinícius Carolino Souza, Cláudio Córdova, Aparecido Pimentel Ferreira, Ricardo Moreno Lima, Otávio de Toledo Nóbrega
With the increase in life expectancy, the Brazilian elderly population has risen considerably. However, longevity is usually accompanied by problems such as the loss of functional capacity, cognitive decline, frailty syndrome, and deterioration in anthropometric parameters, particularly among those living in long-term care facilities. This randomized controlled trial aimed to verify the effects of exercise training on biochemical, inflammatory, and anthropometric indices and functional performance in institutionalized frail elderly...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584857/impaired-muscle-efficiency-but-preserved-peripheral-hemodynamics-and-mitochondrial-function-with-advancing-age-evidence-from-exercise-in-the-young-old-and-oldest-old
#19
Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Corey R Hart, Yann Le Fur, Jia Zhao, Van Reese, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
Muscle weakness in the elderly has been linked to recurrent falls and morbidity, therefore, elucidating the mechanisms contributing to the loss of muscle function and mobility with advancing age is critical. To this aim, we comprehensively examined skeletal muscle metabolic function and hemodynamics in 11 young (23±2 yrs), 11 old (68±2 yrs), and 10 oldest-old (84±2 yrs) physical activity-matched subjects. Specifically, oxidative stress markers, mitochondrial function and the ATP cost of contraction as well as peripheral hemodynamics were assessed during dynamic plantar flexion exercise at 40% of maximal work rate (WRmax)...
March 23, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582895/-feeling-more-self-confident-cheerful-and-safe-experiences-from-a-health-promoting-intervention-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-qualitative-study
#20
Å von Berens, A Koochek, M Nydahl, R A Fielding, T Gustafsson, D R Kirn, T Cederholm, M Södergren
OBJECTIVES: Studies show that regular exercise in combination with nutritional support can be effective in managing sarcopenia, which is age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Qualitative investigations of participants' experiences from interventions in this domain are scarce. In this study, we explored older persons' experiences from an intervention designed to prevent sarcopenia, with the aim of capturing the participants' thoughts and opinions. DESIGN: A qualitative study embedded in the multicenter randomized clinical trial The Vitality and Vigor in the Elderly study, VIVE2...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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