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Physical exercise in the elderly

Arnaldina Sampaio, Elisa A Marques, Jorge Mota, Joana Carvalho
This study examined the effect of a Multicomponent Training (MT) intervention on cognitive function, functional fitness and anthropometric variables in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-seven institutionalized elders (84.05 ± 5.58 years) clinically diagnosed with AD (mild and moderate stages) were divided into two groups: Experimental Group (EG, n = 19) and Control Group (CG, n = 18). The EG participated in a six-month supervised MT program (aerobic, muscular resistance, flexibility and postural exercises) of 45-55 minutes/session, twice/week...
October 18, 2016: Dementia
Ying Kuen Cheung, Yeseon P Moon, Erin R Kulick, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Joshua Z Willey
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of exercise have focused on measuring physical activity in totality using summary statistics such as metabolic equivalent score for total intensity or total energy count. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the multidimensionality of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and to identify the specific LTPA components that were associated with cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) is a multiethnic prospective cohort of elderly stroke-free individuals consisting of a total of 3298 participants recruited between 1993 and 2001, with a median follow-up of 17 years...
October 17, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Chorong Oh, Byeong Hwan Jeon, Shaun Nicholas Reid Storm, Sunkug Jho, Jae-Kyung No
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. METHODS: Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. RESULTS: Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights...
June 23, 2016: Nutrition
Tiago C Antonini, Jose A de Paz, Euler E Ribeiro, Elorídes Brito, Kennya S Mota, Terezinha L Silva, Carlos Cristi-Monteiro, Pedro V C Jung, Ivana B M da Cruz
Objective To ascertain whether modifiable physical performance-based measurements predicted 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort in the Amazon rainforest region. Methods A longitudinal study evaluating the impact of functional determinants on 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort from Maués City in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, was performed. The study was a follow-up of a previous observational investigation that evaluated various fitness tests in 630 Amazonian riparian elderly (291 males and 339 females) aged 72...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Jonathan G Quicke, Nadine E Foster, Reuben O Ogollah, Peter R Croft, Melanie A Holden
Objective To investigate how attitudes and beliefs about exercise relate to physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain attributable to osteoarthritis (OA). Design Secondary data analyses of a randomised controlled trial of exercise interventions (ISRCTN 93634563). Participants were adults over 45 years old with knee pain attributable to OA (n=514). Crude and adjusted cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between baseline i) Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE), ii) Positive Outcome Expectations for Exercise (POEE), iii) Negative Outcome Expectations for Exercise (NOEE) and physical activity level at baseline, 3 and 6 months follow-up (measured by the self-report Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE)) and important increase in physical activity level (from baseline to 6 month follow-up) were investigated using multiple linear and logistic regression...
October 1, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Shan-Shan Shen, Jiao-Jiao Chu, Lei Cheng, Xing-Kun Zeng, Ting He, Li-Yu Xu, Jiang-Ru Li, Xu-Jiao Chen
INTRODUCTION: With a rapidly ageing population, sarcopenic obesity, defined as decreased muscle mass and function combined with increased body fat, is a complex health problem. Although sarcopenic obesity contributes to a decline in physical function and exacerbates frailty in older adults, evidence from clinical trials about the effect of exercise and nutrition on this complex syndrome in Chinese older adults is lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We devised a study protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Jérémy Raffin, Jean-Claude Barthelemy, Philippe Terrat, Marie-Christine Diana, Emilie Achour, Paul Calmels, Mathieu Oriol, Thierry Busso, Lallia Hammadi, Claude Montuy-Coquard, Rémi Bouvier, Rémi Poillerat, Frédéric Roche, David Hupin
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that physical activity reduces the physiological effects of ageing. Among them, is the decrease of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, which is associated with the increase of cardiovascular events and morbidities. It has been shown that high intensity cycle training can enhance the ANS activity by 30% in people with the age of 70. However, such trainings were done by old athletes, used to train at intensities that could not be tolerated by sedentary old people, such as nursing home residents...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Timo Hinrichs, Bettina Bücker, Renate Klaaßen-Mielke, Michael Brach, Stefan Wilm, Petra Platen, Anna Mai
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects a home-based exercise program delivered to ill and mobility-limited elderly individuals on physical function, physical activity, quality of life, fall-related self-efficacy, and exercise self-efficacy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN Registry, Reg.-No. ISRCTN17727272). SETTING: Fifteen general practitioner (GP) practices and participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Chronically ill and mobility-limited individuals aged 70 and older (N = 209)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Martin Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Dan Mellström, Mattias Lorentzon
Physical activity is believed to have the greatest effect on the skeleton if exerted early in life, but whether or not possible benefits of physical activity on bone microstructure or geometry remain at old age has not been investigated in women. The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity during skeletal growth and young adulthood or at old age was associated with cortical geometry and trabecular microarchitecture in weight-bearing and non-weight bearing bone, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in elderly women...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
John E Morley
Frailty is a pre-disability syndrome where an older person can be identified as being at risk when exposed to stressors associated with high risk for disability or needing to be hospitalized. Two major frailty definitions exist. The physical phenotype of frailty and the multiple deficit model. A simple frailty screening tool-FRAIL-has been validated. Treatment of frailty involves resistance exercise, optimization of nutrition, and treatment of fatigue (sleep apnea, depression), treatable causes of weight loss and adjustment of polypharmacy...
September 26, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Nayoung Ahn, Kijin Kim
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks...
August 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Elise Labonte-Lemoyne, Daniel Curnier, Dave Ellemberg
Accumulating research indicates that the regular practice of physical exercise is beneficial to the human brain. From the improvement of academic achievement in children to the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly, exercise appears beneficial across the developmental spectrum. Recent work from animal studies also indicates that a pregnant mother can transfer the benefits of exercise during gestation to her offspring's brain. Exercising pregnant rats give birth to pups that have better memory and spatial learning as well as increased synaptic density...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Shigeya Tanaka, Shin Honda, Hajime Nakano, Yuko Sato, Kazufumi Araya, Haruyasu Yamaguchi
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rehabilitation involving group and personal sessions on demented participants. METHODS: This single-blinded randomized controlled trial included 60 elderly participants with dementia in a geriatric health service facility, or R oken. Staff members, who did not participate in the intervention, examined cognitive function, mood, communication ability, severity of dementia, objective quality of life, vitality, and daily behaviour...
September 9, 2016: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Agnese Collamati, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Tosato, Emanuela D'Angelo, Alex N Sisto, Francesco Landi
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a highly prevalent condition among the elderly and is associated with considerable morbidity, institutionalization and mortality. In its advanced stages, CHF is often accompanied by the loss of muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that has been actively studied in recent years due to its association with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The goal of this review is to discuss the relationship between CHF and sarcopenia, with a focus on shared pathophysiological pathways and treatments...
July 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Romeu Paulo Martins Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Dos Santos, Nelson Eurípedes Matildes, Antônio Vicente Mundim, Mario da Silva Garrote-Filho, Pâmella Ferreira Rodrigues, Nilson Penha-Silva
Objective: This study investigated the possible blood changes in wistar rats elderly with and without treatment with anabolic steroids submitted physical training. Materials and methods: Elderly rats (32) were divided into four groups: normal (N), treated normal (NT), diabetic (D) and treated diabetic (DT). They were submitted to 20 sessions of swimming with overload (5% body weight), 40 min/day for four weeks. The NT and DT groups received application of testosterone twice a week...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Paolo Gava, Christian Hofer, Stefan Loefler, Paolo Gargiulo, Kyle Edmunds, Íris Dröfn Árnadóttir, Sandra Zampieri, Barbara Ravara, Francesco Gava, Alessandra Nori, Valerio Gobbo, Stefano Masiero, Andrea Marcante, Alfonc Baba, Francesco Piccione, Sheila Schils, Amber Pond, Simone Mosole
Many factors contribute to the decline of skeletal muscle that occurs as we age. This is a reality that we may combat, but not prevent because it is written into our genome. The series of records from World Master Athletes reveals that skeletal muscle power begins to decline at the age of 30 years and continues, almost linearly, to zero at the age of 110 years. Here we discuss evidence that denervation contributes to the atrophy and slowness of aged muscle. We compared muscle from lifelong active seniors to that of sedentary elderly people and found that the sportsmen have more muscle bulk and slow fiber type groupings, providing evidence that physical activity maintains slow motoneurons which reinnervate muscle fibers...
September 3, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Mark A Espeland, Kasia Lipska, Michael E Miller, Julia Rushing, Ronald A Cohen, Joseph Verghese, Mary M McDermott, Abby C King, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Steven N Blair, Marco Pahor, Kieran Reid, Jamehl Demons, Stephen B Kritchevsky
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus may alter the effect of physical activity on physical and cognitive function. METHODS: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) trial randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity intervention (walking, resistance training, and flexibility exercises) enrolled adults aged 70-89 years who were sedentary and non-demented and who had functional limitations. Standardized measures of physical and cognitive function were collected an average of 2 years post-randomization...
September 2, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Andrew S Layne, Fang-Chi Hsu, Steven N Blair, Shyh-Huei Chen, Jennifer Dungan, Roger A Fielding, Nancy W Glynn, Alexandra M Hajduk, Abby C King, Todd M Manini, Anthony P Marsh, Marco Pahor, Christine A Pellegrini, Thomas W Buford
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of variability in functional responses among participants in the LIFE study, and to identify the relative contributions of intervention adherence, physical activity, and demographic and health characteristics to this variability. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. SETTING: Multicenter U.S. institutions participating in the LIFE study. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of 1635 sedentary men and women aged 70 to 89 years who were able to walk 400 m, but had physical limitations, defined as a score on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) of ≤9...
August 24, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Narges Manavi, Heidarali Abedi
BACKGROUND: Reaching geriatric period is one of the greatest successes in human Beings. The older adults are predisposed to risk of many diseases and disabilities, and physical activity is one of the most efficient methods to prevent geriatric period disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed define the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly residing in Shahid Rezaian health care center in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 older adults, age 65 years and over, selected through convenient sampling and assigned to groups of study and control...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Hunkyung Kim, Miji Kim, Narumi Kojima, Ken Fujino, Erika Hosoi, Hisamine Kobayashi, Shinji Somekawa, Yoshifumi Niki, Yukari Yamashiro, Hideyo Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of exercise and/or nutritional supplementation on body composition, blood components, and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Among 1213 community-dwelling elderly women over 70 years of age, 307 were defined with sarcopenic obesity, and 139 women participated in the study...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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