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Rachel M Ward, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Coarticulation is the tendency for speech vocalization and articulation even at the phonemic level to change with context, and compensation for coarticulation (CfC) reflects the striking human ability to perceive phonemic stability despite this variability. A current controversy centers on whether CfC depends on contrast between formants of a speech-signal spectrogram-specifically, contrast between offset formants concluding context stimuli and onset formants opening the target sound-or on speech-sound variability specific to the coordinative movement of speech articulators (e...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Roberta Lattanzi, Silvia Rief, Helmut Schmidhammer, Lucia Negri, Mariana Spetea
Pain, particularly chronic pain, is still an unsolved medical condition. Central goals in pain control are to provide analgesia of adequate efficacy and to reduce complications associated with the currently available drugs. Opioids are the mainstay for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, opioid pain medications also cause detrimental side effects, thus highlighting the need of innovative and safer analgesics. Opioids mediate their actions via the activation of opioid receptors, with the mu-opioid receptor as the primary target for analgesia, but also for side effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Vincent M Lam, Catharine A Mielnik, Corey Baimel, Pieter Beerepoot, Stefano Espinoza, Ilya Sukhanov, Wendy Horsfall, Raul R Gainetdinov, Stephanie L Borgland, Amy J Ramsey, Ali Salahpour
The trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in the monoaminergic regions of the brain, and represents a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neurological disorders. While selective agonists for TAAR1 have been successfully identified, only one high affinity TAAR1 antagonist has been described thus far. We previously identified four potential low potency TAAR1 antagonists through an in silico screen on a TAAR1 homology model. One of the identified antagonists (compound 22 ) was predicted to have favorable physicochemical properties, which would allow the drug to cross the blood brain barrier...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiaojie Huang, Jianhua Hou, Aixin Song, Xinchao Liu, Xiaodong Yang, Junjie Xu, Jing Zhang, Qinghai Hu, Hui Chen, Yaokai Chen, Kathrine Meyers, Hao Wu
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is used as an HIV prevention method by people at substantial risk of HIV infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates current clinical evidence for use of oral TDF-based PrEP among men who have sex with men. Methods: A comprehensive literature search in PubMed, web of science, Google Scholar and was performed. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using the event rate (ER) for estimation of the incidence of HIV and grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AE) among PrEP arm and using risk ratio (RR) for comparison of incidence of HIV and grade 3 or 4 AE between PrEP recipients and PrEP non-users...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lorenzo Moccia, Marianna Mazza, Marco Di Nicola, Luigi Janiri
Pleasure is more than a mere sensory event, but rather it can be conceptualized as a complex, multiform experience involving memory, motivation, homeostasis, and, sometimes, negative affects. According to Freud, affect is a perceptual modality that registers the internal drive state of the subject rather than the objective experience of the external world, and the quality of this perceptual modality is calibrated in degrees of pleasure and displeasure. Within this conceptual framework, the aim of drive is always pleasure, and objects become significant in so far as they provide a way of discharging drives pressure...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Beatriz Bermúdez-Margaretto, David Beltrán, Fernando Cuetos, Alberto Domínguez
The contribution of two different training contexts to online, gradual lexical acquisition was investigated by event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by new, word-like stimuli. Pseudowords were repeatedly preceded by a picture representing a well-known object (semantic-associative training context) or by a hash mark (non-associative training context). The two training styles revealed differential effects of repetition in both behavioral and ERPs data. Repetition of pseudowords not associated with any stimulus gradually enhanced the late positive component (LPC) as well as speeded lexical categorization of these stimuli, suggesting the formation of episodic memory traces...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Wu Zhang, Chunmiao Mai, Hongmin Chen, Huijun Zhang
Introduction : Researchers have made efforts to distinguish the behavioral differences and underlying mechanisms that explain the various possible outcomes of dieting (success, failure and relapse). Although extensive research has demonstrated that eating behavior and individual impulsiveness are closely related to subjective appetite and decision making, very few studies have investigated how subjective and appetite impulsiveness is affected by reactive dieting. Methods : In the present study, we utilized the power of food scale (PFS) and the intertemporal choice task and to examine subjective appetite and impulsivity of decision making in orthodontic patients...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chen Avraham, Guy Avraham, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi, Ilana Nisky
In daily interactions, our sensorimotor system accounts for spatial and temporal discrepancies between the senses. Functional lateralization between hemispheres causes differences in attention and in the control of action across the left and right workspaces. In addition, differences in transmission delays between modalities affect movement control and internal representations. Studies on motor impairments such as hemispatial neglect syndrome suggested a link between lateral spatial biases and temporal processing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Alfredo López-Quiroz, Rocío Alcantar-Almaraz, Sergio Montes, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza, Mireya Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Luis Antonio Tristán-López, Beatriz Eugenia Sánchez-Hernández, Adriana Morales-Martínez, Camilo Ríos, Francisca Pérez-Severiano
The effects caused by exposure to lead (Pb) are still considered as a relevant health risk despite public policies aimed to restricting the use of this element. The toxicity limit in the blood (10 μg/dL, established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention) has been insufficient to prevent adverse effects and even lower values have been related to neurobehavioral dysfunctions in children. Currently, there is not a safe limit of exposure to Pb. A large body of evidence points to environmental pollutant exposure as the cause of predisposition to violent behavior, among others...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Olga O Kozanian, David J Rohac, Niusha Bavadian, Alex Corches, Edward Korzus, Kelly J Huffman
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) produces developmental abnormalities in brain and behavior that often persist into adulthood. We have previously reported abnormal cortical gene expression, disorganized neural circuitry along with deficits in sensorimotor function and anxiety in our CD-1 murine model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, or FASD (El Shawa et al., 2013; Abbott et al., 2016). We have proposed that these phenotypes may underlie learning, memory, and behavioral deficits in humans with FASD. Here, we evaluate the impact of PrEE on fear memory learning, recall and amygdala development at two adult timepoints...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Samantha Meneely, Mai-Lynne Dinkins, Miki Kassai, Shangru Lyu, Yuning Liu, Chien-Te Lin, Kori Brewer, Yuqing Li, Stefan Clemens
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is often and successfully treated with dopamine receptor agonists that target the inhibitory D3 receptor subtype, however there is no clinical evidence of a D3 receptor dysfunction in RLS patients. In contrast, genome-wide association studies in RLS patients have established that a mutation of the MEIS1 gene is associated with an increased risk in developing RLS, but the effect of MEIS1 dysfunction on sensorimotor function remain unknown. Mouse models for a dysfunctional D3 receptor (D3KO) and Meis1 (Meis1KO) were developed independently, and each animal expresses some features associated with RLS in the clinic, but they have not been compared in their responsiveness to treatment options used in the clinic...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Steven Neal, Molly Kent, Massimo Bardi, Kelly G Lambert
Both social and physical stimuli contribute to the complexity of an animal's environment, influencing biobehavioral responses to subsequent challenges. In the current study, male Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to an isolate (ISO), social control (SC) or social enriched (SE) group ( n = 8 per group). The SC and SE conditions were group housed with the SE group exposed to physical enrichment stimuli that were natural as opposed to manufactured (e.g., hollowed out log instead of plastic hiding place). On three occasions during their 40-day enriched environment exposure, night/dark phase videos were obtained for 1 h during the early part of the dark phase...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tao Lin, Chaofeng Li, Jiali Liu, Brian H Smith, Hong Lei, Xinnian Zeng
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive pests of horticultural crops in tropical and subtropical Asia. The insect relies heavily on its olfactory system to select suitable hosts for development and reproduction. To understand the neural basis of its odor-driven behaviors, it is fundamental to characterize the anatomy of its olfactory system. In this study, we investigated the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center, in B. dorsalis , and constructed a 3D glomerular atlas of the AL based on synaptic antibody staining combined with computerized 3D reconstruction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Alexandru Cǎlin, Mihai Stancu, Ana-Maria Zagrean, John G R Jefferys, Andrei S Ilie, Colin J Akerman
Current anti-epileptic medications that boost synaptic inhibition are effective in reducing several types of epileptic seizure activity. Nevertheless, these drugs can generate significant side-effects and even paradoxical responses due to the broad nature of their action. Recently developed chemogenetic techniques provide the opportunity to pharmacologically recruit endogenous inhibitory mechanisms in a selective and circuit-specific manner. Here, we use chemogenetics to assess the potential of suppressing epileptiform activity by enhancing the synaptic output from three major interneuron populations in the rodent hippocampus: parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expressing interneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Brenton T Laing, Peixin Li, Cameron A Schmidt, Wyatt Bunner, Yuan Yuan, Taylor Landry, Amber Prete, Joseph M McClung, Hu Huang
The potential to control feeding behavior via hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons has led to many approaches to modulate their excitability-particularly by glutamatergic input. In the present study using NPY-hrGFP reporter mice, we visualize AgRP/NPY neuronal metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) expression and test the effect of fasting on mGluR1 function. Using the pharmacological agonist dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), we demonstrate the enhanced capacity of mGluR1 to drive firing of AgRP/NPY neurons after overnight fasting, while antagonist 3-MATIDA reduces firing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shan Gao, Yayuan Geng, Jia Li, Yunxiao Zhou, Shuxia Yao
Verbal communication with evaluative characters of different emotional valence has a considerable impact on the extent to which social relations are facilitated or undermined. Here using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain acts in response to social praise and criticism, leading to differential affective judgments. We engaged thirty men and women in a task associating sex-balanced, neutral faces with praising or criticizing comments targeting others or objects. A whole-brain analysis revealed that criticism as compared to praise enhanced the activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), particularly its dorsal portion, whereas the right amygdala displayed an opposite pattern of changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jianbiao Li, Xiaoli Liu, Xile Yin, Shuaiqi Li, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaofei Niu, Chengkang Zhu
A priori normative beliefs, the precondition of social norm compliance that reflects culture and values, are considered unique to human social behavior. Previous studies related to the ultimatum game revealed that right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) has no stimulation effects on normative beliefs. However, no research has focused on the effects of a priori belief on the rLPFC in voluntary cooperation attached to the public good (PG) game. In this study, we used a linear asymmetric PG to confirm the influence of the rLPFC on a priori normative beliefs without threats of external punishment through transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maricel Gómez-Soler, Begoña Cordobilla, Xavier Morató, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Joan C Domingo, Francisco Ciruela
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. The main treatment of PD consists of medication with dopamine-based drugs, which palliate the symptoms but may produce adverse effects after chronic administration. Accordingly, there is a need to develop novel neuroprotective therapies. Several studies suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFA) might provide protection against brain damage. Here, we studied several experimental models of PD, using striatal neuronal cultures, striatal slices, and mice, to assess the neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n -3 PUFA in the brain, administered in its triglyceride form (TG-DHA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ana P S Dornellas, Valter T Boldarine, Amanda P Pedroso, Lorenza O T Carvalho, Iracema S de Andrade, Tânia M Vulcani-Freitas, Carla C C Dos Santos, Cláudia M da Penha Oller do Nascimento, Lila M Oyama, Eliane B Ribeiro
Menopause-induced changes may include increased incidence of both depression/anxiety and obesity. We hypothesized that behavioral changes that may develop after ovarian failure could be related to neurochemical and metabolic aspects affected by this condition and that high-fat intake may influence these associations. The present study investigated in rats the effects of ovariectomy, either alone or combined with high-fat diets enriched with either lard or fish-oil, on metabolic, behavioral and monoaminergic statuses, and on gene expression of neuropeptides and receptors involved in energy balance and mood regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shekher Mohan, Emily J Koller, Jawad A Fazal, Gabriela De Oliveria, Anna I Pawlowicz, Sylvain Doré
Background: The release of inflammatory molecules such as prostaglandins (e.g., PGF2α ) is associated with brain damage following an intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke; however, the role of PGF2α and its cognate FP receptor in ICH remains unclear. This study focused on investigating the role of the FP receptor as a target for novel neuroprotective drugs in a preclinical model of ICH, aiming to investigate the contribution of the PGF2α -FP axis in modulating functional recovery and anatomical outcomes following ICH...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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