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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913482/phosphatidic-acid-a-simple-phospholipid-with-multiple-faces
#1
Jolanta Zegarlińska, Magda Piaścik, Aleksander F Sikorski, Aleksander Czogalla
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the simplest glycerophospholipid naturally occurring in living organisms, and even though its content among other cellular lipids is minor, it is drawing more and more attention due to its multiple biological functions. PA is a precursor for other phospholipids, acts as a lipid second messenger and, due to its structural properties, is also a modulator of membrane shape. Although much is known about interaction of PA with its effectors, the molecular mechanisms remain unresolved to a large degree...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913439/lncrna-lcpat1-mediates-smoking-particulate-matter-2-5-induced-cell-autophagy-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-cancer-cells-via-rcc2
#2
Hongyan Lin, Xiaohong Zhang, Nannan Feng, Ruoyang Wang, Weituo Zhang, Xiaobei Deng, Yu Wang, Xiao Yu, Xiaofei Ye, Lei Li, Ying Qian, Herbert Yu, Biyun Qian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ecological studies have shown that air pollution and prevalence of cigarette smoking are positively correlated. Evidence also suggests a synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and PM2.5 exposure (Environmental Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between smoking prevalence and PM2.5 pollution in relation to lung cancer mortality and determine its underlying mechanisms in vitro. METHODS: "MOVER" method was used to analyze the interaction between smoking prevalence and PM2...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913435/assessment-of-exposure-to-air-pollution-in-children-determining-whether-wearing-a-personal-monitor-affects-physical-activity
#3
Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Jennifer Lawrence, Kyung Hwa Jung, Andrew G Rundle, Lori A Hoepner, Beizhan Yan, Federica Perera, Matthew S Perzanowski, Rachel L Miller, Steve N Chillrud
Personal air pollution monitoring in research studies should not interfere with usual patterns of behavior and bias results. In an urban pediatric cohort study we tested whether wearing an air monitor impacted activity time based on continuous watch-based accelerometry. The majority (71%) reported that activity while wearing the monitor mimicked normal activity. Correspondingly, variation in activity while wearing versus not wearing the monitor did not differ greatly from baseline variation in activity (P = 0...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913426/heat-treatment-improves-the-immunomodulatory-and-cellular-antioxidant-behavior-of-a-natural-flavanone-eriodictyol
#4
Rihab Khlifi, Zaineb Dhaouefi, Mouna Maatouk, Aicha Sassi, Najet Boudhiba, Irina Ioannou, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira, Soumaya Kilani-Jaziri
Plants and natural molecules are generally consumed not in raw state but after different processing conditions (heating, mechanical agitation or cooking). The understanding of the chemistry and biological outcome of thermal treatment is still scarce. In the current study, Eriodictyol, a natural flavanone, has undergone heat treatment, generating hence three different products ((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanal) and an unidentified component). The consequences of aforementioned treatment on the immunomodulatory behavior of resulted molecules were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913402/effect-of-surfactant-application-practices-on-the-vertical-transport-potential-of-hydrophobic-pesticides-in-agrosystems
#5
Jeanne Dollinger, Veronika J Schacht, Caroline Gaus, Sharon Grant
Surfactants have the potential to modify the environmental behavior of hydrophobic pesticides leading to an enhanced or reduced mobility risk. This risk is often overlooked in registration procedures due to a lack of suitable methodologies to quantify the transport potential of pesticides with surfactants. In this study we present a novel methodology designed to study the surfactant facilitated transport of pesticides under controlled equilibrium and dynamic hydrologic conditions. Using this methodology, we investigated the risk of chlorpyrifos enhanced mobility for two common surfactant application practices in agrosystems: pesticide spraying and irrigation with waste water...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913388/perception-of-direct-vs-averted-gaze-in-portrait-paintings-an-fmri-and-eye-tracking-study
#6
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913376/compulsive-buying-in-paris-psychology-students-assessment-of-dsm-5-personality-trait-domains
#7
David Duroy, Olivier Sabbagh, Ariane Baudel, Michel Lejoyeux
Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, such as personality disorders. Few studies have focused on the dimensional model of personality disorders in compulsive buying. We aimed to assess the eventual presence of personality dysfunctions in compulsive buying according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 5th edition (DSM-5) dimensional conception of personality disorders. We screened online compulsive buying (QABB), characterized purchasing behavior and explored DSM-5 personality trait domains (Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form [PID-5-BF]) in 233 Paris psychology students using an online self-reporting questionnaire...
June 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913352/recent-insights-into-the-evolution-of-quantitative-traits-in-non-human-primates
#8
REVIEW
Leslea J Hlusko
The past few years of genetic research on primate quantitative trait variation have been notable in the diversity of phenotypes explored, ranging from classic skeletal measurements to behavior, through to levels of gene expression, and with observations from both captive and wild populations. These studies demonstrate the importance of captive pedigreed breeding colonies, populations that can be matched to their wild counterparts to enable comparison of genetic architectures. Non-human primate genotype:phenotype maps are essential for placing human variation within an evolutionary framework as well as for gaining insight to human biology...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913341/impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-rls-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Ana Marques, Michela Figorilli, Bruno Pereira, Philippe Derost, Berengere Debilly, Patricia Beudin, Tiphaine Vidal, Franck Durif, Maria Livia Fantini
BACKGROUND: Although dopamine replacement therapy is the main risk factor for the occurrence of Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD), non-pharmacological risk factors for have also been identified in that population and sleep disorders could be part of them. Our objective is to determine whether Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), that has been associated with more impulsive choices in general population regardless of dopaminergic therapy, could be associated with a specific psycho-behavioral profile and ICDs in PD...
March 1, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913328/impact-of-environmental-conditions-and-chemicals-on-the-neuronal-epigenome
#10
REVIEW
Beatriz Del Blanco, Angel Barco
During development, chromatin changes contribute to establishing and maintaining the distinct gene-expression profiles of each individual cell type in a multicellular organism. This feat is especially remarkable in the human brain considering the sheer number of distinct cell types that make up this organ. This epigenetic programing is sensitive to environmental influences such as the presence of toxicants, diet, temperature, maternal behavior and many other external factors that can lead to sustained differences in neuronal gene expression...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913323/association-between-injection-in-public-places-and-hiv-hcv-risk-behavior-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-ukraine
#11
Alyona Mazhnaya, Karin E Tobin, Jill Owczarzak
BACKGROUND: In Eastern Europe and Central Asia new HIV infections occur at a high rate among people who inject drugs (PWID). Injection risk behavior may be associated with injecting in public places. However, there is a lack of studies exploring this association in Ukraine, which has an HIV prevalence 21-42% among PWID. METHODS: Data came from a baseline survey of PWID recruited to participate in a behavioral HIV prevention intervention. The association between HIV/HCV injection risk behavior and place of injection (private vs...
June 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913319/naturalistic-multiattribute-choice
#12
Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913243/spinal-inhibition-of-p2xr-or-p38-signaling-disrupts-hyperalgesic-priming-in-male-but-not-female-mice
#13
Candler Paige, Gayathri Batchalli Maruthy, Galo Mejia, Gregory Dussor, Theodore Price
Recent studies have demonstrated sexual dimorphisms in the mechanisms contributing to the development of chronic pain. Here we tested the hypothesis that microglia might preferentially regulate hyperalgesic priming in male mice. We based this hypothesis on evidence that microglia preferentially contribute to neuropathic pain in male mice via ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2XR) or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38) signaling. Mice given a single priming injection of the soluble human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6r) and then a second injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), which unmasks hyperalgesic priming, show a significant increase in levels of activated microglia at 3h following the PGE2 injection in both male and female mice...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913228/effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-cigarettes-on-anthropometrics-energy-intake-energy-expenditure-and-screen-time-in-children
#14
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913227/effects-of-bright-light-exposure-on-human-fear-conditioning-extinction-and-associated-prefrontal-activation
#15
Takuya Yoshiike, Motoyasu Honma, Naoto Yamada, Yoshiharu Kim, Kenichi Kuriyama
Bright light (BL) not only regulates human emotion and circadian physiology but can also directly modulate emotional memories. Impaired fear extinction and enhanced fear acquisition and consolidation are hallmarks of fear-circuitry disorders; thus, we tested whether BL facilitates fear extinction and inhibits fear acquisition. We randomly exposed 29 healthy humans to high- (9000 lx) or low-intensity light (<500 lx) for 15 min, near the nadir of the phase response to light, in a single-blind manner...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913190/neurochemical-changes-underlying-schizophrenia-related-behavior-in-a-modified-forced-swim-test-in-mice
#16
Monika Wożniak, Paulina Cieślik, Marcin Marciniak, Tomasz Lenda, Andrzej Pilc, Joanna M Wieronska
The modified forced swim test (MFST) has excellent predictive validity for investigating the antipsychotic activity of drugs, with particular emphasis on their activity toward negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, its face and construct validity are less understood. Therefore, in the present study, some biochemical changes within GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission that could be related to observed MK-801-induced disturbances and the activity of compounds active at those neurotransmitters were investigated...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913187/behavioral-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-the-mlh-mutant-mice-lacking-otoconia
#17
Marianna Manes, Mariana de Souza Aranha Garcia-Gomes, Thaísa Meira Sandini, J Zaccarelli-Magalhães, J C Florio, Sandra Regina Alexandre-Ribeiro, Danilo Wadt, Maria Martha Bernardi, Silvia Maria Gomes Massironi, Claudia Madalena Cabrera Mori
Otoconia are crucial for the correct processing of positional information and orientation. Mice lacking otoconia cannot sense the direction of the gravity vector and cannot swim properly. This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Additionally, the central catecholamine levels were evaluated to investigate possible correlations between behaviors and central neurotransmitters. A sequence of behavioral tests was used to evaluate the parameters related to the general activity, sensory nervous system, psychomotor system, and autonomous nervous system, in addition to measuring the acquisition of spatial and declarative memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and swimming behavior of the mlh mutant mice...
June 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913186/blockade-of-t-type-calcium-channels-by-6-prenylnaringenin-a-hop-component-alleviates-neuropathic-and-visceral-pain-in-mice
#18
Fumiko Sekiguchi, Tomoyo Fujita, Takahiro Deguchi, Sakura Yamaoka, Ken Tomochika, Maho Tsubota, Sumire Ono, Yamato Horaguchi, Maki Ichii, Mio Ichikawa, Yumiko Ueno, Nene Koike, Tadatoshi Tanino, Huy Du Nguyen, Takuya Okada, Hiroyuki Nishikawa, Shigeru Yoshida, Tsuyako Ohkubo, Naoki Toyooka, Kazuya Murata, Hideaki Matsuda, Atsufumi Kawabata
Since Cav 3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels) expressed in the primary afferents and CNS contribute to intractable pain, we explored T-channel-blocking components in distinct herbal extracts using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in HEK293 cells stably expressing Cav 3.2 or Cav 3.1, and purified and identified sophoraflavanone G (SG) as an active compound from SOPHORAE RADIX (SR). Interestingly, hop-derived SG analogues, (2S)-6-prenylnaringenin (6-PNG) and (2S)-8-PNG, but not naringenin, also blocked T-channels; IC50 (μM) of SG, (2S)-6-PNG and (2S)-8-PNG was 0...
June 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913172/physiological-impacts-of-housing-maned-wolves-chrysocyon-brachyurus-with-female-relatives-or-unrelated-males
#19
Marieke K Jones, Lauren E Reiter, Michael P Gilmore, Elizabeth W Freeman, Nucharin Songsasen
The maned wolf is a threatened canid species native to South America. Previous studies have suggested the species exhibits induced ovulation. In captive breeding facilities, reproductive success is low while rates of neonatal mortality are high. Females that are not recommended for breeding are frequently housed together. However there has never been a systematic study of the reproductive consequences of co-housing females. This study was conducted for three purposes, to: (1) corroborate the presence of induced ovulation, (2) determine whether elevated cortisol is implicated in neonatal pup mortality, and (3) evaluate the endocrine correlates of group housed females...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913170/seasonal-changes-in-plasma-concentrations-of-the-thyroid-glucocorticoid-and-reproductive-hormones-in-the-tegu-lizard-salvator-merianae
#20
Lucas A Zena, Danielle Dillon, Kathleen E Hunt, Carlos A Navas, Kênia C Bícego, C Loren Buck
The tegu lizard Salvator merianae is a large, widely distributed teiid lizard endemic to South America that exhibits annual cycles of high activity during the spring and summer, and hibernation during winter. This pattern of activity and hibernation is accompanied by profound seasonal changes in physiology and behavior, including endothermy during the austral spring. The unusual combination of seasonal endothermy, hibernation and oviparity, in a non-avian, non-mammalian species, makes S. merianae an interesting subject for study of comparative aspects of endocrine regulation of seasonal changes in physiology...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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