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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815897/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-three-major-threats-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Satlin, Thomas J Walsh
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are uniquely threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria because these patients rely on immediate active antimicrobial therapy to combat bacterial infections. This review describes the epidemiology and treatment considerations for three challenging MDR bacterial pathogens in HSCT recipients: MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)...
August 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814284/effect-of-poly-hexamethylene-biguanide-hydrochloride-phmb-treated-non-sterile-medical-gloves-upon-the-transmission-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-carbapenem-resistant-e-coli-mrsa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-contact-surfaces
#2
S Ali, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Reduction of accidental contamination of the near-patient environment has potential to reduce acquisition of healthcare-associated infection(s). Although medical gloves should be removed when soiled or touching the environment, compliance is variable. The use of antimicrobial-impregnated medical gloves could reduce the horizontal-transfer of bacterial contamination between surfaces. AIM: Determine the activity of antimicrobial-impregnated gloves against common hospital pathogens: Streptococcus pyogenes, carbapenem-resistant E...
August 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#3
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807914/amplification-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-gut-flora-of-patients-treated-with-ceftriaxone
#4
J Meletiadis, A Turlej-Rogacka, A Lerner, A Adler, E Taconelli, J W Mouton
Although antibacterial therapy has an impact on human intestinal flora and emergence of resistant bacteria, its role on amplification of antimicrobial resistance and the quantitative exposure-effect relationship is not clear. An observational prospective study was conducted to determine whether and how ceftriaxone exposure is related to amplification of resistance in non- ICU patients.Serial stool samples from 122 ESBL(+) hospitalized patients were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the resistant gene blaCTX-M Drug exposure was calculated for each patient using a population pharmacokinetic model...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805537/high-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-wild-fish-from-the-mediterranean-sea-in-algeria
#5
Soumia Brahmi, Abdelaziz Touati, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Albert Sotto, Alix Pantel, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
AIM: We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among wild fish from the coast of Bejaia (Algeria) in the Mediterranean Sea. RESULTS: From March 2012 to August 2013, gut and gill samples of wild fish were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Strains were characterized with regard to antibiotic resistance, β-lactamase content, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, aminoglycoside resistance genes, and clonality (repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction profiles and multilocus sequence typing)...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804585/detection-of-ctx-m-15-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-five-major-hospitals-in-tripoli-libya
#6
Abdulaziz Zorgani, Asma Almagatef, Najib Sufya, Abdulla Bashein, Abdullatif Tubbal
OBJECTIVES: Multidrug resistance (MDR) and emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been reported worldwide, but there was no information on the detection of blaCTX-M-15 in major teaching hospitals in Libya. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamases producers isolated from five teaching hospitals in Tripoli, Libya. METHODS: A total of 346 urine samples were collected from hospitalized patients in five teaching hospitals with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI)...
July 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803446/urinary-tract-infections-due-to-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Michail Alevizakos, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infectious complications among renal transplant recipients (RTR). UTIs caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) have been associated with inferior clinical outcomes and increased financial burden. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching through the PubMed and EMBASE databases (to May 20, 2016) and identifying studies that reported data on the number of RTR who developed an ESBL-PE UTI...
August 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801698/association-between-dementia-and-reduced-walking-ability-and-30-day-mortality-in-patients-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-bacteremia
#8
G Chapelet, A S Boureau, A Dylis, G Herbreteau, S Corvec, E Batard, G Berrut, L de Decker
Previous studies have shown controversial results of factors associated with short-term mortality in patients with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli bacteremia and no research has investigated the impact of the geriatric assessment criteria on short-term mortality. Our objective was to determine whether dementia and walking ability are associated with 30-day mortality in patients with ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia. All blood bottle cultures, analyzed from January 2008 to April 2015, in the Bacteriology Department of a 2,600-bed, university-affiliated center, Nantes, France, were retrospectively extracted...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801381/fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanisms-by-molecular-epidemiologic-study-of-ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible-escherichia-coli-sequence-types-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-in-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-korea-emergence-of-clone-st131-2006-2008
#9
Hyung-Seok Yang, Youngjin Kim, Sun Young Cho, You Sun Nam, Tae Sang Oh, Kyung-Sun Park, Hyun-Chul Kim, Hee Joo Lee
To investigate the sequence types (STs) and fluoroquinolone resistance related mutations among ciprofloxacin (CIP)-non-susceptible extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from Korean patients from 2006-2008. The prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were also studied. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to identify STs. The most common ST was ST131 (33/51, 64...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801276/transferability-of-antimicrobial-resistance-from-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-cattle-in-the-united-states-to-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-newport-recipients
#10
T L Poole, T R Callaway, K N Norman, H M Scott, G H Loneragan, S A Ison, R C Beier, D M Harhay, B Norby, D J Nisbet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate conjugative transfer of cephalosporin resistance among (n=100) strains of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (MDRE) to Salmonella Newport and E. coli DH5α recipients. METHODS: Phenotypic and genotypic profiles were determined for MDRE, Salmonella Newport (trSN) and E. coli DH5α (trDH) transconjugants. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent (n=26) and 28% (n=27) of (n=95) MDR E. coli donor isolates transferred resistance to trSN and trDH recipient isolates, respectively...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799833/plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-an-escherichia-coli-st10-bloodstream-isolate-in-the-sultanate-of-oman
#11
Jalila Mohsin, Tibor Pál, Jorgen Eskild Petersen, Dania Darwish, Akela Ghazawi, Tanveer Ashraf, Agnes Sonnevend
AIMS: To identify plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Oman, where this resistance mechanism has not been encountered yet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between July 2014 and June 2016 in a tertiary care hospital in Muscat were screened by PCR for the mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. The strain identified as mcr-1 positive was genotyped and its antibiotic susceptibility was established...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799218/synergy-and-mechanism-of-action-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-and-ceftazidime-against-ceftazidime-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#12
T Pimchan, D Maensiri, G Eumkeb
To address the resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to β-lactam antibiotics, combination therapy between different antibiotic classes is increasingly used. The antibacterial activity of α-mangostin (AMT) alone or in combination with ceftazidime (CTZ) was investigated against ceftazidime-resistant A. baumannii DMST 45378 (CRAB). Initial screening showed that A. baumannii strains possessed AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC), Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBL). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of >800 μg ml(-1) against individual antibiotics...
August 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798879/prostatic-abscess-after-stapled-hemorrhoidopexy-caused-by-esbl-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-an-additional-challenge-to-postoperative-sepsis
#13
Asem Saleh, Abdelnasir Kibeida, Elsaid Amin, Abdalla Khalil, Rafat Abu Shakra, Mohamed Elwakil
Postoperative septic complications of hemorrhoids surgical interventions are rare, but very serious with high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and prompt therapy are essential to save patient's life. There are a good number of articles and case reports about these septic complications. We are presenting a case report of a prostatic abscess caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae after hemorrhoidopexy. Our patient was a healthy middle aged Saudi male who has no significant medical history apart from morbid obesity and recurrent urinary tract infections...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797330/evolving-beta-lactamase-epidemiology-in-enterobacteriaceae-from-italian-nationwide-surveillance-october-2013-kpc-carbapenemase-spreading-among-outpatients
#14
Tommaso Giani, Alberto Antonelli, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Carola Mauri, Jessica Nicchi, Fabio Arena, Elisabetta Nucleo, Silvia Bracco, Annalisa Pantosti, Francesco Luzzaro, Laura Pagani, Gian Maria Rossolini
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC-type beta-lactamases (ACBLs) and carbapenemases are among the most important resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,352), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 697), and Proteus mirabilis (n = 275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4...
August 3, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797299/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-bacteria-carried-by-in-and-outpatients-attending-a-secondary-care-hospital-in-zambia
#15
Marjolijn M B Nagelkerke, Kapembwa Sikwewa, Dennis Makowa, Irene de Vries, Simon Chisi, J Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global health problem. Very little data on resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria in low-income countries exist. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistant bacteria carried by in- and outpatients in the resource constraint setting of a secondary care hospital in Zambia. Nasal and rectal samples from 50 in- and 50 outpatients were collected. Patients were randomly selected and informed consent was obtained...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796061/analysis-of-early-onset-bloodstream-infection-due-to-escherichia-coli-infection-in-premature-babies
#16
I-Lun Chen, Hsin-Chun Huang, Chih-Te Wu, Mei-Chen Ou-Yang, Mei-Yung Chung, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jau-Ling Suen, Chih-Hsing Hung
In early-onset bacteremia among preterm neonates, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the main pathogen and can cause a high mortality rate. Thus, the predictive factors of mortality and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli in preterm babies with E. coli early-onset bacteremia were reported.We retrospectively reviewed preterm neonates who had E. coli bacteremia occurring within 3 days after birth between 2004 and 2015. Maternal and perinatal information were collected from their medical records and analyzed by comparing the survival and nonsurvival groups, and also the ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789913/molecular-epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-invasive-infections-over-a-decade-at-kilifi-county-hospital-in-kenya
#17
Sonal P Henson, Christine J Boinett, Matthew J Ellington, Ngure Kagia, Salim Mwarumba, Sammy Nyongesa, Neema Mturi, Samuel Kariuki, J Anthony G Scott, Nicholas R Thomson, Susan C Morpeth
Multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recent years have seen an explosion of resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and emergence of carbapenem resistance. Here, we examine 198 invasive K. pneumoniae isolates collected from over a decade in Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) in Kenya. We observe a significant increase in MDR K. pneumoniae isolates, particularly to third generation cephalosporins conferred by ESBLs. Using whole-genome sequences, we describe the population structure and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes within it...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782707/esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-colonization-in-long-term-care-facilities-ltcfs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Myrto Eleni Flokas, Michail Alevizakos, Fadi Shehadeh, Nikolaos Andreatos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the colonization rate by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among residents of Long Term Care facilities (LTCFs) and to identify pertinent risk factors. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies published up to May, 2016 that provided raw data for gastrointestinal colonization by ESBL-PE among LTCF residents. RESULTS: Twenty three studies reporting data on 9,775 screened subjects met our inclusion criteria...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782704/geographical-variation-in-therapy-for-bloodstream-infections-due-to-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-increment-study
#19
Patrick N A Harris, M Diletta Pezzani, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Pierluigi Viale, Po-Ren Hsueh, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Mario Venditti, Mario Tumbarello, Carolina Navarro-Francisco, Esther Calbo, Murat Akova, Helen Giamarellou, Antonio Oliver, Benito Almirante, Oriol Gasch, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Mitchell J Schwaber, George Daikos, Johann Pitout, Carmen Peña, Alicia Hernández-Torres, Yohei Doi, Federico Pérez, Felipe Francisco Tuon, Evelina Tacconelli, Yehuda Carmeli, Robert A Bonomo, Álvaro Pascual, David L Paterson, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
We aimed to describe regional differences in therapy for bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). 1,482 patients in 12 countries were included from an observational study of BSI caused by ESBL-E or CPE. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for the influence of country of recruitment on empirical use of β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BLBLI) or carbapenems, targeted use of BLBLI for ESBL-E and use of targeted combination therapy for CPE...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782646/%C3%AE-lacta-%C3%A2-test-performance-for-detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-directly-on-bronchial-aspirates-samples-a-validation-study
#20
Salah Gallah, Yahia Benzarara, Jacques Tankovic, Paul-Louis Woerther, Hayat Bensekri, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Guillaume Arlet, Sophie Vimont, Marc Garnier
OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Gram Negative Bacilli (ESBL-P-GNB)-related infections is worryingly increasing worldwide. ESBL-P-GNB detection directly on bronchial aspirate samples (BAS) performed for suspected pneumonia may help save empirical carbapenems. Our objectives were to optimize β-LACTA(®) test (BLT) realization and evaluate BLT performance for ESBL-P-GNB detection directly on BAS. METHODS: 1) BLT technical optimization using BAS of different matrix types spiked with increasing concentrations of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2) in vitro validation of BLT diagnostic performance on 17 ESBL enzymes, belonging to CTX-M, SHV, TEM, OXA, GES, VEB, and PER groups; 3) clinical validation of BLT performance on 126 BAS prospectively collected from 7 Intensive Care Units...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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