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Pediatrics, obstetrics

Merritt D Kinon, Rani Nasser, Jonathan Nakhla, Rupen Desai, Jessica R Moreno, Reza Yassari, Carlos A Bagley
Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral position. As shown in the neurosurgical literature, timely diagnosis and swift initiation of treatment have a greater chance of treatment success for the patient. However, timely treatment is complicated because torticollis can result from a variety of maladies, including: congenital abnormalities involving the C1-C2 joint or the surrounding supporting muscles and ligaments, central nervous system abnormalities, obstetric palsies from brachial plexus injuries, clavicle fractures, head and neck surgery, and infection...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
Serdar Sadık Duran, Sultan Kavuncuoğlu, Ferhat Sarı, Esin Yıldız Aldemir, Nazlı Kavçık, Ferhat Demir
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Hao Wu, Stephanie A Pangas, Karen W Eldin, Kalyani R Patel, John Hicks, Jennifer E Dietrich, Rajkumar Venkatramani
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To report on the clinical characteristics and outcome of pediatric patients with juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the ovary. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with histopathologically confirmed ovarian JGCT diagnosed between 1990 and 2016 were identified. Data on the clinical presentation, surgical management, oncologic management, laboratory investigation, follow-up, and outcome were collected. Tumor was staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Elizabeth Park, Tiny Masupe, Joseph Joseph, Ari Ho-Foster, Afton Chavez, Swetha Jammalamadugu, Andrew Marek, Ruth Arumala, Dineo Ketshogileng, Ryan Littman-Quinn, Carrie Kovarik
BACKGROUND: Since the UN Human Rights Council's recognition on the subject in 2011, the right to access the Internet and information is now considered one of the most basic human rights of global citizens [1,2]. Despite this, an information gap between developed and resource-limited countries remains, and there is scant research on actual information needs of workers themselves. The Republic of Botswana represents a fertile ground to address existing gaps in research, policy, and practice, due to its demonstrated gap in access to information and specialists among rural health care workers (HCWs), burgeoning mHealth capacity, and a timely offer from Orange Telecommunications to access Wikipedia for free on mobile platforms for Botswana subscribers...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Manisha Gandhi, Anitra Beasley, Emily Vinas, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Susan M Ramin, Charlie C Kilpatrick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of mobile technology to facilitate resident learning, assess clinical knowledge, and guide curricular development in a busy clinical environment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a large (N=48) urban obstetrics and gynecology residency program. Question sets were created in the following areas: office gynecology, general obstetrics, gynecologic surgery and urogynecology, maternal-fetal medicine and ultrasonography, reproductive endocrinology and pediatric gynecology, and gynecologic oncology...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Xinyu Xu, Chen Zheng, Nan Li, Hui Shen, Guolin Wang
Desflurane is one of the third generation inhaled anesthetics and can be used in obstetric and pediatric medicine. However, effects of exposure to desflurane on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this work, 6-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1MAC or 1.5MAC desflurane for 2h. When the mice were 28-day-old, the open-field, spontaneous alternation Y-maze and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate general activity, working memory and long term memory, respectively. Levels of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B expression in hippocampus were evaluated by western blot...
September 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shaad Abqari, Akash Gupta, Tabassum Shahab, M U Rabbani, S Manazir Ali, Uzma Firdaus
INTRODUCTION: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. It is thus important to determine their prevalence and spectrum and identify risk factors associated with the development of heart defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Center of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from February 2014 to August 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Jeff Bolstridge, Tracy Bell, Barbara Dean, Amy Mackley, Gina Moore, Cheryl Swift, Dina Viscount, David A Paul, Stephen A Pearlman
BACKGROUND: Due to clinical benefits, delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended in infants born before 37 weeks gestational age. The objective was to institute a delayed cord clamping program and to evaluate clinical outcomes one year after initiation. METHODS: This study occured at Christiana Care Health System, a tertiary care facility with a 52 bed level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary team created a departmental policy, a DCC protocol and educational programs to support the development of a DCC program...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Solange N Eloundou, Jeanne S Sheffield
The identification of Zika virus as a significant teratogen has raised international concern, causing the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This has allowed a global mobilization of experts in tropical infectious diseases, obstetrics, pediatrics, virology, public health policy, reproductive health, bioethics, and germ cell research to name just a few. This worldwide crisis has also raised awareness of health care disparities and concerns regarding the ability of families and societies to shoulder the long-term financial burden that the follow-up of affected children will require...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Shravya Govindappagari, Amanda Guardado, Dena Goffman, Jeffrey Bernstein, Colleen Lee, Sara Schonfeld, Robert Angert, Andrea McGowan, Peter S Bernstein
OBJECTIVE: Communication failures are consistently seen as a root cause of preventable adverse outcomes in obstetrics. We assessed whether use of an Obstetric Safe Surgery Checklist for cesarean deliveries (CDs), based on the WHO Safe Surgery Checklist, can improve communication; reduce team member confusion about urgency of the case; and decrease documentation discrepancies among nursing, obstetric, anesthesia, and pediatric staff. METHODS: Retrospective review of 600 CDs on our 2 labor and delivery suites before and after the introduction of 2 consecutive versions of our obstetric safe surgery checklist (100 cases in each cohort) was undertaken...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Kristin Gates, Stephen Petterson, Peter Wingrove, Benjamin Miller, Kathleen Klink
Background: Research suggests that 13-25% of primary care patients who present with physical complaints have underlying depression or anxiety. Objective: The goal of this paper is to quantify and compare the frequency of the diagnosis of depression and anxiety in patients with a somatic reason for visit among primary care physicians across disciplines. Method: Data obtained from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) from 2002 to 2010 was used to quantify primary care patients with somatic presentations who were given a diagnosis of depression or anxiety...
September 5, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Cristina M Beltran-Aroca, Eloy Girela-Lopez, Eliseo Collazo-Chao, Manuel Montero-Pérez-Barquero, Maria C Muñoz-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: Respect for confidentiality is important to safeguard the well-being of patients and ensure the confidence of society in the doctor-patient relationship. The aim of our study is to examine real situations in which there has been a breach of confidentiality, by means of direct observation in clinical practice. METHODS: By means of direct observation, our study examines real situations in which there has been a breach of confidentiality in a tertiary hospital...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Jason L Sanders, Ali S Raja, Kohei Hasegawa, Jane Bittner, Janice A Espinola, Brianna Olamiju, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) consultation is a common practice. There are few data on consultant availability or changes in availability over time, which may hinder resource planning and allocation. We conduct serial surveys of Massachusetts EDs to investigate these trends. METHODS: We surveyed ED directors in Massachusetts in 2006 (n=61 EDs), 2009 (n=63), and 2015 (n=63) about ED characteristics in the previous year, including specialty-specific consultant availability in person (yes/no) and continuous consultant availability (yes/no)...
October 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
L Nilas, E C Løkkegaard, J B Laursen, J Kling, D Cortes
BACKGROUND: From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English...
2016: BMC Research Notes
D J Chalmers, M L Meyers, K E Brodie, C Palmer, J B Campbell
INTRODUCTION: Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is frequently detected on screening obstetric ultrasonography. Common ANH grading systems include the anterior-posterior diameter (APD) and the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading system. Recent developments in the management of ANH include the use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and a new grading system - Urinary Tract Dilation (UTD). This study reviewed patients who underwent fetal MRI and ultrasound, and compared the grading systems across these imaging modalities...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Halah Ibrahim, Satish Chandrasekhar Nair, Sami Shaban, Margaret El-Zubeir
BACKGROUND: In today's interdependent world, issues of physician shortages, skill imbalances and maldistribution affect all countries. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a nation that has historically imported its physician manpower, there is sustained investment in educational infrastructure to meet the population's healthcare needs. However, policy development and workforce planning are often hampered by limited data regarding the career choice of physicians-in-training. The purpose of this study was to determine the specialty career choice of applicants to postgraduate training programs in the UAE and factors that influence their decisions, in an effort to inform educational and health policy reform...
May 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Hiroyuki Kitajima, Shinya Hirano
BACKGROUND: Since 1982, viable cells of Bifidobacterium breve, BBG-01, have been used in clinical conditions in pediatric patients such as intractable infantile diarrhea, preterm infants, and pediatric surgical patients. Although the efficacy of BBG-01 has been widely reported, adverse events related to the use of BBG-01 have been reported in very few cases. METHODS: In order to trace adverse events seen by 109 doctors in 88 medical institutions where BBG-01 was used, a questionnaire survey of the number of occurrences and details of each case was conducted...
August 18, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Luis Fernando Ng-Sueng, Iván Vargas-Matos, Percy Mayta-Tristán, Reneé Pereyra-Elías, Juan José Montenegro-Idrogo, Fiorella Inga-Berrospi, Felix Ancalli, Francisco Bonilla-Escobar, Cristian Diaz-Velez, Erick Gutierrez-Quezada, Jennifer Gomez-Alhach, Carlos E Muñoz-Medina, Adriana Sanchez-Pozo, Milisen Vidal
INTRODUCTION: The selection of a medical specialty has been associated with multiple factors, such as personal preferences, academic exposure, motivational factors and sociodemographic factors, such as gender. The number of women in the medical field has increased in recent years. In Latin America, we have not found any studies that explore this relationship. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between gender and the intention to choose a medical specialty in medical students from 11 countries in Latin America...
2016: PloS One
Stephen S Ttendo, Adam Was, Mark A Preston, Emmanuel Munyarugero, Vanessa B Kerry, Paul G Firth
BACKGROUND: We describe delivery and outcomes of critical care at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, a Ugandan secondary referral hospital serving a large, widely dispersed rural population. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of ICU admissions was performed from January 2008 to December 2011. RESULTS: Of 431 admissions, 239 (55.4 %) were female, and 142 (33.2 %) were children (<18 years). The median length of stay was 2 (IQR 1-4) days, with 365 patients (85 %) staying less than 8 days...
August 9, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
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