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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930565/role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-2-splicing-in-normal-and-cancer-cells
#1
Toshiyuki Ishiwata
Types 1-4 of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are all expressed in various cancers. Because of its prominent role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, FGFR-2, is being considered as a novel target in cancer treatment. Owing to the alternative splicing of its extracellular domain, FGFR-2 exists in two variants: IIIb and IIIc. FGFR-2 IIIb is mainly expressed in normal epithelial cells, as well as in oral mucosal, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, pulmonary, breast, endometrial, cervical, and prostate cancers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930564/expression-and-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-h19-in-carcinogenesis
#2
Hisashi Yoshimura, Yoko Matsuda, Masami Yamamoto, Shinji Kamiya, Toshiyuki Ishiwata
With the recent advent of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long non-coding RNAs have been brought into the spotlight in molecular biology. H19 was one of the first reported long non-coding RNAs; its expression is high in embryonic organs and absent or greatly reduced in most adult tissues. Accumulating evidence suggests that H19 plays crucial roles in embryogenesis. However, its levels are increased in different cancers, including breast, hepato-gastrointestinal, urological, respiratory, and brain tumors...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930519/divergent-impact-of-gender-in-advancement-of-liver-injuries-diseases-and-carcinogenesis
#3
Subhrajit Biswas, Sampa Ghose
Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930517/mirna-as-viral-transcription-tuners-in-hpv-mediated-cervical-carcinogenesis
#4
Gauri Shishodia, Gaurav Verma, Bhudev Chandra Das, Alok Chandra Bharti
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are oncogenic DNA viruses that promote carcinogenic signaling by their oncoproteins mainly E6 and E7. A well-defined promoter regulates expression and enhancer region on HPV genome containing number of cis elements that essentially require a set of cognate host transcription factors to regulate viral promoter gene activity. Expression of these host factors is tightly regulated at multiple levels such as transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930145/to-wnt-or-lose-the-missing-non-coding-linc-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Peng Shen, Martin Pichler, Meng Chen, George A Calin, Hui Ling
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer and one of the leading causes for cancer-related mortality. Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling is an essential initiating factor in colon carcinogenesis, and a driving force of CRC progression. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as significant players in CRC pathogenesis through diversified mechanisms. Although both Wnt signaling and lncRNAs represent interesting research areas for CRC, an effort of directly connecting these two areas is lacking...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928864/high-immunoreactivity-of-duox2-is-associated-with-poor-response-to-preoperative-chemoradiation-therapy-and-worse-prognosis-in-rectal-cancers
#6
Shih-Chun Lin, I-Wei Chang, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Ching-Yih Lin, Ding-Ping Sun, Ming-Jen Sheu, Ching-Chieh Yang, Li-Ching Lin, Hong-Lin He, Yu-Feng Tian
Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and also the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. For rectal cancer, neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by radical proctectomy is gold standard treatment for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer. By data mining a documented database of rectal cancer transcriptome (GSE35452) from Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center of Biotechnology Information, we recognized that DUOX2 was the most significantly up-regulated transcript among those related to cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway (GO:0019221)...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928863/microarray-analysis-of-the-expression-profile-of-long-non-coding-rnas-indicates-lncrna-rp11-263f15-1-as-a-biomarker-for-diagnosis-and-prognostic-prediction-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#7
Xiaoyi Huang, Na Ta, Yunshuo Zhang, Yisha Gao, Ronglei Hu, Lulu Deng, Bingbing Zhang, Hui Jiang, Jianming Zheng
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating malignancy with poor prognostic outcomes. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the development and progression of carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in PDAC. The aim of the current study was to find differentially expressed lncRNAs and related mRNAs in human PDAC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by microarray analysis, and investigate the relationship between lncRNA RP11-263F15...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928854/b-cell-translocation-gene-1-is-downregulated-by-promoter-methylation-in-ovarian-carcinoma
#8
Ji-Ye Kim, Sung-Im Do, Go Eun Bae, Hyun-Soo Kim
A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are downregulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor in several types of human malignancy. In this study, we analyzed BTG1 expression in ovarian carcinoma cell lines, and we investigated the mechanism underlying the observed alterations. The methylation status of the BTG1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and the effect of demethylation on BTG1 expression was analyzed...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928805/importance-of-tuberin-in-carcinogenesis
#9
Mingwei Jin, Qi An, Lei Wang
The cell cycle is a dynamic process with multiple phases regulating cell growth. The proper regulation is essential for avoiding errors and activation of cell death. Tumour suppressor proteins, including tuberin, are crucial in coordinating adequate cell growth and properly timed cell division. So, the present review article is focused on the latest aspects of the tuberin in the process of carcinogenesis. The PubMed was the main database used for the collection of latest data relating to multiple aspects of tuberin especially in context of cancer...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928368/detection-of-clinically-relevant-copy-number-alterations-in-oral-cancer-progression-using-multiplexed-droplet-digital-pcr
#10
Curtis B Hughesman, X J David Lu, Kelly Y P Liu, Yuqi Zhu, Rebecca M Towle, Charles Haynes, Catherine F Poh
Copy number alterations (CNAs), a common genomic event during carcinogenesis, are known to affect a large fraction of the genome. Common recurrent gains or losses of specific chromosomal regions occur at frequencies that they may be considered distinctive features of tumoral cells. Here we introduce a novel multiplexed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay capable of detecting recurrent CNAs that drive tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Applied to DNA extracted from oral cell lines and clinical samples of various disease stages, we found good agreement between CNAs detected by our ddPCR assay with those previously reported using comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism arrays...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928286/hpv-integration-in-hnscc-correlates-with-survival-outcomes-immune-response-signatures-and-candidate-drivers
#11
Lada A Koneva, Yanxiao Zhang, Shama Virani, Pelle B Hall, Jonathan B McHugh, Douglas B Chepeha, Gregory Wolf, Thomas E Carey, Laura S Rozek, Maureen A Sartor
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharynx cancer has steadily increased over the past two decades, and now represents a majority of oropharyngeal cancer cases. Integration of the HPV genome into the host genome is a common event during carcinogenesis that has clinically-relevant effects if the viral early genes are transcribed. Understanding the impact of HPV integration on clinical outcomes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is critical for implementing de-escalated treatment approaches for HPV-positive HNSCC patients...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928231/the-role-of-circrnas-in-cancers
#12
Ling-Ping Zhu, Yun-Jie He, Jun-Chen Hou, Xiu Chen, Si-Ying Zhou, Su-Jin Yang, Jian Li, He-Da Zhang, Jia-Hua Hu, Shan-Liang Zhong, Jian-Hua Zhao, Jin-Hai Tang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recently regarded as a naturally forming family of widespread and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs that may regulate gene expression in mammals. At present, above 30,000 circRNAs have already been found, with their unique structures to maintain stability more easily than linear RNAs. Several previous literatures stressed on the important role of circRNAs, whose expression was relatively correlated with patients' clinical characteristics and grade, in the carcinogenesis of cancer...
September 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927534/alternative-rna-splicing-and-gastric-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Ying Li, Yuan Yuan
Alternative splicing (AS) linked to diseases, especially to tumors. Recently, more and more studies focused on the relationship between AS and gastric cancer (GC). This review surveyed the hot topic from four aspects: First, the common types of AS in cancer, including exon skipping, intron retention, mutually exclusive exon, alternative 5 ' or 3' splice site, alternative first or last exon and alternative 3' untranslated regions. Second, basic mechanisms of AS and its relationship with cancer. RNA splicing in eukaryotes follows the GT-AG rule by both cis-elements and trans-acting factors regulatory...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927526/putative-biomarkers-for-cervical-cancer-snvs-methylation-and-expression-profiles
#14
REVIEW
Maria de Fátima Senra Cardoso, Carlos Henrique Madeiros Castelletti, José Luiz de Lima-Filho, Danyelly Bruneska Gondim Martins, José António Couto Teixeira
Cervical cancer is primarily caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but other factors such as smoking habits, co-infections and genetic background, can also contribute to its development. Although this cancer is avoidable, it is the fourth most frequent type of cancer in females worldwide and can only be treated with chemotherapy and radical surgery. There is a need for biomarkers that will enable early diagnosis and targeted therapy for this type of cancer. Therefore, a systems biology pipeline was applied in order to identify potential biomarkers for cervical cancer, which show significant reports in three molecular aspects: DNA sequence variants, DNA methylation pattern and alterations in mRNA/protein expression levels...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927412/analysis-of-microrna-mirna-expression-profiles-reveals-11-key-biomarkers-associated-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Ke Wang, Mingwei Chen, Wei Wu
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of lung cancer cases which cause most of cancer-related deaths globally. However, the results vary largely in different studies due to different platforms and sample sizes. Here, we aim to identify the key miRNAs in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC that might be potential biomarkers for this cancer. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed on miRNA profile using seven datasets of NSCLC studies. Furthermore, we predicted and investigated the functions of genes regulated by key miRNAs...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927147/long-term-changes-in-the-properties-of-skin-derived-fibroblasts-following-irradiation-of-the-head-and-neck
#16
Thomas Gehrke, Agmal Scherzad, Stephan Hackenberg, Pascal Ickrath, Philipp Schendzielorz, Rudolf Hagen, Norbert Kleinsasser
The tumor stroma performs an important role in carcinogenesis. It predominantly consists of fibroblasts and the connective tissue produced by them, and undergoes a multitude of interactions with the surrounding cancer cells. Since irradiation is part of the majority of therapeutic strategies for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, more information regarding the effects of a previous irradiation on the tumor stroma is desirable. In the present study, fibroblasts were cultivated from human non-irradiated and pre-irradiated skin of the neck for 48 h...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927098/notch-1-is-a-valuable-therapeutic-target-against-cell-survival-and-proliferation-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#17
Zhiming Zhuang, Jiangui Lin, Yiqun Huang, Tianqi Lin, Zhouda Zheng, Xudong Ma
Notch 1 is a key component of the Notch pathway, which performs a crucial role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The present study aimed to investigate whether Notch 1 could serve as a potential target for CCRCC treatment. Firstly, an association analysis was performed using 52 CCRCC cases and 30 normal controls. The results indicated that Notch 1 protein expression in renal tissues was closely associated with the incidence of CCRCC. In addition, higher Notch 1 expression in CCRCC tissues was positively associated with higher tumor-node-metastasis stage and Fuhrman grade, in addition to larger tumor size...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927076/microrna-154-inhibits-the-growth-and-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer-cells-by-directly-targeting-mtdh
#18
Wenhui Qiao, Nong Cao, Lei Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-protein-coding, highly conserved single-stranded RNA molecules. The abnormal expression of miRNAs has been demonstrated to have an important function in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. microRNA-154 (miR-154) has been reported to be downregulated in non-small cell lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. However, the expression and roles of miR-154 in gastric cancer remain to be established. The present study measured the expression levels of miR-154 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927068/microrna-184-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-by-directly-targeting-igf-1r
#19
Guannan Wu, Jiayun Liu, Zhenfeng Wu, Xiaoyu Wu, Xuequan Yao
Colorectal cancer is currently the third most common cancer in males and the second in females worldwide. In spite of marked progress having been achieved in surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer remains poor. Previous studies have demonstrated that the abnormal expression of microRNAs contributed to human cancer carcinogenesis and progression, suggesting miRNAs as novel therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression, functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of microRNA-184 (miR-184) in colorectal cancer...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927063/microrna-494-is-a-potential-prognostic-marker-and-inhibits-cellular-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-sirt1-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#20
Aijun Yang, Xuenan Wang, Chunna Yu, Zhenzhen Jin, Lingxia Wei, Jinghe Cao, Qin Wang, Min Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lei Zhang, Cuifang Hao
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common types of gynecological malignancy worldwide, and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality among women. Despite improvements in therapeutic treatments, the prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poor, mainly due to the rapid growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer tumors. An increasing number of studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of human cancer, suggesting that miRNAs may be used in clinical prognosis and as a therapeutic target in EOC...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
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