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Biomarkers of frailty

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260159/emerging-biomarkers-and-screening-for-cognitive-frailty
#1
REVIEW
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Madia Lozupone, Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Zhuowei Yu
Physical frailty and cognitive frailty are two important targets of secondary intervention in aging research to narrow the gap between life and health span. The objective of the present narrative review was to examine clinical and epidemiological studies investigating the recently proposed construct of cognitive frailty and its subtypes, with a focus on operational definitions, clinical criteria, and emerging biomarkers potentially useful for the screening of this novel entity. Both physical frailty and frailty indexes with a multidimensional nature were associated with late-life cognitive impairment/decline, incident dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, non-AD dementias, and AD pathology proposing cognitive frailty as a clinical entity with cognitive impairment related to physical causes with a potential reversibility...
March 4, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249621/association-between-routine-laboratory-tests-and-long-term-mortality-among-acutely-admitted-older-medical-patients-a-cohort-study
#2
Henrik Hedegaard Klausen, Janne Petersen, Thomas Bandholm, Helle Gybel Juul-Larsen, Juliette Tavenier, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Ove Andersen
BACKGROUND: Older people have the highest incidence of acute medical admissions. Old age and acute hospital admissions are associated with a high risk of adverse health outcomes after discharge, such as reduced physical performance, readmissions and mortality. Hospitalisations in this population are often by acute admission and through the emergency department. This, along with the rapidly increasing proportion of older people, warrants the need for clinically feasible tools that can systematically assess vulnerability in older medical patients upon acute hospital admission...
March 1, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248416/cognitive-ability-in-late-life-and-onset-of-physical-frailty-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#3
Catharine R Gale, Stuart J Ritchie, Cyrus Cooper, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether poorer cognitive ability is a risk factor for development of physical frailty and whether this risk varies according to cognitive domain. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study with 6-year follow-up. SETTING: Edinburgh, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N = 594). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was assessed at ages 70 and 76 using the Fried criteria...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241844/immune-profiles-of-elderly-breast-cancer-patients-are-altered-by-chemotherapy-and-relate-to-clinical-frailty
#4
Jithendra Kini Bailur, Graham Pawelec, Sigrid Hatse, Barbara Brouwers, Ann Smeets, Patrick Neven, Annouschka Laenen, Hans Wildiers, Christopher Shipp
BACKGROUND: Effective therapeutic management of elderly patients with cancer, on an individual basis, remains a clinical challenge. Here, we identify novel biomarkers to assess elderly patients (≥70 years of age) with breast cancer undergoing treatment with or without chemotherapy. METHODS: We performed comprehensive geriatric assessment and measured markers sensitive to alteration in ageing, including leukocyte telomere length, CMV serostatus, levels of circulating growth factors and cytokines, and immune profiling of T cell and myeloid populations in blood before and at 3 months and 12 months after initiation of therapy, using flow cytometry...
February 28, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225718/frailty-and-circulating-markers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-and-hiv-men-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#5
Joseph B Margolick, Jay H Bream, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Joe Lopez, Xiuhong Li, John P Phair, Susan L Koletar, Lisa P Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with immune activation and inflammation in the elderly general population, but whether this is true in the younger HIV-infected (HIV+) population is not known. METHODS: We analyzed 24 serologic biomarkers of monocyte, T-cell, or B-cell activation in HIV- (n = 207) and HIV+ (n = 714; 75% virologically suppressed) men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and were classified as frail or nonfrail according to expression or nonexpression of the frailty phenotype at 2 consecutive study visits...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159055/design-of-a-frailty-index-among-community-living-middle-aged-and-older-people-the-rotterdam-study
#6
Josje D Schoufour, Nicole S Erler, Loes Jaspers, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Trudy Voortman, Gijsbertus Ziere, Jan Lindemans, Caroline C Klaver, Henning Tiemeier, Bruno Stricker, Arfan M Ikram, Joop S E Laven, Guy G O Brusselle, Fernando Rivadeneira, Oscar H Franco
OBJECTIVES: To design a frailty index (FI) and evaluate three methods to handle missing data. Furthermore, we evaluated its construct (i.e., skewed distribution, correlation with age and sub-maximum score) and criterion validity (based on mortality risk). STUDY DESIGN: We included 11,539 participants (45± years) from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Frailty was measured with a FI, which we constructed based on the accumulation of 45 health-related variables, related to mood, cognition, functional status, diseases and conditions, biomarkers, and nutritional status...
March 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155180/biomarkers-for-physical-frailty-and-sarcopenia
#7
Riccardo Calvani, Federico Marini, Matteo Cesari, Matteo Tosato, Anna Picca, Stefan D Anker, Stephan von Haehling, Ram R Miller, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
Physical frailty (PF) and sarcopenia are major health issues in geriatric populations, given their high prevalence and association with several adverse outcomes. Nevertheless, the lack of an univocal operational definition for the two conditions has so far hampered their clinical implementation. Existing definitional ambiguities of PF and sarcopenia, together with their complex underlying pathophysiology, also account for the absence of robust biomarkers that can be used for screening, diagnostic and/or prognostication purposes...
February 2, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058805/biomarker-signatures-of-aging
#8
Paola Sebastiani, Bharat Thyagarajan, Fangui Sun, Nicole Schupf, Anne B Newman, Monty Montano, Thomas T Perls
Because people age differently, age is not a sufficient marker of susceptibility to disabilities, morbidities, and mortality. We measured nineteen blood biomarkers that include constituents of standard hematological measures, lipid biomarkers, and markers of inflammation and frailty in 4704 participants of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), age range 30-110 years, and used an agglomerative algorithm to group LLFS participants into clusters thus yielding 26 different biomarker signatures. To test whether these signatures were associated with differences in biological aging, we correlated them with longitudinal changes in physiological functions and incident risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and mortality using longitudinal data collected in the LLFS...
April 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056846/biological-age-as-a-useful-index-to-predict-seventeen-year-survival-and-mortality-in-koreans
#9
Jinho Yoo, Yangseok Kim, Eo Rin Cho, Sun Ha Jee
BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted to quantitatively estimate biological age using measurable biomarkers. Biological age should function as a valid proxy for aging, which is closely related with future work ability, frailty, physical fitness, and/or mortality. A validation study using cohort data found biological age to be a superior index for disease-related mortality than chronological age. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the validity of biological age as a useful index to predict a person's risk of death in the future...
January 5, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032946/population-pharmacokinetics-modeling-of-unbound-efavirenz-atazanavir-and-ritonavir-in-hiv-infected-subjects-with-aging-biomarkers
#10
J B Dumond, J Chen, M Cottrell, C R Trezza, Hma Prince, C Sykes, C Torrice, N White, S Malone, R Wang, K B Patterson, N E Sharpless, A Forrest
Unbound drug is the pharmacodynamically relevant concentration. This study aimed to determine if chronologic age or markers of biologic aging, such as the frailty phenotype and p16(INK4a) gene expression, altered unbound pharmacokinetics (PKs) of efavirenz (EFV) and atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/RTV). Sixty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants receiving EFV and 31 receiving ATV/RTV provided 1 to 11 samples to quantify total and unbound plasma concentrations. Population PK models with total and unbound concentrations simultaneously described are developed for each drug...
February 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001461/tobacco-smoking-and-smoking-related-dna-methylation-are-associated-with-the-development-of-frailty-among-older-adults
#11
Xu Gao, Yan Zhang, Kai-Uwe Saum, Ben Schöttker, Lutz Philipp Breitling, Hermann Brenner
Tobacco smoking is a preventable environmental factor that contributes to a wide spectrum of age-related health outcomes; however, its association with the development of frailty is not yet well established. We examined the associations of self-reported smoking indicators, serum cotinine levels and smoking-related DNA methylation biomarkers with a quantitative frailty index (FI) in 2 independent subsets of older adults (age 50-75) recruited in Saarland, Germany in 2000 - 2002 (discovery set: n = 978, validation set: n = 531)...
February 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925143/is-the-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-serum-concentration-a-good-marker-of-frailty
#12
T Krams, M Cesari, S Guyonnet, G Abellan Van Kan, C Cantet, B Vellas, Y Rolland
INTRODUCTION: The phenotype proposed by Fried and colleagues is a widely used operational definition of frailty defining such state of extreme vulnerability of older persons. Low serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) has been suggested as biomarker of frailty in literature. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association of 25(OH)D concentrations with the frailty phenotype and its criteria. METHODS: 321 subjects referred by their general practitioner to a geriatric frailty clinic were assessed between January 1, 2013 and September 23, 2013...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913742/frailty-assessment-in-hospitalized-older-adults-using-the-electronic-health-record
#13
Deborah A Lekan, Debra C Wallace, Thomas P McCoy, Jie Hu, Susan G Silva, Heather E Whitson
INTRODUCTION: Frailty, a clinical syndrome of decreased physiologic reserve and dysregulation in multiple physiologic systems, is associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes. PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional, correlational study was to characterize frailty in older adults admitted to a tertiary-care hospital using a biopsychosocial frailty assessment and to determine associations between frailty and time to in-hospital mortality and 30-day rehospitalization...
January 1, 2016: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909934/current-achievements-and-future-perspectives-of-metronomic-chemotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Adriana Romiti, Rosa Falcone, Michela Roberto, Paolo Marchetti
In recent years, many anticancer drugs have been tested at metronomic dosages for a variety of tumours. Mechanisms of action attributed to metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) include antiangiogenesis, immunomodulation, direct inhibition of tumour growth, effect on tumour initiating cells and the modulation of clonal evolution. An active clinical research, aimed at testing MCT in several cancers, has been conducted over the past 15 years. However, because the majority of available results come from earlier phase II studies, mainly performed in the area of breast cancer (BC), it is clear that there are areas still to be investigated...
December 1, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#15
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901392/assessment-of-frailty-in-aged-dogs
#16
Julie Hua, Sara Hoummady, Claude Muller, Jean-Louis Pouchelon, Marc Blondot, Caroline Gilbert, Loic Desquilbet
OBJECTIVE To define a frailty-related phenotype-a clinical syndrome associated with the aging process in humans-in aged dogs and to investigate its association with time to death. ANIMALS 116 aged guide dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs underwent a clinical geriatric assessment (CGA) and were followed to either time of death or the study cutoff date. A 5-component clinical definition of a frailty phenotype was derived from clinical items included in a geriatric health evaluation scoresheet completed by veterinarians during the CGA...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895474/efficacy-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-frailty-status-and-its-biomarkers-nutritional-status-and-physical-and-cognitive-function-among-prefrail-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
M Badrasawi, Suzana Shahar, A M Zahara, R Nor Fadilah, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884475/frailty-kidney-function-and-polypharmacy-the%C3%A2-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#18
Shoshana H Ballew, Yan Chen, Natalie R Daya, Job G Godino, B Gwen Windham, Mara McAdams-DeMarco, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Frail individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes, including adverse drug events. Kidney function is often compromised in frailty and is a key consideration in medication choice and dosing; however, creatinine-based measures of kidney function may be biased in frail individuals. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,987 community-dwelling older men and women with complete data who participated in visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011-2013)...
February 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799351/inflammation-immune-activation-immunosenescence-and-hormonal-biomarkers-in-the-frailty-related-phenotype-of-men-with-or-at-risk-for-hiv
#19
Kristine M Erlandson, Derek Ng, Lisa P Jacobson, Joseph B Margolick, Adrian S Dobs, Frank J Palella, Jordan E Lake, Hanhvy Bui, Lawrence Kingsley, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND:  The extent to which inflammation, immune activation/immunosenescence, and hormonal abnormalities are driven by HIV or frailty is not clear. METHODS:  HIV-infected frail men (n=155) were matched to non-frail, HIV-infected (n=141) and HIV-uninfected (n=150) men by age, calendar year, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (HIV only). Frailty was defined by ≥3 frailty-related phenotype criteria (weight loss, exhaustion, low activity, slowness) at ≥2 visits, or at 1 visit with ≥1 criteria at ≥2 visits...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743848/impact-of-chemotherapy-on-medium-term-physical-function-and-activity-of-older-breast-cancer-survivors-and-associated-biomarkers
#20
Martine Extermann, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Laila Samiian, Marina Sehovic, Jinze Xu, Christopher Cubitt, Paul B Jacobsen, Marco Pahor, Stephen R Grobmyer, Todd M Manini
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy is less often prescribed in older individuals due to concerns about post-treatment morbidity and quality of life. We evaluated the physical performance of breast cancer survivors treated with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 56 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer survivors (BCS) on adjuvant aromatase inhibitors 1-2years after definitive surgery. Cases had received adjuvant chemotherapy (n=27; age 70...
January 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
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