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Biomarkers of frailty

Lior Bibas, Eli Saleh, Samah Al-Kharji, Jessica Chetrit, Louis Mullie, Marcelo Cantarovich, Renzo Cecere, Nadia Giannetti, Jonathan Afilalo
BACKGROUND: Frailty assessment is recommended to evaluate the candidacy of adults referred for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Psoas muscle area (PMA) is an easily measured biomarker for frailty. There has yet to be a study examining the prognostic impact of PMA in OHT patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, pre and postoperative CT scans were retrieved for adults transplanted between 2000-2015 at a tertiary care hospital. PMA was measured on a single axial image...
June 6, 2018: Transplantation
Diego Marcos-Pérez, María Sánchez-Flores, Ana Maseda, Laura Lorenzo-López, José C Millán-Calenti, Johanna M Gostner, Dietmar Fuchs, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Frailty denotes a multidimensional syndrome that gives rise to vulnerability to stressors and leads to an increase of the age-related decline of different physiological systems and cognitive abilities. Aging-related alterations of the immune system may compromise its competence culminating in a chronic low-grade inflammation state. Thus, it has been proposed that frailty is associated with alterations in the concentration of pro-inflammatory molecules and in different lymphocyte subpopulations. To provide further support to the validity of that hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of Spanish older adults ( N  = 259, aged 65 and over) classified according to their frailty status...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Pénélope A Andreux, Marcus P J van Diemen, Maxime R Heezen, Johan Auwerx, Chris Rinsch, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Anurag Singh
Aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in both muscle mass and strength over time, which can eventually lead to pathologies, such as frailty and sarcopenia. While these two conditions are well characterized, further investigation of the early biological signs present in pre-frail elderly is still needed to help identify strategies for preventative therapeutic intervention. The goal of the present clinical study was to evaluate the level of mitochondrial (dys)function in a well-defined population of pre-frail elderly (>60 years of age)...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amal A Wanigatunga, Ravi Varadhan, Eleanor M Simonsick, Olga D Carlson, Stephanie Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Jennifer A Schrack
Background: Chronically elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels contribute to fatigue and functional decline via multiple pathways that often lead to frailty. Lesser known is the contribution of IL-6 to fatigue in relation to a standardized workload (fatigability), a precursor to functional decline. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between IL-6 and fatigability. Methods: 985 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (mean age: 70+/-10 years) were evaluated every 1-4 years...
May 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Mario Nuvolone, Paolo Milani, Giovanni Palladini, Giampaolo Merlini
Systemic immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is an aging-associated protein misfolding and deposition disease. This condition is caused by a small and otherwise indolent plasma cell (or B cell) clone secreting an unstable circulating light chain, which misfolds and deposits as amyloid fibrils possibly leading to progressive dysfunction of affected organs. AL amyloidosis can occur in the typical setting of other, rarer forms of systemic amyloidosis and can mimic other more prevalent conditions of the elderly...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Ilaria Liguori, Gennaro Russo, Luisa Aran, Giulia Bulli, Francesco Curcio, David Della-Morte, Gaetano Gargiulo, Gianluca Testa, Francesco Cacciatore, Domenico Bonaduce, Pasquale Abete
Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, with a resultant increase in the elderly population. Aging is characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength - a phenomenon called sarcopenia. Sarcopenia has a complex multifactorial pathogenesis, which involves not only age-related changes in neuromuscular function, muscle protein turnover, and hormone levels and sensitivity, but also a chronic pro-inflammatory state, oxidative stress, and behavioral factors - in particular, nutritional status and degree of physical activity...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Ying Yang, Qiukui Hao, Joseph H Flaherty, Li Cao, Jianghua Zhou, Li Su, Yanjiao Shen, Birong Dong
AIM: Procalcitonin (PCT) has predictive value for patients with infectious diseases, but has not been studied in frailty. The purpose of this study was to compare PCT to two other inflammatory biomarkers [interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and C-reactive protein (CRP) in their association with frailty among older hospitalized patients. METHODS: Retrospective study of inpatients (June-December, 2016), who had all three biomarkers measured within 24 h of admission. Frailty was defined according to the Chinese version of a validated frailty scale...
May 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Jonathan F Easton, Christopher R Stephens, Heriberto Román-Sicilia, Matteo Cesari, Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda
BACKGROUND: As the number of older adults increases, so does the number of frail older adults. Although anthropometry has been widely used as a way to stratify the overall mortality risk of a person, the significance of these measurements becomes blurred in the case of frail older adults who have changes in body composition. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the association of anthropometric measurements (body mass index, knee-adjusted height body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and calf circumference) with mortality risk in a group of older Mexican adults...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Joanne Stocks, Ana M Valdes
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial effect of dietary omega-3 supplementation in younger adults or older people with acute or chronic disease is established. Knowledge is now needed about the effect in medically stable older people. The objective of this study is to examine and assess the evidence for a role of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in older adults on (1) muscle mass and muscle strength, (2) inflammatory biomarkers and (3) physical activity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review and data synthesis will be conducted of randomised controlled trials in older people not recruited for any given disease diagnosis...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Matthew J Peterson
Background: Identifying impairments prior to onset of physical frailty may inform targeted interventions. An objective, clinically feasible early frailty measure, termed performance-based early frailty (PBEF) was developed, and antecedent and current risk factors were examined. Method: Data were from N = 104 participants of the Fels Longitudinal Study. PBEF was derived from age-specific cut points for time to complete five chair stands and walk four meters. "Pre-PBEF" and "PBEF" were defined as impairment in one or both measures, respectively...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Federico Marini, Alessandra Biancolillo, Matteo Cesari, Vito Pesce, Angela Maria Serena Lezza, Maurizio Bossola, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalised loss of muscle mass and strength/function, is a major health issue in older adults given its high prevalence and burdensome clinical implications. Over the years, this condition has been endorsed as a marker for discriminating biological from chronological age. However, the absence of a unified operational definition has hampered its full appreciation by healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers. In addition to this unsolved debate, the complexity of musculoskeletal ageing represents a major challenge to the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
B R Ipson, M B Fletcher, S E Espinoza, A L Fisher
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with progressive physical decline and significantly increases risk for falls, disability, hospitalizations, and death. However, much remains unknown regarding the biological mechanisms that contribute to aging and frailty, and to date, there are no clinically used prognostic or diagnostic molecular biomarkers. The present study profiled exosome-derived microRNAs isolated from the plasma of young, robust older, and frail older individuals and identified eight miRNAs that are uniquely enriched in frailty: miR-10a-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-185-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-326, miR-532-5p, miR-576-5p, and miR-760...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Mario C Deng
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that causes systemic hypoperfusion and failure to meet the body's metabolic demands. In an attempt to compensate, chronic upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone leads to further myocardial injury, HF progression and reduced O2 delivery. This triggers progressive organ dysfunction, immune system activation and profound metabolic derangements, creating a milieu similar to other chronic systemic diseases and presenting as advanced HF with severely limited prognosis...
May 8, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Ilaria Liguori, Gennaro Russo, Francesco Curcio, Giulia Bulli, Luisa Aran, David Della-Morte, Gaetano Gargiulo, Gianluca Testa, Francesco Cacciatore, Domenico Bonaduce, Pasquale Abete
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
M Liset Rietman, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Albert Wong, Harry van Steeg, Alexander Bürkle, María Moreno-Villanueva, Thilo Sindlinger, Claudio Franceschi, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Jürgen Bernhardt, P Eline Slagboom, Olivier Toussaint, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Ewa Sikora, Efstathios S Gonos, Nicolle Breusing, Wolfgang Stuetz, Daniela Weber, Tilman Grune, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Marco Malavolta, Sebastiano Collino, Eugene H J M Jansen, W M Monique Verschuren, Martijn E T Dollé
Frailty among elderly people leads to an increased risk for negative health outcomes. To prevent frailty, we need a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and early detection of individuals at risk. Both may be served by identifying candidate (bio)markers, i.e. biomarkers and markers, for the physical, cognitive, and psychological frailty domains. We used univariate (Rank-ANOVA) and multivariate (elastic net) approaches on the RASIG study population (age range: 35-74 years, n = 2220) of the MARK-AGE Study to study up to 331 (bio)markers between individuals with and without frailty for each domain...
April 29, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Nuria Álvarez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel Álvarez-Ríos, Juan Miguel Guerrero, Francisco José García-García, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Ivan Cruz-Chamorro, Patricia Judith Lardone, Antonio Carrillo-Vico
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (Hcy) high levels are associated with fractures, bone resorption and an early onset of osteoporosis in elderly persons; a relationship between Hcy and bone formation has also been suggested but is still controversial. Frailty, an independent predictor of fractures and decreased bone mineral density is associated with altered bone metabolism in women. However, no previous works have studied the relationship among frailty, Hcy levels and bone turnover. METHODS: We studied the association among Hcy, osteoporosis and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 631 Spanish women between the ages of 65-78 from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging (TSHA) cohort, who were classified as highly functional (robust subjects) or non-robust (pre-frail or frail subjects) according to Fried's criteria...
April 25, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Vanessa Valdiglesias, María Sánchez-Flores, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Laura Lorenzo-López, Ana Maseda, José C Millán-Calenti, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon
Frailty has emerged as a reliable measure of the aging process. Since the early detection of frailty is crucial to prevent or even revert it, the use of biomarkers would allow an earlier and more objective identification of frail individuals. In order to improve the understanding of the biological features associated with frailty as well as to explore different biomarkers for its early identification, several genetic outcomes - mutagenicity, different types of genetic damage, and cellular repair capacity - were analysed in a population of older adults classified into frail, pre-frail and non-frail...
April 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Pedro Gil Gregorio
The presence of cognitive impairment generates important changes in both affected individuals and their families and the health staff who must provide adequate care. Early identification of this alteration allows appropriate diagnosis and treatment and psychosocial and educational support, as well as the possibility of establishing care, life and financial plans. The interest of the scientific community in age-related cognitive alterations is demonstrated by the abundance of criteria and classifications. Obviously, there is a need to unify these criteria and implement longitudinal studies in order to reach reliable conclusions...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
N Cable, A Hiyoshi, N Kondo, J Aida, H Sjöqvist, K Kondo
We examined correlating clinical biomarkers for the physical aspect of frailty among community-dwelling older adults in Japan, using Japanese Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). We used information from the JAGES participants ( N = 3,128) who also participated in the community health screening in 2010. We grouped participants' response to the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) Frailty Index into robust (=0), intermediate frail (=1), and frail (=2+) ones to indicate physical aspect of frailty. Independent of sex and age, results from multinomial logistic regression showed above normal albumin and below normal HDL and haemoglobin levels were positively associated with intermediate frail (RRR = 1...
2018: BioMed Research International
Maria Lorenzi, Stefano Bonassi, Teresa Lorenzi, Silvia Giovannini, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Sarcopenia and frailty are associated with several important health-related adverse events, including disability, loss of independence, institutionalization and mortality. Sarcopenia can be considered a biological substrate of frailty, and the prevalence of both these conditions progressively increases with age. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the end of linear chromosomes and implicated in cellular ageing, shorten with age, and are associated with various age-related diseases. In addition, telomere length (TL) is widely considered a molecular/cellular hallmark of the ageing process...
March 16, 2018: Biogerontology
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