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Biomarkers of frailty

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909934/current-achievements-and-future-perspectives-of-metronomic-chemotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Adriana Romiti, Rosa Falcone, Michela Roberto, Paolo Marchetti
In recent years, many anticancer drugs have been tested at metronomic dosages for a variety of tumours. Mechanisms of action attributed to metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) include antiangiogenesis, immunomodulation, direct inhibition of tumour growth, effect on tumour initiating cells and the modulation of clonal evolution. An active clinical research, aimed at testing MCT in several cancers, has been conducted over the past 15 years. However, because the majority of available results come from earlier phase II studies, mainly performed in the area of breast cancer (BC), it is clear that there are areas still to be investigated...
December 1, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#2
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901392/assessment-of-frailty-in-aged-dogs
#3
Julie Hua, Sara Hoummady, Claude Muller, Jean-Louis Pouchelon, Marc Blondot, Caroline Gilbert, Loic Desquilbet
OBJECTIVE To define a frailty-related phenotype-a clinical syndrome associated with the aging process in humans-in aged dogs and to investigate its association with time to death. ANIMALS 116 aged guide dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs underwent a clinical geriatric assessment (CGA) and were followed to either time of death or the study cutoff date. A 5-component clinical definition of a frailty phenotype was derived from clinical items included in a geriatric health evaluation scoresheet completed by veterinarians during the CGA...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895474/efficacy-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-frailty-status-and-its-biomarkers-nutritional-status-and-physical-and-cognitive-function-among-prefrail-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
M Badrasawi, Suzana Shahar, A M Zahara, R Nor Fadilah, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884475/frailty-kidney-function-and-polypharmacy-the%C3%A2-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#5
Shoshana H Ballew, Yan Chen, Natalie R Daya, Job G Godino, B Gwen Windham, Mara McAdams-DeMarco, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Frail individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes, including adverse drug events. Kidney function is often compromised in frailty and is a key consideration in medication choice and dosing; however, creatinine-based measures of kidney function may be biased in frail individuals. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,987 community-dwelling older men and women with complete data who participated in visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011-2013)...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799351/inflammation-immune-activation-immunosenescence-and-hormonal-biomarkers-in-the-frailty-related-phenotype-of-men-with-or-at-risk-for-hiv
#6
Kristine M Erlandson, Derek Ng, Lisa P Jacobson, Joseph B Margolick, Adrian S Dobs, Frank J Palella, Jordan E Lake, Hanhvy Bui, Lawrence Kingsley, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND:  The extent to which inflammation, immune activation/immunosenescence, and hormonal abnormalities are driven by HIV or frailty is not clear. METHODS:  HIV-infected frail men (n=155) were matched to non-frail, HIV-infected (n=141) and HIV-uninfected (n=150) men by age, calendar year, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (HIV only). Frailty was defined by ≥3 frailty-related phenotype criteria (weight loss, exhaustion, low activity, slowness) at ≥2 visits, or at 1 visit with ≥1 criteria at ≥2 visits...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743848/impact-of-chemotherapy-on-medium-term-physical-function-and-activity-of-older-breast-cancer-survivors-and-associated-biomarkers
#7
Martine Extermann, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Laila Samiian, Marina Sehovic, Jinze Xu, Christopher Cubitt, Paul B Jacobsen, Marco Pahor, Stephen R Grobmyer, Todd M Manini
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy is less often prescribed in older individuals due to concerns about post-treatment morbidity and quality of life. We evaluated the physical performance of breast cancer survivors treated with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 56 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer survivors (BCS) on adjuvant aromatase inhibitors 1-2years after definitive surgery. Cases had received adjuvant chemotherapy (n=27; age 70...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633530/biomarkers-in-sarcopenia-a-multifactorial-approach
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Curcio, Gaetana Ferro, Claudia Basile, Ilaria Liguori, Paolo Parrella, Flora Pirozzi, David Della-Morte, Gaetano Gargiulo, Gianluca Testa, Carlo Gabriele Tocchetti, Domenico Bonaduce, Pasquale Abete
The slow and continuous loss of muscle mass that progresses with aging is defined as "sarcopenia". Sarcopenia represents an important public health problem, being closely linked to a condition of frailty and, therefore, of disability. According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, the diagnosis of sarcopenia requires the presence of low muscle mass, along with either low grip strength or low physical performance. However, age-related changes in skeletal muscle can be largely attributed to the complex interactions among factors including alterations of the neuromuscular junction, endocrine system, growth factors, and muscle proteins turnover, behavior-related and disease-related factors...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592340/inflammation-and-frailty-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Pinar Soysal, Brendon Stubbs, Paola Lucato, Claudio Luchini, Marco Solmi, Roberto Peluso, Giuseppe Sergi, Ahmet Turan Isik, Enzo Manzato, Stefania Maggi, Marcello Maggio, A Matthew Prina, Theodore D Cosco, Yu-Tzu Wu, Nicola Veronese
The pathogenesis of frailty and the role of inflammation is poorly understood. We examined the evidence considering the relationship between inflammation and frailty through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of papers providing data on inflammatory biomarkers and frailty was carried out in major electronic databases from inception until May 2016. From 1856 initial hits, 35 studies (32 cross-sectional studies n=3232 frail, n=11,483 pre-frail and n=8522 robust, and 563 pre-frail+robust; 3 longitudinal studies n=3402 participants without frailty at baseline) were meta-analyzed...
November 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554105/study-to-improve-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-high-risk-older-patients-icon1-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-study-design-and-protocol-of-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Vijay Kunadian, R Dermot G Neely, Hannah Sinclair, Jonathan A Batty, Murugapathy Veerasamy, Gary A Ford, Weiliang Qiu
INTRODUCTION: The ICON1 study (a study to Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in high-risk older patieNts with acute coronary syndrome) is a prospective observational study of older patients (≥75 years old) with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome managed by contemporary treatment (pharmacological and invasive). The aim of the study was to determine the predictors of poor cardiovascular outcomes in this age group and to generate a risk prediction tool. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants are recruited from 2 tertiary hospitals in the UK...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537684/frailty-index-predicts-all-cause-mortality-for-middle-aged-and-older-taiwanese-implications-for-active-aging-programs
#11
Shu-Yu Lin, Wei-Ju Lee, Ming-Yueh Chou, Li-Ning Peng, Shu-Ti Chiou, Liang-Kung Chen
BACKGROUND: Frailty Index, defined as an individual's accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. METHODS: Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511317/potential-fluid-biomarkers-for-pathological-brain-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implication-for-the-screening-of-cognitive-frailty
#12
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Zhuowei Yu
Cognitive frailty (CF) overlaps with early neuropathological alterations associated with aging‑related major neurocognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluid biomarkers for these pathological brain alterations allow for early diagnosis in the preclinical stages of AD, and for objective prognostic assessments in clinical intervention trials. These biomarkers may also be helpful in the screening of CF. The present study reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508522/n-terminal-fragment-of-the-type-b-natriuretic-peptide-nt-probnp-contributes-to-a-simple-new-frailty-score-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma
#13
Paolo Milani, S Vincent Rajkumar, Giampaolo Merlini, Shaji Kumar, Morie A Gertz, Giovanni Palladini, Martha Q Lacy, Francis K Buadi, Suzanne R Hayman, Nelson Leung, David Dingli, John A Lust, Yi Lin, Prashant Kapoor, Ronald S Go, Yi L Hwa, Wilson I Gonsalves, Steven R Zeldenrust, Robert A Kyle, Angela Dispenzieri
Multiple myeloma (MM) patient frailty has been delineated primarily by age and ECOG performance score (PS) and recently by the IMWG frailty score based on functional status [Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental-ADL scores], comorbidities [Charlson-comorbidity-index (CCI)] and age. It was hypothesized that N-terminal natriuretic peptide type B (NT-proBNP) might be both a more convenient measure of frailty and a predictor of overall survival (OS). Three-hundred and fifty-one consecutive symptomatic MM patients who were seen at Mayo Clinic within 30 days of diagnosis and who had blood stored were eligible...
November 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492438/validation-and-comparison-of-instruments-to-identify-frail-patientes-in-primary-care-settings-study-protocol
#14
Itziar Vergara, Francisco Rivas-Ruiz, Kalliopi Vrotsou, Eugenio Contreras-Fernández, Teresa Téllez-Santana, Mónica Machón, Ana Isabel Díez Ruiz, Yolanda de Mesa Berenguer, Andoni Bueno, Jazmina Núñez, M Carmen Saucedo Figueredo, Alonso Montiel-Luque, M Antonia Nava Del Val, Raúl Quirós-López, Estefanía Carrasco, Gabor Abellan
BACKGROUND: In the last few years several indices and tools, aimed at identifying frail subjects in various care settings have been developed. However, to date none of them has been incorporated into usual practice in the primary care setting. The purposes of this study are: 1) to evaluate the predictive capacity of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), the Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST) and the KoS model together with two biomarker levels (SOX2 and p16INK4a) for adverse events related to frailty; 2) to determine differences in the use of healthcare services according to frailty...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470301/operationalizing-frailty-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-cohort
#15
Anna M Kucharska-Newton, Priya Palta, Sheila Burgard, Michael E Griswold, Jennifer L Lund, Benjamin D Capistrant, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Karen Bandeen-Roche, B Gwen Windham
BACKGROUND: Factors that may contribute to the development of frailty in late life have not been widely investigated. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort presents an opportunity to examine relationships of midlife risk factors with frailty in late life. However, we first present findings on the validation of an established frailty phenotype in this predominantly biracial population of older adults. METHODS: Among 6,080 participants, we defined frailty based upon the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) criteria incorporating measures of weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, low physical activity, and low grip strength...
July 28, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465019/integrated-information-for-integrated-care-in-the-general-practice-setting-in-italy-using-social-network-analysis-to-go-beyond-the-diagnosis-of-frailty-in-the-elderly
#16
Michela Franchini, Stefania Pieroni, Loredana Fortunato, Tamara Knezevic, Michael Liebman, Sabrina Molinaro
BACKGROUND: Frailty has been defined in different ways and several diagnostic tools exist, but most of them are not applicable in routine primary care. Nonetheless, general practitioners (GPs) have a natural advantage in identifying frailty, due to their continued access to patients, patient-centered approach and training. GPs have also an advantage in conducting population-based evaluation as consequence of their role of gatekeepers of the health care system. This paper aims to identify those socio-demographic and clinical profiles and the relative information sources that, from the GPs' perspective, act as frailty markers, not solely as a diagnosis of state but as the ability to identify a patient's trajectory, over time, through the aging process...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443148/frailty-in-mouse-ageing-a-conceptual-approach
#17
Thomas von Zglinicki, Isabel Varela Nieto, Dora Brites, Niki Karagianni, Saida Ortolano, Spiros Georgopoulos, Ana Luisa Cardoso, Susana Novella, Günter Lepperdinger, Anne-Ulrike Trendelenburg, Ronald van Os
Human life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century and as a result also the prevalence of a variety of age-related diseases and syndromes. One such syndrome is frailty, which is defined as a combination of organ dysfunctions leading to increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. In humans, frailty is associated with various biomarkers of ageing and predicts relevant outcomes such as responses to therapies and progression of health status and mortality. Moreover, it is relatively easy to assess...
July 18, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436668/european-multicentre-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-nilvadipine-in-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-the-substudy-protocols-nilvad-frailty-nilvad-blood-and-genetic-biomarkers-nilvad-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-nilvad-cerebral-blood-flow
#18
Olga Meulenbroek, Sarah O'Dwyer, Daan de Jong, Gerrita van Spijker, Sean Kennelly, Fiona Cregg, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Laila Abdullah, Anders Wallin, Cathal Walsh, Robert Coen, Rose Anne Kenny, Leslie Daly, Ricardo Segurado, Anne Borjesson-Hanson, Fiona Crawford, Michael Mullan, Ugo Lucca, Rita Banzi, Florence Pasquier, Laetitia Breuilh, Matthias Riepe, Janos Kalman, William Molloy, Magda Tsolaki, Robert Howard, Jessica Adams, Siobhan Gaynor, Brian Lawlor
INTRODUCTION: In conjunction with the NILVAD trial, a European Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo Controlled trial of Nilvadipine in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are four NILVAD substudies in which eligible NILVAD patients are also invited to participate. The main NILVAD protocol was previously published in BMJ Open (2014). The objectives of the NILVAD substudies are to determine whether frailty, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood biomarker profile and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) status predict response to Nilvadipine, and to investigate the effect of Nilvadipine on cerebral blood flow and blood biomarkers...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422438/the-extracellular-to-intracellular-water-ratio-in-upper-legs-is-negatively-associated-with-skeletal-muscle-strength-and-gait-speed-in-older-people
#19
Yosuke Yamada, Tsukasa Yoshida, Keiichi Yokoyama, Yuya Watanabe, Motoko Miyake, Emi Yamagata, Minoru Yamada, Misaka Kimura
Skeletal muscles contain a large volume of water that is classified into intracellular (ICW) and extracellular (ECW) water fractions. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based biomarkers suggest that increased water T2 heterogeneities, as well as elevated water T2 relaxation in the quadriceps occurs in the elderly when compared with young adults. However, nuclear magnetic resonance is difficult to apply to a large-scale study or a clinical setting for sarcopenia and frailty screening. Segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is a unique tool used to assess the segmental ratio of ECW/ICW in the limbs...
July 15, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312014/in-sickness-and-in-death-assessing-frailty-in-human-skeletal-remains
#20
Kathryn E Marklein, Rachael E Leahy, Douglas E Crews
Stress plays an important role in the etiology of multiple morbid and mortal outcomes among the living. Drawing on health paradigms constructed among the living augments our evolving knowledge of relationships between stress and health. Therefore, elucidating relationships between stress and both chronic and acute skeletal lesions may help clarify our understanding of long-term health trends in the past. In this study, we propose an index of "skeletal frailty," based on models of frailty used to evaluate the life-long effects of stress on health among living populations...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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