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Cristina Azevedo, Jyoti Singh, Nicole Steck, Alexandre Hofer, Felix A Ruiz, Tanya Singh, Henning J Jessen, Adolfo Saiardi
Phenotypes are established by thigh regulation on protein functions. This regulation can be mediated allosterically, through protein binding, and covalently, through post-translational modification (PTM). The integration of an ever-increasing number of PTMs into regulatory networks enable and define the proteome complexity. Protein PTMs can occur enzymatically and non-enzymatically. Polyphosphorylation, a recently discovered PTM that belongs to the latter category, is the covalent attachment of the linear ortho-phosphate polymer called inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) to lysine residues...
June 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Amy Fearn, Benjamin Allison, Sarah J Rice, Noel Edwards, Jan Halbritter, Soline Bourgeois, Eva M Pastor-Arroyo, Friedhelm Hildebrandt, Velibor Tasic, Carsten A Wagner, Nati Hernando, John A Sayer, Andreas Werner
Mutations in SLC34A1, encoding the proximal tubular sodium-phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa, may cause a range of clinical phenotypes including infantile hypercalcemia, a proximal renal Fanconi syndrome, which are typically autosomal recessive, and hypophosphatemic nephrolithiasis, which may be an autosomal dominant trait. Here, we report two patients with mixed clinical phenotypes, both with metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphaturia, and renal stones. Patient A had a single heterozygous pathogenic missense mutation (p...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
James P Moley, Mary S McGrath, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley, Devendra H Dusane
Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (CS-B) are used to treat biofilm-related periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). A previous study has shown that such beads are effective in reducing lawns biofilms grown on agar plates; however, the ability of CS-B to eradicate biofilms grown on solid orthopaedic material surfaces has not been investigated. We grew biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 and a USA300 MRSA Staphylococcus aureus SAP231 on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE), hydroxyapatite (HA), and 316L stainless steel (SS) coupons for three days under static growth conditions, with daily nutrient exchange...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Bo Li, RuYin Hu, Li Sun, Rui Luo, JinMin Zhao, XiaoBin Tian
The effect of implanting a β-TCP bioceramic rod system (BRS) can be observed with using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite-element method on the biomechanics of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), to provide a theoretical basis for the biomechanics of applying the β-TCP BRS in the treatment of ONFH.A healthy 172 cm tall male adult volunteer (age: 40 years, weight: 70 kg, and femoral diameter: 50 mm) was selected for this study. The volunteer had no history of diseases in the hip, lower back, and lower limbs...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sang-Taek Im, Hee Yeon Kim, Jin Young Yoon, Joo Youn Oh, Mee Kum Kim, Myung-Hee Chung, Hae Jung Paik, Dong Hyun Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) on experimental ocular chemical injury models. METHODS: We created ocular chemical injury models with 8-week-old BALB/c mice (n = 70) by applying 100% ethanol; the mice were then treated with 8-oxo-dG eye drops 10 and 5 mg/mL and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) twice daily. After 7 days, clinical findings such as corneal integrity, clarity, and neovascularization were assessed...
June 19, 2018: Cornea
Keisuke Obase, Greg W Douhan, Yosuke Matsuda, Matthew E Smith
Cenococcum geophilum forms sclerotia and ectomycorrhizas with host plants in forest soils. We demonstrated the differences in genetic diversity of C. geophilum between cultured isolates from sclerotia and those from ectomycorrhizal roots in the same 73 soil samples based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene sequences and newly developed microsatellite markers. Based on GAPDH sequences, 759 cultured isolates (553 from sclerotia and 206 from ectomycorrhizas) were classified into 107 "genotypes" with sequence variation of up to 8...
April 18, 2018: Mycologia
Ahmad Naim, Yacine Bouhadja, Miguel Cortijo, Elen Duverger-Nédellec, Howard D Flack, Eric Freysz, Philippe Guionneau, Antonio Iazzolino, Amine Ould Hamouda, Patrick Rosa, Olaf Stefańczyk, Ángela Valentín-Pérez, Mehdi Zeggar
The dependence of nonlinear optical properties upon the spin state in molecular switches is still an unexplored area. Chiral [Fe( phen)3 ]2+ complexes are excellent candidates for those studies because they are expected to show nonlinear optical properties of interest and at the same time show photoconversion to a short-lived metastable high-Spin state by ultrafast optical pumping. Herein, we present the synthesis, crystallographic, and spectroscopic comparison of chiral [Fe( phen)3 ]2+ complexes obtained with chiral anions, a new lipophilic derivative of the D2 -symmetric (As2 (tartrate)2 )2- , and D3 -symmetric tris(catechol)phosphate(V) (TRISCAT), tris(catechol)arsenate(V) (TRISCAS), and 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocatechol phosphate(V) (TRISPHAT)...
June 20, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Brenda Bley Folly, Alvaro D Ortega, Georg Hubmann, Silke Bonsing-Vedelaar, Hein J Wijma, Pieter van der Meulen, Andreas Milias-Argeitis, Matthias Heinemann
Bacteria regulate cell physiology in response to extra- and intracellular cues. Recent work showed that metabolic fluxes are reported by specific metabolites, whose concentrations correlate with flux through the respective metabolic pathway. An example of a flux-signaling metabolite is fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). In turn, FBP was proposed to allosterically regulate master regulators of carbon metabolism, Cra in Escherichia coli and CggR in Bacillus subtilis. However, a number of questions on the FBP-mediated regulation of these transcription factors is still open...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Fu-Ju Lei, Bi-Hua Cheng, Pei-Yin Liao, Hsiao-Ching Wang, Wei-Chun Chang, Hsueh-Chou Lai, Juan-Cheng Yang, Yang-Chang Wu, Li-Ching Chu, Wen-Lung Ma
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that exerts various pathophysiological functions through binding to its receptor family (S1PRs). Since first report of the breast cancer (BCA) promoting function by S1P production (through the function of sphingosine kinases) and S1P/S1PR signaling, their antagonists have never been successfully progress to clinics after three decades. Taking advantage of bioinformatics linking to gene expression to disease prognosis, we examined the impact of associated genes in BCA patients...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jasmine Lee-Barber, Taylor E English, Jacquelyn F Britton, Nara Sobreira, Jason Goldstein, David Valle, Hans Tomas Bjornsson
Transaldolase deficiency (MIM#: 606003) is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the pentose phosphate pathway. Affected individuals are at risk for progressive liver failure and hepatocarcinoma. In the transaldolase-deficient mouse model (Taldo1 -/- ), these hepatic complications are accentuated by oxidative stress related to acetaminophen administration. We report a 13-month-old transaldolase-deficient male who developed mild liver failure after receiving standard doses of acetaminophen during a febrile respiratory syncytial virus infection...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
M Chakhtoura, M S Ramnitz, N Khoury, G Nemer, N Shabb, A Abchee, A Berberi, M Hourani, M Collins, S Ichikawa, G El Hajj Fuleihan
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC), secondary to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene mutation, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent calcified masses. We describe young Lebanese cousins presenting with HFTC, based on a retrospective chart review and a prospective case study. In addition, we present a comprehensive review on the topic, based on a literature search conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar, in 2014 and updated in December 2017. While the patients had the same previously reported FGF23 gene mutation (homozygous c...
June 20, 2018: Osteoporosis International
S Deepthi, Jobin Jose
PURPOSE: Conventional dosage form like eye drops showed poor therapeutic response and also require frequent dosing. Therefore, developing the dosage form to deliver the drug to the target site without much loss of drug or without causing any systemic side effects is the challenging job for the researchers in pharmaceutical industries. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate hydrogel-based drug delivery containing combination of neomycin sulphate and betamethasone sodium phosphate in order to provide prolonged release and also better bioavailability of drugs for the treatment of eye infections...
June 19, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Elena Guzzolino, Elena Chiavacci, Neha Ahuja, Laura Mariani, Monica Evangelista, Chiara Ippolito, Milena Rizzo, Deborah Garrity, Federico Cremisi, Letizia Pitto
Sphingosine-1-phosphate is a bioactive lipid and a signaling molecule integrated into many physiological systems such as differentiation, proliferation and migration. In mammals S1P acts through binding to a family of five trans-membrane, G-protein coupled receptors (S1PRs) whose complex role has not been completely elucidated. In this study we use zebrafish, in which seven s1prs have been identified, to investigate the role of s1pr1 . In mammals S1PR1 is the most highly expressed S1P receptor in the developing heart and regulates vascular development, but in zebrafish the data concerning its role are contradictory...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
A He, Y Ning, Y Wen, Y Cai, K Xu, Y Cai, J Han, L Liu, Y Du, X Liang, P Li, Q Fan, J Hao, X Wang, X Guo, T Ma, F Zhang
Aim: Osteoarthritis (OA) is caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of genes and are likely to regulate the OA transcriptome. We performed integrative genomic analyses to define methylation-gene expression relationships in osteoarthritic cartilage. Patients and Methods: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of articular cartilage from five patients with OA of the knee and five healthy controls was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California)...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Iman Parisay, Yegane Khazaei
Background: Stainless steel crown (SSC) is the most reliable restoration for primary teeth with extensive caries. Retention is of great importance for a successful restoration and is provided by various factors such as luting cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retentive strength of SSC cemented with four different luting cements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, A total of 55 extracted primary first molars were selected. Following crown selection and cementation (one with no cement and four groups cemented with resin, glass ionomer, zinc phosphate, and polycarboxylate), all the specimens were incubated and thermocycled in 5°C-55°C...
May 2018: Dental Research Journal
George Janes, Daniel von Wangenheim, Sophie Cowling, Ian Kerr, Leah Band, Andrew P French, Anthony Bishopp
Phosphorus is a crucial macronutrient for plants playing a critical role in many cellular signaling and energy cycling processes. In light of this, phosphorus acquisition efficiency is an important target trait for crop improvement, but it also provides an ecological adaptation for growth of plants in low nutrient environments. Increased root hair density has been shown to improve phosphorus uptake and plant health in a number of species. In several plant families, including Brassicaceae, root hair bearing cells are positioned on the epidermis according to their position in relation to cortex cells, with hair cells positioned in the cleft between two underlying cortex cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Federica Del Chierico, Francesca Abbatini, Alessandra Russo, Andrea Quagliariello, Sofia Reddel, Danila Capoccia, Romina Caccamo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Valerio Nobili, Francesco De Peppo, Bruno Dallapiccola, Frida Leonetti, Gianfranco Silecchia, Lorenza Putignani
Obesity levels, especially in children, have dramatically increased over the last few decades. Recently, several studies highlighted the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in obese adolescents and adults compared to age-matched normal weight (NW) volunteers in order to assemble age- and obesity-related microbiota profiles. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Ecological representations of microbial communities were computed, and univariate, multivariate, and correlation analyses performed on bacterial profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carolina Cogo, Julieta Pérez-Giménez, Chandrasekar B Rajeswari, María F Luna, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens , a soybean N2 -fixing symbiont, constitutes the basic input in one of the most prominent inoculant industries worldwide. This bacterium may be cultured with D-mannitol or L-arabinose as carbon-plus-energy source (C-source) with similar specific growth rates, but with higher biomass production with D-mannitol. To better understand the bacterium's carbon metabolism, we analyzed, by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS), the whole set of proteins obtained from cells grown on each C-source...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiucai Jin, Shu Rong, Weijie Yuan, Lijie Gu, Jieshuang Jia, Ling Wang, Honglei Yu, Yifeng Zhuge
Vascular calcification (VC) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), where cardiovascular mortality remains the leading cause of death. Here, we examined the role of high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein involved in inflammation, in aortic calcification and renal dysfunction induced by high phosphate in a mouse model of CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. HMGB1 and kidney function markers were measured by ELISA in the serum of CKD patients and in CKD mice. Sections of the aortas of mice were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Alizarin red staining, and protein lysates were generated to analyze the expression of related proteins in response to silencing of HMGB1 or β-catenin by western blotting...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Benjamin M Woolston, Jason R King, Michael Reiter, Bob Van Hove, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Due to volatile sugar prices, the food vs fuel debate, and recent increases in the supply of natural gas, methanol has emerged as a promising feedstock for the bio-based economy. However, attempts to engineer Escherichia coli to metabolize methanol have achieved limited success. Here, we provide a rigorous systematic analysis of several potential pathway bottlenecks. We show that regeneration of ribulose 5-phosphate in E. coli is insufficient to sustain methanol assimilation, and overcome this by activating the sedoheptulose bisphosphatase variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
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