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David A Bushinsky, Patrick Rossignol, David M Spiegel, Wade W Benton, Jinwei Yuan, Geoffrey A Block, Christopher S Wilcox, Rajiv Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Persistent hyperkalemia (serum potassium (K) ≥5.5 mEq/l) is a common condition in hemodialysis (HD) patients, is associated with increased mortality, and treatment options are limited. The effect of patiromer, a gastrointestinal K binder, on serum K was examined in HD patients. METHODS: Six hyperkalemic HD patients (5 anuric) were admitted to clinical research units for 15 days (1 pretreatment week and 1 patiromer treatment week) and they received a controlled diet with identical meals on corresponding days of pretreatment and treatment weeks...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Julie Paoletti, Liliane Assairi, Muriel Gelin, Valérie Huteau, Marie-Anne Nahori, Olivier Dussurget, Gilles Labesse, Sylvie Pochet
Increased resistance of pathogens to existing antibiotics necessitates the search for novel targets to develop potent antimicrobials. Biosynthetic pathways of several cofactors important for bacterial growth, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), have been proposed as a promising source of antibiotic targets. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinases (NADK; EC are attractive for inhibitor development, since they catalyze the phosphorylation of NAD to NADP, which is an essential step of NADP metabolism...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yuanyao Ye, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Yiwen Liu, Jixiang Li, Yi Liu, Xinbo Zhang, Hui Jia
Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sharon M Moe
Calcium is an important ion in cell signaling, hormone regulation, and bone health. Its regulation is complex and intimately connected to that of phosphate homeostasis. Both ions are maintained at appropriate levels to maintain the extracellular to intracellular gradients, allow for mineralization of bone, and to prevent extra skeletal and urinary calcification. The homeostasis involves the target organs intestine, parathyroid glands, kidney, and bone. Multiple hormones converge to regulate the extracellular calcium level: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D (principally 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D), fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Thierry Lioux, Marc-Antoine Mauny, Alain Lamoureux, Nicolas Bascoul, Mathieu Hays, Fabienne Vernejoul, Anne-Sophie Baudru, Cédric Boularan, Justine Lopes-Vicente, Gregory Qushair, Gérard Tiraby
We describe novel STING-activating cyclic dinucleotides whose constituent nucleosides are adenosine and inosine, and that vary by ribose substitution, internucleotide linkage position and phosphate modification. In mammalian cells in vitro, some of these cAIMP analogs induce greater STING-dependent IRF and NF-κB pathway signaling than do the reference agonists for murine (DMXAA) or human (2',3'-cGAMP) STING. In human blood ex vivo, they induce type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines: for the former, 3',3'-cAIMP (9; EC50: 6...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
P F Zabrodskii, V V Maslyakov, M S Gromov
Experiments on white non-inbred rats demonstrated that treatment with organophosphorus compound dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) decreased T cell-independent antibody production by B cells and blood levels of IL-10 and IL-12; a similar effect was produced by GTS-21, a selective agonist of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. N-nicotinic receptor antagonist chlorisondamine in combination with DDVP partially prevented suppression of antibody production in comparison with the effect observed during intoxication with DDVP...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Priya Antony, Bincy Baby, Ranjit Vijayan
Phosphatidylinositols and their phosphorylated derivatives, phosphoinositides, play a central role in regulating diverse cellular functions. These phospholipids have been shown to interact with the hydrophobic TH domain of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced protein 8 (TIPE) family of proteins. However, the precise mechanism of interaction of these lipids is unclear. Here we report the binding mode and interactions of these phospholipids in the TH domain, as elucidated using molecular docking and simulations...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Wyman Chen, Rose Caston, Bijina Balakrishnan, Anwer Siddiqi, Kamalpreet Parmar, Manshu Tang, Merry Feng, Kent Lai
Despite adequate dietary management, patients with classic galactosemia continue to have increased risks of cognitive deficits, speech dyspraxia, primary ovarian insufficiency, and abnormal motor development. A recent evaluation of a new galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT)-deficient mouse model revealed reduced fertility and growth restriction. These phenotypes resemble those seen in human patients. In this study, we further assess the fidelity of this new mouse model by examining the animals for the manifestation of a common neurological sequela in human patients: cerebellar ataxia...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Kwangjin Park, Jun-Ho Park, Suk-Gi Hong, Byungjin Choi, Seung-Woo Seo, Jin-Hwan Park, Kyoungmin Min
The effect of bi-functional coatings consisting of Zr and phosphate (P) on the electrochemical performance of Li1.0Ni0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 (NCM) has been investigated. The presence of various types of Zr and P compounds such as oxides (ZrO2 and Li2ZrO3) and phosphates (Zr2P2O9, ZrP2O7 and LiZr2(PO4)3) in the coating was confirmed by experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. When the NCM samples were coated with the Zr/P hybrid material, the cycle retention and the amount of removed Li residuals (LiOH, Li2CO3) were enhanced by the synergistic effect from Zr and P...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Amos O Adelowo, Michele R Hacker, Anna M Modest, Costa A Apostolis, Anthony J Disciullo, Katherine J Hanaway, Eman E Elkadry, Peter L Rosenblatt, Kathleen J Rogers, Lekha S Hota
OBJECTIVE: To compare mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) using oral magnesium citrate with sodium phosphate enema to sodium phosphate (NaP) enema alone during minimally invasive pelvic reconstructive surgery. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind, randomized controlled trial of MBP versus NaP in women undergoing minimally invasive pelvic reconstructive surgery. The primary outcome was intraoperative quality of the surgical field. Secondary outcomes included surgeon assessment of bowel handling and patient-reported tolerability symptoms...
October 25, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
J-J Liu, Y Lu, N-N Ping, X Li, Y-X Lin, C F Li
Oxidative stress plays an important role in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in rats. After abdominal aorta constriction, the surviving rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham group, abdominal aorta constriction group, apocynin group, captopril group. Left ventricular pathological changes were studied using Masson's trichrome staining...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Irina V Fedorova, Michael A Krestyaninov, Lyubov P Safonova
Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures over the whole composition range have been carried out. It has been found that the neutral molecules are the dominant species in this system. The concentration dependences of the average number of H-bonds per proton acceptor atom in P=O and C=O groups as well as per proton donor atom in DMFH(+) ions towards phosphate species have been discussed. The H-bonding between components in all investigated mixtures of H3PO4 and DMF is possible...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hee-Jo Lee, Jong-Gwan Yook
In this paper, we demonstrate the sensing feasibility of the proposed high-Q resonator using a phosphate-buffered saline droplet at microwave frequencies. In the experimental results, the resonant frequency, signal level, and Q-factor of the S21-parameter with and without a 1-μl droplet were changed to about 230 MHz, 32 dB, and 1500, respectively. The resonator system was found to be suitable for droplet sensing with a small volume due to its small and compact scheme. This resonator system is expected to play an important role in droplet sensing with different dielectric constants...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Mojgan Alaeddini, Yasaman Kheirandish, Abolfazl Golestani
Metabolic bone disease is a major issue in chronic liver disease. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and elevation of endogenous opioids have been suggested to occur during cholestasis/cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems in bone loss after bile-duct-ligation (BDL) in rats using optical density (OD) evaluation and histomorphometric analysis. BDL- and sham-operated (SO) rats received injections of 3mg/kg Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester-hydrochloride (L-NAME) as an NO-synthase inhibitor, 10mg/kg naltrexone (NTX) as an opioid-receptors antagonist or saline once daily for 28 days...
October 26, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
F Jacquot, D Zbili, J-M Feron, A Sautet, L Doursounian, A-C Masquelet
Posterior Hill-Sachs humeral defects are present in 80% to 100% of cases of anterior shoulder dislocation and are a factor in recurrent instability. Several techniques have been described to fill the defect and avoid recurrence. We developed a percutaneous technique to fill the newly created defect in which a percutaneous balloon, analogous to the one used in vertebral kyphoplasty, is used to reduce the defect, which is then filled with calcium phosphate cement. One patient with an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder with no previous history was treated using this method...
September 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Younes Ellahioui, Sanjiv Prashar, Santiago Gómez-Ruiz
This article reviews the use of silica, alumina and calcium phosphate-based nanostructured materials with biomedical applications. A short introduction on the use of the materials in Science, Nanotechnology and Health is included followed by a revision of each of the selected materials. A description of the principal synthetic methods used in the preparation of the materials in nanostructured form is included. An explanation of the most widely used applications in biomedicine are reviewed including, for example drug-delivery, bone regeneration, imaging, sensoring amongst others...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Cullen L Myers, Franco K K Li, Byoung-Mo Koo, Omar M El-Halfawy, Shawn French, Carol A Gross, Natalie C J Strynadka, Eric D Brown
The cell wall of most Gram-positive bacteria contains equal amounts of peptidoglycan and the phosphate-rich glycopolymer wall teichoic acid (WTA). During phosphate-limited growth of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis 168, WTA is lost from the cell wall in a response mediated by the PhoPR two component system, which regulates genes involved in phosphate conservation and acquisition. It has been thought that WTA provides a phosphate source to sustain growth during starvation conditions, however, WTA degradative pathways have not been described for this, or any condition of bacterial growth...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Erin L Seifert, Aniko Gál, Michelle G Acoba, Qipei Li, Lauren Anderson-Pullinger, Tunde Golenár, Cynthia Moffat, Neal Sondheimer, Steven M Claypool, György Hajnóczky
The relevance of PiC, encoded by SLC25A3, in bioenergetics is well accepted. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating the cellular impairments induced by pathological SLC25A3 variants. To this end, we investigated the pathogenicity of a novel compound heterozygous mutation in SLC25A3. First, each variant was modeled in yeast, revealing that substituting GSSAS for QIP within the 5th matrix loop is incompatible with survival on non-fermentable substrate whereas the L200W variant is functionally neutral...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Naser Jafari, Qiaodan Zheng, Liqing Li, Wei Li, Lei Qi, Jianyong Xiao, Tianyan Gao, Cai Huang
Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type I γ (PIPKIγ90) ubiquitination and subsequent degradation regulate focal adhesion assembly, cell migration and invasion. However, it is unknown how upstream signals control PIPKIγ90 ubiquitination or degradation. Here, we show that p70S6K1 (S6K1), a downstream target of mTOR, phosphorylates PIPKIγ90 at T553 and S555, and that S6K1-mediated PIPKIγ90 phosphorylation is essential for cell migration and invasion. Moreover, PIPKIγ90 phosphorylation is required for the development of focal adhesions and invadopodia, key machineries for cell migration and invasion...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad Aasif Dar, Mohd Amir, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) is a cytoplasmic enzyme of prime importance in the mammalian glycolytic pathway. It has a major role in the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. We have successfully purified a stable complex of TIM with β-globin subunit from the sheep kidney using a simple two-step chromatography procedure. It is seen for the first time that TIM is forming a stable complex with β-globin. The purified protein-protein complex was crystallized and preliminary diffraction data were collected at 2...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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