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Juliana Jendiroba Faraoni, Carmen Victoria Torres Toro, Laís Lopes Machado de Matos, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing. DESIGN: One hundred and sixty human root dentin blocks were selected after they were initially eroded with liquid HCl (pH 1.2) 3x for one day. The blocks were divided into the following groups: G1- liquid HCl (HCl-l), G2- HCl-l + brushing, G3- gaseous HCl (HCl-g), and G4- HCl-g + brushing...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Vadim V Annenkov, Elena N Danilovtseva, Viktor A Pal'shin, Olga N Verkhozina, Tatyana A Shishlyannikova, Graham J Hickman, Carole C Perry
Siliceous frustules of diatom algae contain unique long-chain polyamines, including those having more than six nitrogen atoms. These polyamines participate in the formation of the siliceous frustules of the diatoms but their precise physiological role is not clear. The main hypotheses include formation of a polyamine and polyphosphate supramolecular matrix. We have synthesized novel fluorescent dyes from a synthetic oligomeric mixture of polyamines and the fluorophore 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole. The long polyamine chain ensures the high affinity of these dyes to silica, which allows their application in the staining of siliceous materials, such as valves of diatom algae and fossilized samples from sediments...
February 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Vladimir B Tsvetkov, Timofei S Zatsepin, Evgeny S Belyaev, Yury I Kostyukevich, George V Shpakovski, Victor V Podgorsky, Galina E Pozmogova, Anna M Varizhuk, Andrey V Aralov
Non-canonical DNA structures are widely used for regulation of gene expression, in DNA nanotechnology and for the development of new DNA-based sensors. I-motifs (iMs) are two intercalated parallel duplexes that are held together by hemiprotonated C-C base pairs. Previously, iMs were used as an accurate sensor for intracellular pH measurements. However, iM stability is moderate, which in turn limits its in vivo applications. Here, we report the rational design of a new substituted phenoxazine 2'-deoxynucleotide (i-clamp) for iM stabilization...
February 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hao Du, Corey Markus, Michael Metz, Mengling Feng, Tze Ping Loh
Objectives: There is currently a lack of an outcomes-based definition of critical values for the pediatric population. This has contributed to a highly heterogeneous critical value reporting practice between laboratories. Methods: Anonymized results were extracted from a laboratory information system for 10 biochemistry tests. The probability of high-dependency/intensive care unit admission (as a proxy for adverse outcomes) for each individual laboratory concentration was calculated and adjusted to fit using a polynomial function to model the probability trend...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Trung Hai Nguyen, Chao Zhang, Ewald Weichselbaum, Denis G Knyazev, Peter Pohl, Paolo Carloni
Proton transport at water/membrane interfaces plays a fundamental role for a myriad of bioenergetic processes. Here we have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of proton transfer along two phosphatidylcholine bilayers. As found in previous theoretical studies, the excess proton is preferably located at the water/membrane interface. Further, our simulations indicate that it interacts not only with phosphate head groups, but also with water molecules at the interfaces. Interfacial water molecules turn out to be oriented relative to the lipid bilayers, consistently with experimental evidence...
2018: PloS One
Ian Salter
Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be defined as the DNA pool recovered from an environmental sample that includes both extracellular and intracellular DNA. There has been a significant increase in the number of recent studies that have demonstrated the possibility to detect macroorganisms using eDNA. Despite the enormous potential of eDNA to serve as a biomonitoring and conservation tool in aquatic systems, there remain some important limitations concerning its application. One significant factor is the variable persistence of eDNA over natural environmental gradients, which imposes a critical constraint on the temporal and spatial scales of species detection...
2018: PloS One
Leila Alipanah, Per Winge, Jens Rohloff, Javad Najafi, Tore Brembu, Atle M Bones
Phosphorus, an essential element for all living organisms, is a limiting nutrient in many regions of the ocean due to its fast recycling. Changes in phosphate (Pi) availability in aquatic systems affect diatom growth and productivity. We investigated the early adaptive mechanisms in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to P deprivation using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics, physiological and biochemical experiments. Our analysis revealed strong induction of gene expression for proteins involved in phosphate acquisition and scavenging, and down-regulation of processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nucleic acid and ribosome biosynthesis...
2018: PloS One
Emily Vebrosky, Parichehr Saranjampour, Donald G Crosby, Kevin Armbrust
Dicloran appears to be a model pesticide to investigate photodegradation processes in surface waters. Photodegradation processes are particularly relevant to this compound as it is applied to crops grown in proximity to freshwater and marine ecosystems. The photodegradation of dicloran under simulated sunlight was measured in distilled water, artificial seawater, phosphate buffer, and filter-sterilized estuarine water to determine the half-life, degradation rate, and photodegradation products. The half-life was approximately 7...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Seyoung Jung, Timothy P Lodge, Theresa M Reineke
Complexation between plasmid DNA (pDNA) and a set of diblock copolymers, each with one cationic block and one hydrophilic, charge-neutral block, is examined. A range of hydrophilic block structures are explored, whereas the cationic block is fixed as poly(N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide) (PAEMA) with a degree of polymerization of 60 ± 3. The hydrophilic blocks include poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG45), poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (P(OEGMA)51), and poly(2-deoxy-2-methacrylamido glucopyranose) (PMAG52)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Francesco Nicolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Dan Wang, Jietang Zhao, Bing Hu, Jiaqi Li, Yaqi Qin, Linhuan Chen, Yonghua Qin, Guibing Hu
Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC is a key enzyme that regulates sucrose biosynthesis in plants. SPS is encoded by different gene families which display differential expression patterns and functional divergence. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of SPS gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis, rice, and sugarcane, but a comprehensive analysis of the SPS gene family in Litchi chinensis Sonn. has not yet been reported. In the current study, four SPS gene ( LcSPS1 , LcSPS2 , LcSPS3 , and LcSPS4 ) were isolated from litchi...
2018: PeerJ
Joana Rocha, Milène Nitenberg, Agnès Girard-Egrot, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Maréchal, Maryse A Block, Christelle Breton
A unique feature of chloroplasts is their high content of the galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which constitute up to 80% of their lipids. These galactolipids are synthesized in the chloroplast envelope membrane through the concerted action of galactosyltransferases, the so-called 'MGDG synthases (MGDs)' and 'DGDG synthases (DGDs),' which use uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose as donor. In Arabidopsis leaves, under standard conditions, the enzymes MGD1 and DGD1 provide the bulk of galactolipids, necessary for the massive expansion of thylakoid membranes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hamed A El-Serehy, Hala S Abdallah, Fahad A Al-Misned, Rizwan Irshad, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Esam S Almalki
The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria's. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315-7376 ind...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Mira Sohn, Marek Korzeniowski, James P Zewe, Rachel C Wills, Gerald R V Hammond, Jana Humpolickova, Lukas Vrzal, Dominika Chalupska, Vaclav Veverka, Gregory D Fairn, Evzen Boura, Tamas Balla
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 ) is a critically important regulatory lipid of the plasma membrane (PM); however, little is known about how cells regulate PM PI(4,5)P2 levels. Here, we show that the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)/phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident ORP5 and ORP8 is regulated by both PM PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 Dynamic control of ORP5/8 recruitment to the PM occurs through interactions with the N-terminal Pleckstrin homology domains and adjacent basic residues of ORP5/8 with both PI4P and PI(4,5)P2...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Suyong Choi, Xander Houdek, Richard A Anderson
Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) generate a lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2 ) that controls essentially all aspects of cellular functions. PI4,5P2 rapidly diffuses in the membrane of the lipid bilayer and does not greatly change in membrane or cellular content, and thus PI4,5P2 generation by PIPKs is tightly linked to its usage in subcellular compartments. Based on this verity, recent study of PI4,5P2 signal transduction has been focused on investigations of individual PIPKs and their underlying molecular regulation of cellular processes...
February 8, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Jiayue Yan, Juli Broggi, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Laura Gangoso, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: Host selection by mosquitoes plays a central role in the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although interspecific variation in mosquito attraction has often been reported, the mechanisms underlying intraspecific differences in hosts' attractiveness to mosquitoes are still poorly known. Metabolic rate is related to several physiological parameters used as location cues by mosquitoes, and so potentially affect host-vector contact rates. Therefore, individual hosts with higher metabolic rates should be more attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes...
February 23, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sandeep C Chaudhary, Sana Khalid, Victoria Smethurst, Daisy Monier, James Mobley, Alexis Huet, James F Conway, Dobrawa Napierala
Elevated serum phosphate is one of the major factors contributing to vascular calcification. Studies suggested that extracellular vesicles released from vascular smooth muscle cells significantly contribute to the initiation and progression of this pathology. Recently, we have demonstrated that elevated phosphate stimulates release of extracellular vesicles from osteogenic cells at the initiation of the mineralization process. Here, we used MOVAS cell line as an in vitro model of vascular calcification to examine whether vascular smooth muscle cells respond to high phosphate levels in a similar way and increase formation of extracellular vesicles...
February 22, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Arya Das, Sk Musharaf Ali
Tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) has been proposed to be an alternative for tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) in the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process. Recently, we have successfully calibrated and tested all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations using Mulliken partial charges for pure TiAP, TBP, and dodecane by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is of immense importance to extend this potential for the various molecular properties of TiAP and TiAP/n-dodecane binary mixtures using MD simulation...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ming Lu, Lu Lu, Qiongzhu Dong, Guangyang Yu, Jinhong Chen, Lunxiu Qin, Lianxin Wang, Wenwei Zhu, Huliang Jia
Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a fundamental component of cellular metabolism. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP, is elevated in many cancers and contributes to tumor growth by producing ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH through PPP. However, the role of G6PD in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and the clinical significance of G6PD in HCC progression and prognosis have not been well determined. In this study, by investigating tissue samples from HCC patients and HCC cell lines, we found that elevated G6PD expression is significantly associated with HCC metastasis and poor prognosis of HCCs, and that knockdown of G6PD inhibits in vitro proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cell lines...
February 17, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Ji-Hyun Kim, You-Jin Bae, Kyong-Hwa Jun, Hyung-Min Chin
BACKGROUND: This study explored the cumulative incidence of anemia after gastrectomy in patients with early-stage gastric cancer and evaluated the relationship between postgastrectomy anemia and nutritional factors during long-term follow-up. METHODS: The medical records of patients with stage I gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy between January 2006 and December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Hematologic parameters like hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, and vitamin B12 level were obtained prior to and after surgery with other nutritional parameters such as total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, and phosphate...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
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