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One-carbon metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773709/growth-of-sedimentary-bathyarchaeota-on-lignin-as-an-energy-source
#1
Tiantian Yu, Weichao Wu, Wenyue Liang, Mark Alexander Lever, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Fengping Wang
Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are among the most abundant microorganisms on Earth. Although versatile metabolic capabilities such as acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and fermentation have been suggested for bathyarchaeotal members, no direct confirmation of these metabolic functions has been achieved through growth of Bathyarchaeota in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate, on the basis of gene-copy numbers and probing of archaeal lipids, the growth of Bathyarchaeota subgroup Bathy-8 in enrichments of estuarine sediments with the biopolymer lignin...
May 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773169/comparison-of-the-effect-of-dietary-copper-nanoparticles-and-one-copper-ii-salt-on-the-metabolic-and-immune-status-in-a-rat-model
#2
Ewelina Cholewińska, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Katarzyna Ognik
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing different levels of Cu in two different chemical forms (carbonate and nanoparticles) on metabolic, immune and antioxidant status in a rat model. Five experimental treatments (8 rats in each) were used to test different dosages of Cu added to the diet (standard -6.5 mg/kg, half the standard dosage -3.25 mg/kg, and no added Cu as a negative control) and two sources of added copper (standard -CuCO3 and copper nanoparticles -CuNPs). Blood and urine samples were collected from all the animals after four weeks of treatment...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772225/maternal-one-carbon-metabolism-through-increased-oxidative-stress-and-disturbed-angiogenesis-can-influence-placental-apoptosis-in-preeclampsia
#3
REVIEW
Vaishali V Kasture, Deepali P Sundrani, Sadhana R Joshi
Adequate maternal nutrition is critical for a healthy pregnancy outcome and poor maternal nutrition is known to be associated with pregnancy complications like preeclampsia. We have earlier demonstrated that there is an imbalance in the levels of micronutrients (folate and vitamin B12 ) along with low levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and high homocysteine levels in women with preeclampsia. Homocysteine is known to be involved in the formation of free radicals leading to increased oxidative stress...
May 14, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763299/in-vivo-assimilation-of-one-carbon-via-a-synthetic-reductive-glycine-pathway-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Oren Yishai, Madeleine Bouzon, Volker Döring, Arren Bar-Even
Assimilation of one-carbon compounds presents a key biochemical challenge, which limits their use as sustainable feedstocks for microbial growth and production. The reductive glycine pathway is a synthetic metabolic route that could provide an optimal way for the aerobic assimilation of reduced C1 compounds. Here, we show that a rational integration of native and foreign enzymes enables the tetrahydrofolate and glycine cleavage/synthase systems to operate in the reductive direction, such that Escherichia coli satisfies all of its glycine and serine requirements from the assimilation of formate and CO2...
May 15, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758419/seasonal-ionomic-and-metabolic-changes-in-aleppo-pines-growing-on-mine-tailings-under-mediterranean-semi-arid-climate
#5
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Aleppo pine is the most abundant conifer species in Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of adaptive mechanisms to cope with different environmental stresses simultaneously is necessary to improve its resilience to the predicted climatic changes and anthropogenic stressors, such as heavy metal/metal(loid)s (HMMs) pollution. Here, one year-old needles and rhizosphere soil samples from five mining and non-mining (NM) populations of Aleppo pines grown spontaneously in SE Spain were sampled in two consecutive years during spring and summer...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758287/pseudomonas-putida-as-a-functional-chassis-for-industrial-biocatalysis-from-native-biochemistry-to-trans-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755426/comparative-genomics-and-mutational-analysis-reveals-a-novel-xoxf-utilizing-methylotroph-in-the-roseobacter-group-isolated-from-the-marine-environment
#7
Alexandra M Howat, John Vollmers, Martin Taubert, Carolina Grob, Joanna L Dixon, Jonathan D Todd, Yin Chen, Anne-Kristin Kaster, J C Murrell
The Roseobacter group comprises a significant group of marine bacteria which are involved in global carbon and sulfur cycles. Some members are methylotrophs, using one-carbon compounds as a carbon and energy source. It has recently been shown that methylotrophs generally require a rare earth element when using the methanol dehydrogenase enzyme XoxF for growth on methanol. Addition of lanthanum to methanol enrichments of coastal seawater facilitated the isolation of a novel methylotroph in the Roseobacter group: Marinibacterium anthonyi strain La 6...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753319/biotransformation-of-steroids-by-entomopathogenic-strains-of-isaria-farinosa
#8
Ewa Kozłowska, Natalia Hoc, Jordan Sycz, Monika Urbaniak, Monika Dymarska, Jakub Grzeszczuk, Edyta Kostrzewa-Susłow, Łukasz Stępień, Elżbieta Pląskowska, Tomasz Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Steroid compounds are very interesting substrates for biotransformation due to their high biological activity and a high number of inactivated carbons which make chemical modification difficult. Microbial transformation can involve reactions which are complicated and uneconomical in chemical synthesis, and searching for a new effective biocatalyst is necessary. The best known entomopathogenic species used in steroid modification is Beauveria bassiana. In this study we tested the ability of Isaria farinosa, another entomopathogenic species, to transform several steroids...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751062/new-insights-into-auxin-metabolism-in-bradyrhizobium-japonicum
#9
Daniela Torres, Iliana Benavidez, Florencia Donadio, Elias Mongiardini, Susana Rosas, Stijn Spaepen, Jozef Vanderleyden, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Jitka Frébortová, Fabricio Cassán
Bacterial metabolism of phytohormones includes several processes such as biosynthesis, catabolism, conjugation, hydrolysis and homeostatic regulation. However, only biosynthesis and occasionally catabolism are studied in depth in microorganisms. In this work, we evaluated and reconsidered IAA metabolism in B. japonicum E109, one of the most widely used strains for soybean inoculation around the world. The genomic analysis of the strain showed the presence of several genes responsible for IAA biosynthesis, mainly via indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN), indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and tryptamine (TAM) pathways...
May 8, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745170/-mechanism-of-hypoxia-tolerance-and-community-structure-of-aerobic-methanotrophs-in-o-2-limited-environments-a-review
#10
Ruo Chan Ma, Xiao Meng Wei, Ruo He
Methane bio-oxidation plays an important role in the global methane balance and greenhouse gases mitigation. Oxygen (O2 ) is one of the significant factors in methane bio-oxidation. The O2 concentration in the environments not only can affect community structure and activity of aerobic methanotrophs and the distribution of methane-derived carbon, but also aerobic methanotrophs have various ways of metabolism at different O2 concentrations. It is meaningful for carbon cycle and biodiversity of methane-driven ecosystem to understand the hypoxia-tolerance mechanisms of aerobic methanotrophs and methane bio-oxidation in O2 -limited environments...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744644/an-epigenetic-association-of-malformations-adverse-reproductive-outcomes-and-fetal-origins
#11
Mark Lubinsky
VACTERL, the prototype for associated congenital anomalies, also has connections with functional issues such as pregnancy losses, prematurity, growth delays, perinatal difficulties, and parental subfertility. This segues into a broader association with similar connections even in the absence of malformations. DNA methylation disturbances in the ovum are a likely cause, with epigenetic links to individual components and to folate effects before conception, explaining diverse fetal and placental findings and providing a link to fetal origin hypothesis-related effects...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743073/parallel-substrate-supply-and-ph-stabilization-for-optimal-screening-of-e-coli-with-the-membrane-based-fed-batch-shake-flask
#12
P Philip, D Kern, J Goldmanns, F Seiler, A Schulte, T Habicher, J Büchs
BACKGROUND: Screening in the fed-batch operation mode is essential for biological cultivations facing challenges as oxygen limitation, osmotic inhibition, catabolite repression, substrate inhibition or overflow metabolism. As a screening tool on shake flask level, the membrane-based fed-batch shake flask was developed. While a controlled supply of a substrate was realized with the in-built membrane tip, the possibilities for replenishing nutrients and stabilizing pH values was not yet exploited...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742810/metabolic-reconstructions-identify-plant-3-methylglutaconyl-coa-hydratase-that-is-crucial-for-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-in-mitochondria
#13
Scott Latimer, Yubing Li, Thuong T H Nguyen, Eric Soubeyrand, Abdelhak Fatihi, Christian G Elowsky, Anna Block, Eran Pichersky, Gilles J Basset
The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential nutrients for mammals. In plants, BCAAs double as alternative energy sources when carbohydrates become limiting, the catabolism of BCAAs providing electrons to the respiratory chain and intermediates to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, the actual architecture of the degradation pathways of BCAAs is not well understood. In this study, gene network modeling in Arabidopsis and rice, and plant-prokaryote comparative genomics detected candidates for 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase (4...
May 9, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738980/employing-metabolic-engineered-lipolytic-microbial-platform-for-1-alkene-one-step-conversion
#14
Juli Wang, Haiying Yu, Kun Zhu
1-Alkenes are traditionally used as basic chemicals with great importance. Biosynthetic 1-alkenes also have the potential to serve as biofuels. In this study, we engineered a Pseudomonas lipolytic microbial platform for 1-alkene production using hydrophobic substrate as sole carbon source. Fatty acid decarboxylase UndA and UndB were cloned and expressed, which successfully produced 1-alkenes. Optimal culturing temperature and the interruption of competitive pathway were proven to be beneficial to 1-alkene synthesis...
May 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738970/a-novel-derivatives-of-thiazol-4-5h-one-and-their-activity-in-the-inhibition-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1
#15
Renata Studzińska, Renata Kołodziejska, Daria Kupczyk, Wojciech Płaziński, Tomasz Kosmalski
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of inactive cortisone into physiologically active cortisol. Inhibiting the activity of this enzyme plays a key role in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, new compounds that are selective inhibitors of this enzyme are constantly being looked for. In this work we present the synthesis of 2-(allylamino)thiazol-4(5H)-one derivatives by the reaction of N-allylthiourea with appropriate α-bromoesters...
April 30, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736608/transcriptome-remodeling-of-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-during-mcl-phas-synthesis-effect-of-different-carbon-sources-and-response-to-nitrogen-stress
#16
Justyna Mozejko-Ciesielska, Tomasz Pokoj, Slawomir Ciesielski
Bacterial response to environmental stimuli is essential for survival. In response to fluctuating environmental conditions, the physiological status of bacteria can change due to the actions of transcriptional regulatory machinery. The synthesis and accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are one of the survival strategies in harsh environments. In this study, we used transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to gain a genome-wide view of the mechanisms of environmental-friendly biopolymers accumulation under nitrogen-limiting conditions during conversion of metabolically different carbon sources (sodium gluconate and oleic acid)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733595/water-mediated-carbon-oxygen-hydrogen-bonding-facilitates-adomet-recognition-in-the-reactivation-domain-of-cobalamin-dependent-methionine-synthase
#17
Robert J Fick, Mary C Clay, Lucas Vander Lee, Steve Scheiner, Hashim M Al-Hashimi, Raymond C Trievel
The C-terminal domain of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) has an essential role in catalyzing the reactivation of the enzyme following the oxidation of its cobalamin cofactor. This reactivation occurs through reductive methylation of the cobalamin using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Herein, we examine the molecular recognition of AdoMet by the MetH reactivation domain utilizing structural, biochemical, and computational approaches. Crystal structures of the E. coli MetH reactivation domain in complex with AdoMet, the methyl transfer product S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), and the AdoMet analog inhibitor sinefungin illustrate that the ligands exhibit an analogous conformation within the solvent-exposed substrate binding cleft of the enzyme...
May 7, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733305/fatty-acid-13c-isotopologue-profiling-provides-insight-into-trophic-carbon-transfer-and-lipid-metabolism-of-invertebrate-consumers
#18
Ralph Menzel, Rainer Nehring, Dilara Simsek, Liliane Ruess
Fatty acids (FAs) are useful biomarkers in food web ecology because they are typically assimilated as a complete molecule and transferred into consumer tissue with minor or no modification, allowing the dietary routing between different trophic levels. However, the FA trophic marker approach is still hampered by the limited knowledge in lipid metabolism of the soil fauna. This study used entirely labelled palmitic acid (13 C16:0, 99 atom%) as a tracer in fatty acid metabolism pathways of two widespread soil Collembola, Protaphorura fimata and Heteromurus nitidus...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729396/cerebral-oxygen-availability-during-exercise-in-copd-patients-with-cognitive-impairment
#19
Vasileios Andrianopoulos, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Rainer Gloeckl, Robert Bals, Rembert A Koczulla, Klaus Kenn
Insufficient cerebral blood flow regulation to meet increasing metabolic demand during physical exertion could be associated with cognitive impairment. We compared cerebral oxygen availability during exercise in cognitively impaired (CI) to cognitively normal (CN) COPD patients. Fifty-two patients (FEV1 : 51 ± 16%) were classified as CN or CI according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Patients performed cycle-ergometry at 75% peak capacity with continuous measurement of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy frontal-cortex Tissue oxygen Saturation Index (TSI), cerebral haemoglobin indices (oxy/deoxy/total- Hb), transcutaneous carbon-dioxide partial pressure (TcPCO2 ), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 )...
May 2, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727485/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-in-response-to-infection-with-wssv-strains-varying-in-virulence
#20
Xin-Ying Sun, Qing-Hui Liu, Jie Huang
The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in Litopenaeus vannamei in response to different virulence white spot syndrome virus infection. A total of 2,780 unique peptides corresponding to 754 proteins were identified. The number of significant differentially expressed proteins was 161, including 38 up-regulated ones and 123 down-regulated ones in low-virulence infection library compared with normal-virulence infection library...
May 4, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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