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One-carbon metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329322/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-contributes-to-allergic-airway-disease
#1
Kenneth R Eyring, Brent S Pedersen, Kenneth N Maclean, Sally P Stabler, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328786/connections-between-metabolism-and-epigenetics-in-programming-cellular-differentiation
#2
Danielle A Chisolm, Amy S Weinmann
Researchers are intensifying efforts to understand the mechanisms by which changes in metabolic states influence differentiation programs. An emerging objective is to define how fluctuations in metabolites influence the epigenetic states that contribute to differentiation programs. This is because metabolites such as S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and butyrate are donors, substrates, cofactors, and antagonists for the activities of epigenetic-modifying complexes and for epigenetic modifications...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321536/enzymes-of-the-one-carbon-folate-metabolism-as-anticancer-targets-predicted-by-survival-rate-analysis
#3
Jun Koseki, Masamitsu Konno, Ayumu Asai, Hugh Colvin, Koichi Kawamoto, Naohiro Nishida, Daisuke Sakai, Toshihiro Kudo, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
The significance of mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells has recently been gaining attention. Among other findings, One-carbon folate metabolism has been reported to be closely associated with cellular characteristics in cancer. To study molecular targets for efficient cancer therapy, we investigated the association between the expressions of genes that code enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism and survival rate of patients with adenocarcinomas of the colorectum and lung. Patients with high expression of genes that control the metabolic cycle of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in mitochondria, SHMT2, MTHFD2, and ALDH1L2, have a shorter overall survival rate compared with patients with low expression of these genes...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321350/neuro-fuzzy-model-of-homocysteine-metabolism
#4
Shaik Mohammad Naushad, Akella Radha Rama Devi, Sriraman Nivetha, Ganapathy Lakshmitha, Alex Balraj Stanley, Tajamul Hussain, Vijay Kumar Kutala
In view of well-documented association of hyperhomocysteinaemia with a wide spectrum of diseases and higher incidence of vitamin deficiencies in Indians, we proposed a mathematical model to forecast the role of demographic and genetic variables in influencing homocysteinemetabolism and investigated the influence of life style modulations in controlling homocysteine levels. Total plasma homocysteine levels were measured in fasting samples using reverse phase HPLC. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and neuro-fuzzy models were developed...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317019/nanodarts-nanoblades-and-nanospikes-mechano-bactericidal-nanostructures-and-where-to-find-them
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas Lin, Paula Berton, Christopher Moraes, Robin D Rogers, Nathalie Tufenkji
Over the past ten years, a next-generation approach to combat bacterial contamination has emerged: one which employs nanostructure geometry to deliver lethal mechanical forces causing bacterial cell death. In this review, we first discuss advances in both colloidal and topographical nanostructures shown to exhibit such "mechano-bactericidal" mechanisms of action. Next, we highlight work from pioneering research groups in this area of antibacterials. Finally, we provide suggestions for unexplored research topics that would benefit the field of mechano-bactericidal nanostructures...
December 24, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316787/reprogramming-one-carbon-metabolic-pathways-to-decouple-l-serine-catabolism-from-cell-growth-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#6
Yun Zhang, Xiuling Shang, Shujuan Lai, Yu Zhang, Qitiao Hu, Xin Chai, Bo Wang, Shuwen Liu, Tingyi Wen
L-Serine, the principal one-carbon source for DNA biosynthesis, is difficult for microorganisms to accumulate due to the coupling of L-serine catabolism and microbial growth. Here, we reprogrammed the one-carbon unit metabolic pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum to decouple L-serine catabolism from cell growth. In silico model-based simulation showed a negative influence on glyA-encoding serine hydroxymethyltransferase flux with L-serine productivity. Attenuation of glyA transcription resulted in increased L-serine accumulation, and a decrease in purine pools, poor growth and longer cell shapes...
January 9, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315378/assessing-the-effect-of-d-xylose-on-the-sugar-signaling-pathways-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-strains-engineered-for-xylose-transport-and-assimilation
#7
Karen O Osiro, Daniel P Brink, Celina Borgström, Lisa Wasserstrom, Magnus Carlquist, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
One of the challenges of establishing an industrially competitive process to ferment lignocellulose to value-added products using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to get efficient mixed sugar fermentations. Despite successful metabolic engineering strategies, the xylose assimilation rates of recombinant S. cerevisiae remain significantly lower than for the preferred carbon source, glucose. Previously we established a panel of in vivo biosensor strains (TMB371X) where different promoters (HXT1/2/4p; SUC2p, CAT8p; TPS1p/2p, TEF4p) from the main sugar signaling pathways were coupled with the yEGFP3 gene, and observed that wild type S...
January 5, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311546/one-step-fermentative-production-of-aromatic-polyesters-from-glucose-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli-strains
#8
Jung Eun Yang, Si Jae Park, Won Jun Kim, Hyeong Jun Kim, Bumjoon J Kim, Hyuk Lee, Jihoon Shin, Sang Yup Lee
Aromatic polyesters are widely used plastics currently produced from petroleum. Here we engineer Escherichia coli strains for the production of aromatic polyesters from glucose by one-step fermentation. When the Clostridium difficile isocaprenoyl-CoA:2-hydroxyisocaproate CoA-transferase (HadA) and evolved polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes are overexpressed in a D-phenyllactate-producing strain, poly(52.3 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-47.7 mol% D-phenyllactate) can be produced from glucose and sodium 3HB...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306571/genomic-analyses-of-five-roseivirga-species-insights-into-marine-adaptation
#9
Chitra Selvaratnam, Suganthi Thevarajoo, Kian Mau Goh, Kok-Gan Chan, Chun Shiong Chong
To date, the genus Roseivirga consists of six species with one subspecies and is one of the least-studied genera among the family Flammeovirgaceae. In order to further explore this genus, the genome sequences of five Roseivirga spp. were compared and described in this study. The Roseivirga genomes have similar sizes in the range of 4.08-4.47Mb with an average of 4.22Mb. Several key proteins related to osmotic stress adaptation were identified in Roseivirga spp. including betaine transporter, choline dehydrogenase, and glutamate synthases...
January 3, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305196/periconceptional-folate-deficiency-leads-to-autism-like-traits-in-wistar-rat-offspring
#10
Stéphanie Degroote, Darel Hunting, Larissa Takser
BACKGROUND: Folates in their role as key one carbon donors, are essential for two major pathways: the synthesis of DNA and RNA precursors and DNA methylation. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies indicates a possible association between nutritional and functional deficiency in folates and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no available behavioral animal studies on periconceptional one‑carbon donor deficiency during gestation and the autistic phenotype...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302043/heme-oxygenase-1-genetic-variants-and-the-conundrum-of-hyperbilirubinemia-in-african-american-newborns
#11
David L Schutzman, Erica Gatien, Samuel Ajayi, Ronald J Wong
BACKGROUND: African-American (AA) infants are known to have, overall, lower bilirubin levels than infants of other ethnicities during their birth hospitalization. However, they are known to have a higher incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia and are over represented in the US Kernicterus Registry. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO) is the rate limiting enzyme in heme metabolism leading to the equimolar production of bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and free iron (Fe). Short (S) (GT)n repeats (<25) in the promoter region of the gene encoding the inducible HO-1 isozyme augment its expression, while long (L) repeats (>33) lead to an attenuation, modulating the production of bilirubin and CO...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296267/optimization-of-effective-minerals-on-riboflavin-production-by-bacillus-subtilis-subsp-subtilis-atcc-6051-using-statistical-designs
#12
Marjan Oraei, Seyed Hadi Razavi, Faramarz Khodaiyan
Background: Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential component of the basic metabolism, and an important nutritional and growth factor in humans, animals, plants and micro-organisms. It has been widely used in the fields of pharmaceuticals, feed and food additives. The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation. Designing an appropriate fermentation medium is of crucial importance to improve the riboflavin production. Methods: In this study, sequential methodology combining a screening test of minerals by Plackett-Burman (PB) and an optimization test by Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to enhance riboflavin production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 in shake flasks...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288905/simultaneous-removal-of-dihydroxybenzenes-and-toxicity-reduction-by-penicillium-chrysogenum-var-halophenolicum-under-saline-conditions
#13
Sumaya Ferreira-Guedes, Ana Lúcia Leitão
The dihydroxybenzenes are widely found in wastewater and usually more than one of these aromatic compounds co-exist as pollutants of water resources. The current study investigated and compared the removal efficiency of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol in binary substrate systems under saline conditions by Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum, to clarify the potential of this fungal strain to degrade these aromatic compounds. Since P. chrysogenum is a known penicillin producer, biosynthetic penicillin genes were examined and antibiotic was quantified in mono and binary dihydroxybenzene systems to elucidate the carbon flux of dihydroxybenzenes metabolism in the P...
December 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288574/modeling-and-optimization-of-lipid-accumulation-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-glucose-under-nitrogen-depletion-conditions
#14
Carlos Eduardo Robles-Rodríguez, Rafael Muñoz-Tamayo, Carine Bideaux, Nathalie Gorret, Stéphane E Guillouet, Carole Molina-Jouve, Gilles Roux, César Arturo Aceves-Lara
Oleaginous yeasts have been seen as a feasible alternative to produce the precursors of biodiesel due to their capacity to accumulate lipids as triacylglycerol having profiles with high content of unsaturated fatty acids. The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microorganism that can produce lipids under nitrogen depletion conditions and excess of the carbon source. However, under these conditions, this yeast also produces citric acid (overflow metabolism) decreasing lipid productivity. This work presents two mathematical models for lipid production by Yarrowia lipolytica from glucose...
December 30, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282283/relief-from-nitrogen-starvation-triggers-a-transient-destabilization-of-glycolytic-mrnas-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-cells
#15
Catherine Tesnière, Martine Pradal, Chloé Bessière, Isabelle Sanchez, Bruno Blondin, Frédéric Bigey
Nitrogen replenishment of nitrogen-starved yeast cells resulted in substantial transcriptome changes. There was an unexplained rapid, transient down-regulation of glycolytic genes. This unexpected result prompted us to search for the factors controlling these changes, among which the possible involvement of different nutrient-sensing pathways such as the TORC1 and cAMP/PKA pathways. To that end, the effects of various gene deletions or chemical blocking agents were tested by investigating the expression of PGK1, one of the glycolytic genes most affected after nitrogen replenishment...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281092/the-biosynthesis-of-quebrachitol-a-transportable-photosynthate-in-litchi-chinensis
#16
Zi-Chen Wu, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Jie-Tang Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Xu-Ming Huang, Hui-Cong Wang
Although methylated cyclitols constitute a major proportion of the carbohydrates in many plant species, their physiological roles and biosynthetic pathway were largely unknown. Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) is one of the major methylated cyclitols in some plant species. In litchi, quebrachitol represents around 50% soluble sugars in mature leaves and 40% of the total sugars in phloem exudation. In the present study, we identified bornesitol as a transient methylated intermediate of quebrachitol and measured the concentrations of methyl-inositols in different tissues and in tissues subjected to different treatments...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277563/the-physiology-of-agaricus-bisporus-in-semi-commercial-compost-cultivation-appears-to-be-highly-conserved-among-unrelated-isolates
#17
María Victoria Aguilar Pontes, Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva, Harm Post, Edita Jurak, Kristiina Hildén, Maarten Altelaar, Albert Heck, Mirjam A Kabel, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä
The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and nutrients for the mushroom production. As a large portion of compost carbohydrates are left unused in the current mushroom cultivation process, the aim of this work was to study wild-type A. bisporus strains for their potential to convert the components that are poorly utilized by the commercial strain A15...
December 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274908/transcriptome-analysis-of-cyrtotrachelus-buqueti-in-two-cities-in-china
#18
Chaobing Luo, Anxuan Liu, Wencong Long, Hong Liao, Yaojun Yang
In order to reduce the Cyrtotrachelus buqueti population, which is a serious pest in the bamboo industry, a range of approaches is required, which will be dependent on diverse gene expression influenced by environmental factors. In this study, samples from two regions of China, Muchuan in Sichuan Province and Chishui in Guizhou Province, were investigated through RNA-seq. Approximately 44 million high-quality reads were generated and 94.2% of the data was mapped to the transcriptome. A total of 15,641 out of the 29,406 identified genes were predicted...
December 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259591/natural-selection-in-synthetic-communities-highlights-the-roles-of-methylococcaceae-and-methylophilaceae-and-suggests-differential-roles-for-alternative-methanol-dehydrogenases-in-methane-consumption
#19
Zheng Yu, David A C Beck, Ludmila Chistoserdova
We describe experiments that follow species dynamics and gene expression patterns in synthetic bacterial communities including species that compete for the single carbon substrate supplied, methane, and species unable to consume methane, which could only succeed through cooperative interactions. We demonstrate that these communities mostly select for two functional guilds, methanotrophs of the family Methylococcaceae and non-methanotrophic methylotrophs of the family Methylophilaceae, these taxonomic guilds outcompeting all other species included in the synthetic mix...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258964/engineered-monoculture-and-co-culture-of-methylotrophic-yeast-for-de-novo-production-of-monacolin-j-and-lovastatin-from-methanol
#20
Yiqi Liu, Xiaohu Tu, Qin Xu, Chenxiao Bai, Chuixing Kong, Qi Liu, Jiahui Yu, Qiangqiang Peng, Xiangshan Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang, Menghao Cai
As a promising one-carbon renewable substrate for industrial biotechnology, methanol has attracted much attention. However, engineering of microorganisms for industrial production of pharmaceuticals using a methanol substrate is still in infancy. In this study, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used to produce anti-hypercholesterolemia pharmaceuticals, lovastatin and its precursor monacolin J, from methanol. The biosynthetic pathways for monacolin J and lovastatin were first assembled and optimized in single strains using single copies of the relevant biosynthetic genes, and yields of 60...
December 16, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
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