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One-carbon metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077358/biological-signaling-by-carbon-monoxide-and-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecules-co-rms
#1
Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti
Carbon monoxide (CO) is continuously produced in mammalian cells during degradation of heme. It is a stable gaseous molecule that reacts selectively with transition metals in a specific redox state and these characteristics restrict the interaction of CO with defined biological targets that transduce its signaling activity. Because of the high affinity of CO for ferrous heme, these targets can be grouped into heme-containing proteins, representing a large variety of sensors and enzymes with a series of diverse function in the cell and the organism...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075382/b-vitamin-intake-and-biomarker-status-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-healthy-older-adults-in-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#2
Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward, Fergal Tracey, Leane Hoey, Anne M Molloy, Kristina Pentieva, Helene McNulty
Advancing age can be associated with an increase in cognitive dysfunction, a spectrum of disability that ranges in severity from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Folate and the other B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with cognition in ageing but the evidence is not entirely clear. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that lower dietary intake or biomarker status of folate and/or the metabolically related B-vitamins would be associated with a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year follow-up period in healthy older adults...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072818/glucose-abl1-tor-signaling-modulates-cell-cycle-tuning-to-control-terminal-appressorial-cell-differentiation
#3
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard A Wilson
The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon-responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia)...
January 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071912/insights-into-catalytic-mechanism-of-unsaturated-glucuronyl-hydrolase-of-bacillus-sp-gl1
#4
Jing Xiong, Dingguo Xu
Together with polysaccharide lyases, the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of Bacillus sp. GL1 are responsible for the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans, which exhibits important role in various crucial physiological events. More importantly, the degradation mechanism of glycosaminoglycans often causes extracellular bacterial infection, and is thought to be one of virulence factors. We have previously studied the first degradation step catalyzed by polysaccharide lyases. In this work, we then focused the degradation of the unsaturated chondroitin disaccharide, products of chondroitin lyases...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070286/influence-of-hydrological-pathways-on-dissolved-organic-carbon-fluxes-in-tropical-streams
#5
Eline Nayara Dantas da Costa, Jéssica Carneiro de Souza, Marilane Andrade Pereira, Marcelo Friederichs Landim de Souza, Weber Friederichs Landim de Souza, Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva
Water flow pathways and water balance are fundamental components for understanding the dynamics of C in the soil/water interface of small basins. The objective of this study was to describe the seasonal variations and estimate the annual balance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by comparing two tropical microbasins (preserved forest-PF and cacao plantation-CP). Twenty-one weekly collections were conducted from September to December 2012 and from April to June 2013. The calculation of the partial balance considered precipitation (P) as inflow and the stream as outflow...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069173/periconceptional-maternal-biomarkers-of-one-carbon%C3%A2-metabolism-and-embryonic-growth-trajectories-the-rotterdam-periconceptional-cohort-predict-study
#6
Francesca Parisi, Melek Rousian, Anton H J Koning, Sten P Willemsen, Irene Cetin, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between the periconceptional maternal biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism and embryonic growth. DESIGN: Prospective, periconceptional hospital-based birth cohort. SETTING: Tertiary medical care center. PATIENT(S): Between 2010 and 2014, 236 women with early singleton ongoing pregnancies that resulted in 139 strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies and 97 pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive technology...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068782/gasotransmitter-heterocellular-signaling
#7
Gopi Kolluru, Shuai Yuan, XInggui Shen, Christopher G Kevil
SIGNIFICANCE: The family of gasotransmitter molecules nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), has emerged as important mediators of numerous cellular signal transduction and pathophysiological responses. As such, these molecules have been reported to influence a diverse array of biochemical, molecular, and cell biology events often impacting one another. Recent Advances: Discrete regulation of gasotransmitter molecule formation, movement, and reaction are critical to their biological function...
January 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065864/value-of-ph-regulators-in-the-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Sara Granja, Diana Tavares-Valente, Odília Queirós, Fátima Baltazar
Altered metabolism, associated with acidification of the extracellular milieu, is one of the major features of cancer. As pH regulation is crucial for the maintenance of all biological functions, cancer cells rely on the activity of lactate exporters and proton transporters to regulate their intracellular pH. The major players in cancer pH regulation are proton pump ATPases, sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and anion exchangers (AEs), which have been shown to be upregulated in several human malignancies...
January 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063369/physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-two-keystone-polychaete-species-diopatra-neapolitana-and-hediste-diversicolor-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#9
Lucia De Marchi, Victor Neto, Carlo Pretti, Etelvina Figueira, Federica Chiellini, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanomaterials (NMs). The production and use of these carbon NMs is increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become increasingly important. However, limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant, namely in invertebrate species. Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor are keystone polychaete species inhabiting estuaries and shallow water bodies intertidal mudflats, frequently used to evaluate the impact of environmental disturbances in these systems...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055960/-genetic-disruption-of-the-phi-regulating-proteins-na-h-exchanger-1-slc9a1-and-carbonic-anhydrase-9-severely-reduces-growth-of-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Scott K Parks, Yann Cormerais, Jerome Durivault, Jacques Pouyssegur
Hypoxia and extracellular acidosis are pathophysiological hallmarks of aggressive solid tumors. Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is essential for the maintenance of tumor cell metabolism and proliferation in this microenvironment and key proteins involved in pHi regulation are of interest for therapeutic development. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is one of the most robustly regulated proteins by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and contributes to pHi regulation. Here, we have investigated for the first time, the role of CA9 via complete genomic knockout (ko) and compared its impact on tumor cell physiology with the essential pHi regulator Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1)...
December 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055179/a-non-natural-protein-rescues-cells-deleted-for-a-key-enzyme-in-central-metabolism
#11
Katherine M Digianantonio, Maria Korolev, Michael H Hecht
An important goal of synthetic biology is to create novel proteins that provide life-sustaining functions in living organisms. Recent attempts to produce novel proteins have focused largely on rational design involving significant computational efforts. In contrast, nature does not design sequences a priori. Instead, nature relies on Darwinian evolution to select biologically functional sequences from non-designed sequence space. To mimic natural selection in the laboratory, we combed through libraries of novel sequences and selected proteins that rescue E...
January 5, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049705/an-evolutionarily-conserved-transcriptional-activator-repressor-module-controls-expression-of-genes-for-d-galacturonic-acid-utilization-in-aspergillus-niger
#12
Jing Niu, Ebru Alazi, Ian D Reid, Mark Arentshorst, Peter J Punt, Jaap Visser, Adrian Tsang, Arthur F J Ram
The expression of genes encoding extracellular polymer-degrading enzymes and the metabolic pathways required for carbon utilization in fungi are tightly controlled. The control is mediated by transcription factors that are activated by the presence of specific inducers, which are often monomers or monomeric derivatives of the polymers. A D-galacturonic acid-specific transcription factor named GaaR was recently identified and shown to be an activator for the expression of genes involved in galacturonic acid utilization in Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger Using a forward genetic screen, we isolated A...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042698/geochemically-distinct-carbon-isotope-distributions-in-allochromatium-vinosum-dsm-180-t-grown-photoautotrophically-and-photoheterotrophically
#13
T Tang, W Mohr, S R Sattin, D R Rogers, P R Girguis, A Pearson
Anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacteria are common at redox boundaries. They are of interest in microbial ecology and geosciences through their role in linking the carbon, sulfur, and iron cycles, yet much remains unknown about how their flexible carbon metabolism-permitting either autotrophic or heterotrophic growth-is recorded in the bulk sedimentary and lipid biomarker records. Here, we investigated patterns of carbon isotope fractionation in a model photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, Allochromatium vinosum DSM180(T) ...
January 1, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036059/methionine-and-choline-supply-during-the-periparturient-period-alter-plasma-amino-acid-and-one-carbon-metabolism-profiles-to-various-extents-potential-role-in-hepatic-metabolism-and-antioxidant-status
#14
Zheng Zhou, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Daniel N Luchini, Juan J Loor
The objective of this study was to profile plasma amino acids (AA) and derivatives of their metabolism during the periparturient period in response to supplemental rumen-protected methionine (MET) or rumen-protected choline (CHOL). Forty cows were fed from -21 through 30 days around parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design a diet containing MET or CHOL. MET supply led to greater circulating methionine and proportion of methionine in the essential AA pool, total AA, and total sulfur-containing compounds. Lysine in total AA also was greater in these cows, indicating a better overall AA profile...
December 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032191/chitin-degradation-and-utilization-by-virulent-aeromonas-hydrophila-strain-ml10-51k
#15
Dunhua Zhang, De-Hai Xu, Junqiang Qiu, Cody R Rasmussen-Ivey, Mark R Liles, Benjamin H Beck
Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens that causes persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes. The survivability of this pathogen in aquatic environments is of great concern. The aim of this study was to determine the capability of the vAh strain ML10-51K to degrade and utilize chitin. Genome-wide analysis revealed that ML10-51K encodes a suite of proteins for chitin metabolism. Assays in vitro showed that four chitinases, one chitobiase and one chitin-binding protein were secreted extracellularly and participated in chitin degradation...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029042/carbon-isotopomer-analysis-with-non-unifom-sampling-hsqc-nmr-for-cell-extract-and-live-cell-metabolomics-studies
#16
Sujin Lee, He Wen, Yong Jin An, Jin Wook Cha, Yoon-Joo Ko, Sven G Hyberts, Sunghyouk Park
Isotopomer analysis using either (13)C NMR or LC/GC-MS has been an invaluable tool for studying metabolic activities in a variety of systems. Traditional challenges are, however, that (13)C-detected NMR is insensitive despite its high resolution, and that MS-based techniques cannot easily differentiate positional isotopomers. In addition, current (13)C NMR or LC/GC-MS has limitations in detecting metabolites in living cells. Here, we describe a non-uniform sampling-based 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence (NUS HSQC) approach to measure metabolic isotopomers in both cell lysates and living cells...
December 27, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018404/functional-and-integrative-analysis-of-the-proteomic-profile-of-radish-root-under-pb-exposure
#17
Yan Wang, Liang Xu, Mingjia Tang, Haiyan Jiang, Wei Chen, Wei Zhang, Ronghua Wang, Liwang Liu
Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metal (HM) pollutants, which can penetrate the plant through the root and then enter the food chain causing potential health risks for human beings. Radish is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. To investigate the mechanism underlying plant response to Pb stress in radish, the protein profile changes of radish roots respectively upon Pb(NO3)2 at 500 mg L(-1)(Pb500) and 1000 mg L(-1)(Pb1000), were comprehensively analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018379/comparative-transcriptomics-of-strawberries-fragaria-spp-provides-insights-into-evolutionary-patterns
#18
Qin Qiao, Li Xue, Qia Wang, Hang Sun, Yang Zhong, Jinling Huang, Jiajun Lei, Ticao Zhang
Multiple closely related species with genomic sequences provide an ideal system for studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics, as well as the mechanism of speciation. The whole genome sequences of six strawberry species (Fragaria spp.) have been released, which provide one of the richest genomic resources of any plant genus. In this study, we first generated seven transcriptome sequences of Fragaria species de novo, with a total of 48,557-82,537 unigenes per species. Combined with 13 other species genomes in Rosales, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree at the genomic level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018333/phenylpyrroles-30-years-two-molecules-and-nearly-no-resistance
#19
REVIEW
Jaafar Kilani, Sabine Fillinger
Phenylpyrroles are chemical analogs of the natural antifungal compound pyrrolnitrin. Fenpiclonil, but mainly fludioxonil are registered against multiple fungal crop diseases since over 25 years for seed or foliar treatment. They have severe physiological impacts on the pathogen, including membrane hyperpolarization, changes in carbon metabolism and the accumulation of metabolites leading to hyphal swelling and burst. The selection and characterization of mutants resistant to phenylpyrroles have revealed that these fungicides activate the fungal osmotic signal transduction pathway through their perception by a typical fungal hybrid histidine kinase (HHK)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013171/asparagine-slows-down-the-breakdown-of-storage-lipid-and-degradation-of-autophagic-bodies-in-sugar-starved-embryo-axes-of-germinating-lupin-seeds
#20
Sławomir Borek, Ewelina Paluch-Lubawa, Stanisława Pukacka, Małgorzata Pietrowska-Borek, Lech Ratajczak
The research was conducted on embryo axes of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), which were isolated from imbibed seeds and cultured for 96h in vitro under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Isolated embryo axes were fed with 60mM sucrose or were sugar-starved. The effect of 35mM asparagine (a central amino acid in the metabolism of germinating lupin seeds) and 35mM nitrate (used as an inorganic kind of nitrogen) on growth, storage lipid breakdown and autophagy was investigated...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
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