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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938523/hypothermia-induced-by-anesthesia-regulates-various-signals-expressions-in-the-hippocampus-of-animals
#1
Huimei Hao, Shanshan Wang
Though important for a variety of medical procedures, general anesthesia is not a problem free. Some anesthetics have been suggested to affect a number of signals, which are associated with memory consolidation and cognition. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the molecular mechanism of anesthesia-regulated processes. We found that under hypothermic condition, anesthetic of isoflurane enhances various signals expression in hippocampus, including Hspd1, Actb, Mgst1, THBS4, Syp, C1QC, Serpine, Plat, and Ngf, which were related to cellular stress, neural plasticity responses, and hippocampal injury...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937832/aberrant-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus-after-neonatal-seizures
#3
Xiaoqian Zhang, Huiling Qu, Ying Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Ting Xiao, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Neonatal seizures are the most frequent type of neurological disorder and those newborn babies that experience seizures carry an increased risk of epileptogenesis and other long-term morbidities. The newly generated dentate granule cells (DGCs) integrate functionally into the mature hippocampal network by continuously forming connections with their targets but this process of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by seizures. When compared to adult seizures, neonatal seizures may exert different effects on neurogenesis due to the high resistance of the newborn's neurons to cell death combined with the inherent high sensitivity to seizures in the immature brain...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937018/environmental-noise-exposure-modifies-astrocyte-morphology-in-hippocampus-of-young-male-rats
#4
Odelie Huet-Bello, Yaveth Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo, Alfredo Feria-Velasco, Rocío E González-Castañeda, Joaquín Garcia-Estrada, Miguel A Macias-Islas, Fernando Jauregui-Huerta, Sonia Luquin
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to noise induces changes on the central nervous system of exposed animals. Those changes affect not only the auditory system but also other structures indirectly related to audition. The hippocampus of young animals represents a potential target for these effects because of its essential role in individuals' adaptation to environmental challenges. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate hippocampus vulnerability, assessing astrocytic morphology in an experimental model of environmental noise (EN) applied to rats in pre-pubescent stage...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#5
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936280/enhancing-diffusion-mri-measures-by-integrating-grey-and-white-matter-morphometry-with-hyperbolic-wasserstein-distance
#6
Wen Zhang, Jie Shi, Jun Yu, Liang Zhan, Paul M Thompson, Yalin Wang
In order to improve the preclinical diagnose of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a great deal of interest in analyzing the AD related brain structural changes with magnetic resonance image (MRI) analyses. As the major features, variation of the structural connectivity and the cortical surface morphometry provide different views of structural changes to determine whether AD is present on presymptomatic patients. However, the large scale tensor-valued information and relatively low imaging resolution in diffusion MRI (dMRI) have created huge challenges for analysis...
2017: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935605/pyridoxine-improves-hippocampal-cognitive-function-via-increases-of-serotonin-turnover-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-and-its-association-with-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-interacting-protein-and-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-pathway
#7
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Young Yoo, In Koo Hwang
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the effects of pyridoxine on hippocampal functions and changes in protein profiles based on the proteomic approach. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline (vehicle) or 350mg/kg pyridoxine twice a day for 21days. RESULTS: Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 was up-regulated, while CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (CRIP1) was down-regulated, in the pyridoxine-treated group...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935586/impairment-of-neural-coordination-in-hippocampal-neuronal-ensembles-after-a-psychotomimetic-dose-of-dizocilpine
#8
Ewa Szczurowska, Nikhil Ahuja, Přemysl Jiruška, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
The discoordination hypothesis of schizophrenia posits discoordination of neural activity as the central mechanism that underlies some psychotic symptoms (including 'hallmark' cognitive symptoms) of schizophrenia. To test this proposition, we studied the activity of hippocampal neurons in urethane anesthetized Long Evans rats after 0.15mg/kg dizocilpine (MK-801), an N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, which can cause psychotic symptoms in humans and cognitive control impairments in animals...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934273/novel-derivative-of-paeonol-paeononlsilatie-sodium-alleviates-behavioral-damage-and-hippocampal-dendritic-injury-in-alzheimer-s-disease-concurrent-with-cofilin1-phosphorylated-cofilin1-and-rac1-cdc42-alterations-in-rats
#9
Fei Han, Ting-Ting Zhuang, Jing-Jing Chen, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Ya-Fei Cai, Ya-Ping Lu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a typical hippocampal amnesia and the most common senile dementia. Many studies suggest that cognitive impairments are more closely correlated with synaptic loss than the burden of amyloid deposits in AD progression. To date, there is no effective treatment for this disease. Paeonol has been widely employed in traditional Chinese medicine. This compound improves learning behavior in an animal model; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, Paeononlsilatie sodium (Pa), a derivative of Paeonol, attenuated D-galactose (D-gal) and AlCl3-induced behavioral damages in rats based on evaluations of the open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and Morris water maze test (MWMT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#10
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934222/endogenous-rgs14-is-a-cytoplasmic-nuclear-shuttling-protein-that-localizes-to-juxtanuclear-membranes-and-chromatin-rich-regions-of-the-nucleus
#11
Mary Rose Branch, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934194/arginine-vasopressin-ameliorates-spatial-learning-impairments-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-v1a-receptor-and-autophagy-signaling-partially
#12
C Yang, X Zhang, J Gao, M Wang, Z Yang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a major factor contributing to neurological disorders and cognitive decline. Autophagy activation is believed to provide both beneficial and detrimental roles during hypoxic/ischemic cellular injury. Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been strongly involved in many behaviors, especially in learning and memory, the effects of AVP on CCH and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, to investigate whether there was neuroprotective effects of AVP on CCH through V1a receptor (an AVP receptor) signaling, permanent bilateral carotid arteries occlusion (two vessel occlusion, 2VO) was used to establish a rat model of CCH, and hypertonic saline (5...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934119/integrity-of-cerebellar-fastigial-nucleus-intrinsic-neurons-is-critical-for-the-global-ischemic-preconditioning
#13
Eugene V Golanov, Angelique S Regnier-Golanov, Gavin W Britz
Excitation of intrinsic neurons of cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) renders brain tolerant to local and global ischemia. This effect reaches a maximum 72 h after the stimulation and lasts over 10 days. Comparable neuroprotection is observed following sublethal global brain ischemia, a phenomenon known as preconditioning. We hypothesized that FN may participate in the mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning as a part of the intrinsic neuroprotective mechanism. To explore potential significance of FN neurons in brain ischemic tolerance we lesioned intrinsic FN neurons with excitotoxin ibotenic acid five days before exposure to 20 min four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) global ischemia while analyzing neuronal damage in Cornu Ammoni area 1 (CA1) hippocampal area one week later...
September 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934025/tamec-a-new-analogue-of-cyclomyrsinol-diterpenes-decreases-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Abdul Majid Ayatollahi, Mostafa Haji Molla Hoseini, Syed Mustafa Ghanadian, Morteza Kosari-Nasab, Fatemeh Mami, Zeinab Yazdiniapoure, Behzad Zolfaghari, Ali-Akbar Salari
Objectives There is a significant prevalence of affective disorders including depression and anxiety in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), resulting in reduced quality of life. Since the current treatments are not generally effective, further studies are needed to find appropriate drugs to alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms in these patients. Methods The effects of a new analog of cyclomyrsinol diterpenes (TAMEC) isolated from Euphorbia sogdiana on the anxiety (open field and elevated plus maze test) and depressive-like behaviors (sucrose preference test and forced swim test) in EAE-induced C57BL/6 mice (EAE; a mouse model of MS) were investigated...
September 21, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933222/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming number of brain injuries and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associated with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies because there is often loss of neurons...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933095/-investigation-of-effects-of-albiflorin-and-paeoniflorin-on-hippocampal-bdnf-and-no-in-chronic-restraint-stress-rats
#16
Ying-Li Zhu, Lin-Yuan Wang, Cheng-Long Wang, Dan-Ping Zhao, Sha Wang, Wen-Ting Fei, Jian-Jun Zhang
This paper aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and the mechanism of the albiflorin, paeoniflorin on rats with chronic restraint stress model. Fluoxetine and Xiaoyao group served as the positive control, body weight, sucrose preference test and the open field behavioral experiment were measured, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in hippocampus were detected by Greg colorimetric method. Furthermore, the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus were detected by ELISA. Finally, the expressions of nNOS mRNA in hippocampus detected by RT-qPCR, the protein levels of nNOS and BDNF in hippocampus were detected by Western blot...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933048/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%A2-9-thc-induce-neurogenesis-and-improve-cognitive-performances-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Rusliza Basir
Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis. Different doses of ∆(9)-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931876/evidence-that-ca3-is-underling-the-comorbidity-between-pain-and-depression-and-the-co-curation-by-wu-tou-decoction-in-neuropathic-pain
#18
Chunyan Zhu, Qionghong Xu, Chao Wang, Zhiyun Mao, Na Lin
In neuropathic pain (NP), the atrophy of hippocampus contributes to the comorbidity between pain, depression and the cognitive deficits. However, the exact mechanism underling the comorbidity, the effective control of the degenerations in hippocampus and the remission of the accompanied depressive symptoms are still lacking. Wu-Tou decoction (WTD) has been prescribed for inflammatory pain for thousands of years. In this study, we manifested the effects of WTD on the pain, depression and anxiety co-curative symptoms of NP...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931858/loss-of-p73-in-ependymal-cells-during-the-perinatal-period-leads-to-aqueductal-stenosis
#19
Masashi Fujitani, Ryohei Sato, Toshihide Yamashita
The p53 family member p73 plays a critical role in brain development. p73 knockout mice exhibit a number of deficits in the nervous system, such as neuronal death, hydrocephalus, hippocampal dysgenesis, and pheromonal defects. Among these phenotypes, the mechanisms of hydrocephalus remain unknown. In this study, we generated a p73 knock-in (KI) mutant mouse and a conditional p73 knockout mouse. The homozygous KI mutants showed aqueductal stenosis. p73 was expressed in the ependymal cell layer and several brain areas...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931427/serotonin-5-ht6-receptors-affect-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-regulating-cilia-function
#20
Lili Hu, Bingjie Wang, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Serotonin receptor 5-HT6 is involved in cognition and Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. However, the mechanism of 5-HT6 in AD pathology is not clear. METHODS: Since 5-HT6 is almost exclusively expressed in the primary cilia, using immunostaining we examined the number of cilia in the hippocampus of AD animal model APP/PS1 mice. By overexpressing and knocking down 5-HT6 in the primary cultured hippocampal neurons, we investigated the roles of 5-HT6 in alternating ciliary morphology...
September 20, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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