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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641287/chrysophanol-suppressed-glutamate-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-cell-death-via-regulation-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#1
Unbin Chae, Ju-Sik Min, Hyun Hee Leem, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Chrysophanic acid, or chrysophanol, is an anthraquinone found in Rheum palmatum, which was used in the preparation of oriental medicine in ancient China. The hippocampus plays a major role in controlling the activities of the short- and long-term memory. It is one of the major regions affected by excessive cell death in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, neuronal cell-death modulation in the hippocampus is important for maintaining neuronal function. We investigated chrysophanol's effects on glutamate-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641116/mechanisms-for-selective-single-cell-reactivation-during-offline-sharp-wave-ripples-and-their-distortion-by-fast-ripples
#2
Manuel Valero, Robert G Averkin, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Juan Aguilar, Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Elena Cid, Gabor Tamas, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641077/inhibition-of-early-growth-response-1-in-the-hippocampus-alleviates-neuropathology-and-improves-cognition-in-an-alzheimer-model-with-plaques-and-tangles
#3
Xike Qin, Yunling Wang, Hemant K Paudel
A sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia share many risk factors, and their pathogenic mechanisms are suggested to be related. Transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1) regulates various vascular pathologies and is up-regulated in both AD brains and AD mouse models; however, its role in AD pathogenesis is unclear. Herein, we report that silencing of Egr-1 in the hippocampus by shRNA reduces tau phosphorylation, amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, and improves cognition in the 3xTg-AD mouse model...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640931/ischemia-responsive-protein-94-is-a-key-mediator-of-ischemic-neuronal-injury-induced-microglial-activation
#4
Rajiv Tikamdas, Sarthak Singhal, Ping Zhang, Justin A Smith, Eric G Krause, Stanley M Stevens, Sihong Song, Bin Liu
Neuroinflammation, especially activation of microglia, the key immune cells in the brain, has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. However, the dynamics and the potential mediators of microglial activation following ischemic neuronal injury are not well understood. In this study, using oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) with neuronal and microglial cell cultures as an in vitro model of ischemic neuronal injury, we set out to identify neuronal factors released from injured neurons that are capable of inducing microglial activation...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640652/protective-effect-against-brain-tissues-oxidative-damage-as-a-possible-mechanism-for-beneficial-effects-of-l-arginine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats
#5
Mahmoud Hosseini, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Farimah Beheshti, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Reza Nosratabadi
L-Arginine (LA) and nitric oxide (NO) have been suggested to have some effects on learning, memory, brain tissues oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation. In this study, protective effect against brain tissues oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for beneficial effects of LA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced memory impairment was investigated. The rats were grouped into and treated by (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, IP), (3) LA (200 mg/kg) - LPS (4) LA. In passive avoidance (PA) test, LPS administration shortened the latency to enter the dark compartment in LPS group compared to control (p < ...
June 22, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637318/experience-dependent-regulation-of-cajal-retzius-cell-networks-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#6
Max Anstötz, Sun Kyong Lee, Tamra I Neblett, Gabriele M Rune, Gianmaria Maccaferri
In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal-Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal-Retzius cells. We used multiple mouse reporter lines to unequivocally identify Cajal-Retzius cells and quantify their densities during postnatal development...
June 16, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636953/dicer-deficiency-differentially-impacts-microglia-of-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#7
Diana Varol, Alexander Mildner, Thomas Blank, Anat Shemer, Neta Barashi, Simon Yona, Eyal David, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Yifat Segal-Hayoun, Louise Chappell-Maor, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Dena Leshkowitz, Eran Hornstein, Martin Fuhrmann, Ido Amit, Nicola Maggio, Marco Prinz, Steffen Jung
Microglia seed the embryonic neuro-epithelium, expand and actively sculpt neuronal circuits in the developing central nervous system, but eventually adopt relative quiescence and ramified morphology in the adult. Here, we probed the impact of post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) on microglial performance during development and adulthood by generating mice lacking microglial Dicer expression at these distinct stages. Conditional Dicer ablation in adult microglia revealed that miRNAs were required to limit microglial responses to challenge...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636948/pten%C3%AE-modulates-camkii-signaling-and-controls-contextual-fear-memory-and-spatial-learning
#8
Pan Wang, Fan Mei, Jiapan Hu, Minglu Zhu, Hailong Qi, Xi Chen, Ruiqi Li, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10) has multiple functions, and recent studies have shown that the PTEN family has isoforms. The roles of these PTEN family members in biologic activities warrant specific evaluation. Here, we show that PTENα maintains CaMKII in a state that is competent to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) with resultant regulation of contextual fear memory and spatial learning. PTENα binds to CaMKII with its distinctive N terminus and resets CaMKII to an activatable state by dephosphorylating it at sites T305/306...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#9
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636360/proneurogenic-effects-of-trazodone-in-murine-and-human-neural-progenitors
#10
Valeria Bortolotto, Francesca Mancini, Giorgina Mangano, Rita Salem, Er Xia, Erika Del Grosso, Michele Bianchi, Pier Luigi Canonico, Lorenzo Polenzani, Mariagrazia Grilli
Several antidepressants increase adult hippocampal Neurogenesis (ahNG) in rodents, primates and, potentially, in humans. This effect may at least partially account for their therapeutic activity. The availability of antidepressants whose mechanism of action involves different neurotransmitter receptors represents an opportunity for increasing our knowledge on their distinctive peculiarities and for dissecting the contribution of receptor subtypes in ahNG modulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effects of the antidepressant trazodone (TZD) on ahNG by using primary cultures of adult hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells (ahNPC) and human iPSC-derived NPC...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634862/effect-of-gapt-extract-on-expression-of-tau-protein-and-its-phosphorylation-related-enzymes-in-hippocampal-neurons-of-appv717i-transgenic-mice
#11
Jing-Nian Ni, Jing Shi, Xue-Kai Zhang, Yi-Chang Yang, Xiao-Meng Liu, Ming-Qing Wei, Ting Li, Peng-Wen Wang, Jin-Zhou Tian, Yong-Yan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of GAPT, an extract mixture from Radix Ginseng, Rhizoma Acor tatarinowii, Radix Polygalae and Radix Curcuma (containing ingredient of turmeric), etc. on expression of tau protein and its phosphorylation related enzyme in hippocampal neurons of APPV717I transgenic mice. METHODS: Sixty three-month-old APPV717I transgenic mice were randomly divided into model group, donepezil group [0.92 mg/(kg d)], the low, medium and high dosage of GAPT groups [0...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#12
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634108/disturbances-of-novel-object-exploration-and-recognition-in-a-chronic-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#14
Maria Jelena Hauser, Dirk Isbrandt, Jochen Roeper
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#15
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633346/tetramethylpyrazine-reverses-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficits-by-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE
#16
Fen Lu, Xu Li, Wei Li, Ke Wei, Yong Yao, Qianlin Zhang, Xinliang Liang, Jiewen Zhang
Brain dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment, is one of the main complications in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which threatens the health of 46.8 million people worldwide. At present, the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is only partially understood, and effective therapies for memory loss in AD remain elusive. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major bioactive compounds purified from Chuanxiong, a Chinese herb used for the treatment of neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The neuroprotective properties of TMP are evident in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633076/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Amit Lazarov, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Bret R Rutherford, Yuval Neria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain regions within the salience (SN) and default-mode (DMN) networks, including the hippocampus. However, most rs-FC studies have not focused primarily on the hippocampus, nor have they appreciated its structural heterogeneity, despite clear evidence for a dissociation between posterior and anterior hippocampal connectivity. Here, we examine rs-FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus with key regions in the SN (amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and DMN (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) previously implicated in PTSD, using a seed-based approach...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633005/autophagy-impairment-mediated-by-s-nitrosation-of-atg4b-leads-to-neurotoxicity-in-response-to-hyperglycemia
#18
Yazi Li, Yuying Zhang, Lei Wang, Ping Wang, Yanhong Xue, Xiaopeng Li, Xinhua Qiao, Xu Zhang, Tao Xu, Guanghui Liu, Peng Li, Chang Chen
The majority of diabetic patients develop neuropathy and there is an increasing prevalence of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanism behind is poorly understood. Here we first observed that macroautophagy/autophagy was suppressed in the hippocampus of diabetic GK rats with hyperglycemia, whereas it was unchanged in ob/ob mice without hyperglycemia. Autophagy could be directly inhibited by high glucose in mouse primary hippocampal neurons. Moreover, autophagy was protective in high-glucose-induced neurotoxicity...
June 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632902/impaired-hippocampal-glucose-metabolism-during-and-after-flurothyl-induced-seizures-in-mice-reduced-phosphorylation-coincides-with-reduced-activity-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase
#19
Tanya S McDonald, Karin Borges
OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in glucose metabolism and the enzymes involved in the hippocampus ictally and postictally in the acute mouse flurothyl seizure model. METHODS: [U-(13) C]-Glucose was injected (i.p.) prior to, or following a 5 min flurothyl-induced seizure. Fifteen minutes later, mice were killed and the total metabolite levels and % (13) C enrichment were analyzed in the hippocampal formation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Activities of key metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and the phosphorylation status of pyruvate dehydrogenase were measured, along with lipid peroxidation...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632521/verbal-and-figural-fluency-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-hippocampal-sclerosis-affect-performance
#20
Ioannis Zalonis, Foteini Christidi, Artemios Artemiadis, Constantinos Psarros, George Papadopoulos, George Tsivgoulis, Stergios Gatzonis, Anna Siatouni, Georgios Velonakis, Efstratios Karavasilis, Evangelia Kararizou, Nikolaos Triantafyllou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinicians commonly use verbal and nonverbal measures to test fluency in patients with epilepsy, either during routine cognitive assessment or as part of pre- and postsurgical evaluation. We hypothesized that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis would perform worse than patients with lateral TLE in both verbal and design fluency. METHODS: We assessed semantic, phonemic, and nonverbal fluency in 49 patients with TLE: 31 with lateral TLE and 18 with mesial TLE plus hippocampal sclerosis...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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