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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777754/hmgb1-neutralization-attenuates-hippocampal-neuronal-death-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Yue Hei, Rong Chen, Xicai Yi, Qianfa Long, Dakuan Gao, Weiping Liu
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory molecule once released into the extracellular space and inhibition of HMGB1 signaling has been reported be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we tested the protective role of HMGB1 inhibition using anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody (Ab) against CCH in rats after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). 169 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2VO or sham operation...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777699/cart-peptide-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-pathway-and-protects-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Wenyu Jiao, Yongchen Wang, Linghong Kong, Tao Ou-Yang, Qing Meng, Qiang Fu, Zhenzhen Hu
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and oxidative stress damage in the brain are recognized as early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide may possibly play an antioxidative role in neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant mechanism of CART peptide in a rat model of AD. We microinjected of Aβ1-42 (2μl/4μg/hemisphere) into rat hippocampus to set a rat model of AD. A pre-microinjection of CART peptide (1μl/0...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776417/sinomenine-exerts-anticonvulsant-profile-and-neuroprotective-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats-involvement-of-inhibition-of-nlrp1-inflammasome
#3
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776014/association-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-with-brain-structure-uk-biobank-study
#4
Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775775/knowledge-and-learning-of-verb-biases-in-amnesia
#5
Rachel Ryskin, Zhenghan Qi, Natalie V Covington, Melissa Duff, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
Verb bias-the co-occurrence frequencies between a verb and the syntactic structures it may appear with-is a critical and reliable linguistic cue for online sentence processing. In particular, listeners use this information to disambiguate sentences with multiple potential syntactic parses (e.g., Feel the frog with the feather.). Further, listeners dynamically update their representations of specific verbs in the face of new evidence about verb-structure co-occurrence. Yet, little is known about the biological memory systems that support the use and dynamic updating of verb bias...
May 15, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#7
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775662/multivoxel-pattern-similarity-suggests-the-integration-of-temporal-duration-in-hippocampal-event-sequence-representations
#8
Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Edward B O'Neil, Andy C H Lee
Recent rodent work suggests the hippocampus may provide a temporal representation of event sequences, in which the order of events and the interval durations between them are encoded. There is, however, limited human evidence for the latter, in particular whether the hippocampus processes duration information pertaining to the passage of time rather than qualitative or quantitative changes in event content. We scanned participants while they made match/mismatch judgements on each trial between a study sequence of events and a subsequent test sequence...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775643/myocardial-infarction-induced-hippocampal-microtubule-damage-by-cardiac-originating-microrna-1-in-mice
#9
Lin-Lin Sun, Ming-Jing Duan, Ji-Chao Ma, Ling Xu, Meng Mao, Das Biddyut, Qin Wang, Chao Yang, Shuai Zhang, Yi Xu, Lin Yang, You Tian, Ying Liu, Sheng-Nan Xia, Ke-Xin Li, Zhuo Jin, Qiaojie Xiong, Jing Ai
Cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that myocardial infarction (MI) generated by the ligation of the left coronary artery (LCA) could lead to increased miR-1 levels in the hippocampus and blood with neuronal microtubule damage and decreased TPPP/p25 protein expression in the hippocampus. These changes could be prevented by a knockdown of miR-1 using hippocampal stereotaxic injections of anti-miR-1 oligonucleotide fragments carried by a lentivirus vector (lenti-pre-AMO-miR-1)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775564/the-antibody-rhigm22-facilitates-hippocampal-remyelination-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#10
Charlene Cui, Jing Wang, Ariana P Mullin, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. In addition to motor, sensory and visual deficits, MS is also characterized by hippocampal demyelination and memory impairment. We recently demonstrated that a recombinant human-derived monoclonal IgM antibody, which is designated rHIgM22 and currently in clinical development for people with MS, accelerates remyelination of the corpus callosum in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice. Here, we investigated the effects of rHIgM22 in the hippocampus and on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the same mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination and spontaneous remyelination...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775205/modified-device-for-fluid-percussion-injury-in-rodents
#11
Wei Ouyang, Wenhui Wu, Zhiheng Fan, Jihui Wang, Huiju Pan, Weibin Yang
Fluid percussion (FP) injury model is a popular animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but still there are some issues need to be addressed. To increase the validity and reliability of this technique, we adapted the FP device using electromagnetic protractor, stainless-steel cylinder, changing pressure transducer position, and foam pads to adjust the parameters of FP pulse. Besides, the adjusted FP device is more automatic. The FP pulse is promptly measured and displayed in a graphic user interface software...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774783/connecting-the-dots-an-association-between-opioids-and-acute-hippocampal-injury
#12
Jed A Barash, W Andrew Kofke
Acute hippocampal injury represents a relatively rare cause of amnesia. Interestingly however, between 2012 and 2017, 18 patients were reported at hospitals in Massachusetts with sudden-onset amnesia in the setting of complete diffusion-weighted hyperintensity of both hippocampi on magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, 17 of the 18 patients tested positive for opioids or had a recorded history of opioid use. This observation suggests an association between opioids and acute hippocampal injury. With particular attention to the Massachusetts cluster and data on fentanyl and its congeners, the epidemiological and pathophysiological evidence that supports this hypothesis is presented, as are potential underlying mechanisms...
May 18, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774448/the-expression-alteration-of-bc1-rna-and-its-interaction-with-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a-post-status-epilepticus
#13
Xiangchang Zeng, Wenjing Zong, Qing Gao, Siyu Chen, Lulu Chen, Guirong Zeng, Weihua Huang, Zhenyu Li, Chang Zeng, Yuanyuan Xie, Xiaohui Li, Bo Xiao, Dongsheng-Ouyang, Kai Hu
Abnormal dendritic sprouting and synaptic remodelling are important pathological features of temporal lobe epilepsy. BC1 RNA is a translation repressor involved in the regulation of the dendritic protein synthesis and mRNA transport, which is essential for dendritic development and plasticity. The expression alteration of BC1 RNA in the pilocarpine induced epilepsy model remains unknown. It is unclear if the interactions between BC1 RNA and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) exists in this model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression changes of BC1 RNA and its interactions with eIF4A post-status epilepticus (SE)...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774009/signaling-pathways-and-cellular-mechanisms-regulating-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-the-development-of-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Christin M Godale, Steve C Danzer
The sprouting of hippocampal dentate granule cell axons, termed mossy fibers, into the dentate inner molecular layer is one of the most consistent findings in tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Decades of research in animal models have revealed that mossy fiber sprouting creates de novo recurrent excitatory connections in the hippocampus, fueling speculation that the pathology may drive temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Conducting definitive experiments to test this hypothesis, however, has been challenging due to the difficulty of dissociating this sprouting from the many other changes occurring during epileptogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#15
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773221/are-there-distinct-forms-of-accelerated-forgetting-and-if-so-why
#16
Andrew R Mayes, Nicola M Hunkin, Claire Isaac, Nils Muhlert
Whether accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and classic organic amnesia, particularly hippocampal-amnesia, differ qualitatively or merely quantitatively is disputed. Qualitative difference accounts postulate that ALF patients show normal recall memory for at least minutes, during which hippocampal-amnesics already show accelerated forgetting and impaired recall but, thereafter, ALF patients show accelerated forgetting and impaired delayed recall. These delayed impairments may be more severe than those shown by hippocampal-amnesics...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772805/ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-persimmon-diospyros-kaki-ameliorates-cerebral-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficit-via-the-jnk-akt-pathway-in-tmt-induced-mice
#17
Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Su Bin Park, Seul Ki Yoo, Hye Ju Han, Chul-Woo Kim, Uk Lee, Sea-Hyun Kim, Ho Jin Heo
This study was conducted to assess the antioxidant capacity and protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction from persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ) (EFDK) on H₂O₂-induced hippocampal HT22 cells and trimethyltin chloride (TMT)-induced Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. EFDK had high antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects in HT22 cells. EFDK ameliorated behavioral and memory deficits in Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. Also, EFDK restored the antioxidant system by regulating malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced gluthathione (GSH), and the cholinergic system by controlling the acetylcholine (ACh) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and expression...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772537/maternal-deprivation-promotes-hippocampal-neuronal-apoptosis-via-erk1-2-signaling
#18
Min Chen, Guoping He, Qiang Li
Neonatal maternal deprivation (MD) leads to depressive-like behaviors by promoting hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, but whether and how ERK1/2 signaling participates in MD-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis remains unclear. We therefore explored the role of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in neonatal MD-induced depression. Neonatal rats were divided into control group, PD group given intraperitoneal injections of MAPKK inhibitor (PD98059), MD group, and MD+PD group. The neonatal MD model was confirmed by behavioral tests...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772442/cognitive-and-hippocampus-biochemical-changes-following-sleep-deprivation-in-the-adult-male-rat
#19
Ebrahim Nabaee, Mahnaz Kesmati, Ali Shahriari, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mozhgan Torabi
Sleep deprivation (SD) influences physiological processes such as cognitive function. The balance of oxidant and antioxidant markers, neurotrophic factors and magnesium are affected by sleep deprivation but there is no difference between pre and post training sleep deprivation. This study was designed to investigate memory retrieval and biochemical factors such as oxidant and antioxidant enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and magnesium levels in the hippocampus following pre and post-training sleep deprivation...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772389/hippocampal-microglia-modifications-in-c57bl-6-pah-enu2-and-btbr-pah-enu2-phenylketonuria-pku-mice-depend-on-the-genetic-background-irrespective-of-disturbed-sleep-patterns
#20
Els van der Goot, Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Femke M Hormann, Ulrich L M Eisel, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A Van der Zee
Toxic levels of phenylalanine in blood and brain is a characteristic of (untreated) phenylketonuria (PKU), leading to cognitive deficits in PKU mice. In addition, our recent findings showed that PKU mice (as well as PKU patients) have a disturbed sleep/wake cycle. As a consequence, sleep loss may contribute to cognitive deficits in PKU. Sleep loss has been linked to increased activation of microglia in the hippocampus. In this study, we set out to examine morphological features of the microglia population in the hippocampus of the mouse PKU model, using both the C57Bl/6 and the BTBR strain and their wild-type controls (age 5...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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