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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102468/mutation-of-the-herc-1-ubiquitin-ligase-impairs-associative-learning-in-the-lateral-amygdala
#1
Eva Mª Pérez-Villegas, José V Negrete-Díaz, Mª Elena Porras-García, Rocío Ruiz, Angel M Carrión, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, José A Armengol
Tambaleante (tbl/tbl) is a mutant mouse that carries a spontaneous Gly483Glu substitution in the HERC1 (HECT domain and RCC1 domain) E3 ubiquitin ligase protein (HERC1). The tbl/tbl mutant suffers an ataxic syndrome given the almost complete loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells during adult life. More recent analyses have identified alterations at neuromuscular junctions in these mice, as well as in other neurons of the central nervous system, such as motor neurons in the spinal cord, or pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region and the neocortex...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102460/neural-mass-models-as-a-tool-to-investigate-neural-dynamics-during-seizures
#2
Tatiana Kameneva, Tianlin Ying, Ben Guo, Dean R Freestone
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and is characterized by recurrent seizures. We use theoretical neuroscience tools to study brain dynamics during seizures. We derive and simulate a computational model of a network of hippocampal neuronal populations. Each population within the network is based on a model that has been shown to replicate the electrophysiological dynamics observed during seizures. The results provide insights into possible mechanisms for seizure spread. We observe that epileptiform activity remains localized to a pathological region when a global connectivity parameter is less than a critical value...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101814/arbutus-andrachne-l-reverses-sleep-deprivation-induced-memory-impairments-in-rats
#3
Karem H Alzoubi, Bayan S Malkawi, Omar F Khabour, Tamam El-Elimat, Feras Q Alali
Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with cognitive deficits. It was found to affect the hippocampus region of the brain by impairing memory formation. This impairment is suggested to be caused by elevation in oxidative stress in the body, including the brain during SD. It was hypothesized that the methanolic extract of the fruits of Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericaceae) will prevent chronic SD-induced impairment of hippocampal memory via its antioxidative properties. The methanolic extract of the fruits of A. andrachne was evaluated for its beneficial properties to reverse SD-induced cognitive impairment in rats...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101164/paeoniflorin-attenuates-hippocampal-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#4
Ying Zhang, Li-Li Wang, Yan Wu, Ning Wang, Shang-Ming Wang, Bin Zhang, Cui-Ge Shi, Shu-Cheng Zhang
Paeoniflorn (PF), the principal bioactive component of Paeoniae radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses a wide range of biological effects and exhibits neuroprotective effects in numerous diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF significantly attenuates memory impairment in rats with vascular dementia (VD). In the present study, a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) rat model was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of PF. The expression levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, cytochrome c and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured by western blot analysis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101102/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-serum-levels-and-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-disease
#5
Ericksen Mielle Borba, Juliana Avila Duarte, Giovana Bristot, Ellen Scotton, Ana Luiza Camozzato, Márcia Lorena Fagundes Chaves
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). METHODS: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101099/magnetic-resonance-volumetry-prediction-of-subjective-memory-complaints-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-associations-with-genetic-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#6
Sigbjørn Rogne, Torgil Vangberg, Petter Eldevik, Gry Wikran, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Henrik Schirmer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are strong predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsequent Alzheimer's disease. Our aims were to see if fully automated cerebral MR volume measurements could distinguish subjects with SMC and MCI from controls, and if probable parental late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, total plasma homocysteine, and cardiovascular risk factors were associated with MR volumetric findings. METHODS: 198 stroke-free subjects comprised the control (n = 58), the SMC (n = 25) and the MCI (n = 115) groups...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100752/differential-vulnerability-of-ca1-versus-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-after-ischemia-possible-relationship-to-sources-of-zn2-accumulation-and-its-entry-into-and-prolonged-effects-on-mitochondria
#7
Yuliya V Medvedeva, Sung G Ji, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
: Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons degenerating preferentially after global ischemia and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) entry, it is apparent that Zn(2+) also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through postsynaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn(2+)-binding proteins such as metallothionein-III (MT-III)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#8
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#9
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100655/furosemide-depresses-the-presynaptic-fiber-volley-and-modifies-frequency-dependent-axonal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampus
#10
Mogens Andreasen, Steen Nedergaard
The loop diuretic furosemide is known to have anticonvulsant effects, believed to be exerted through blockade of glial Na-K-Cl cotransport causing altered volume regulation in brain tissue. The possibility that direct effects of furosemide on neuronal properties could also be involved is supported by previous observations, but such effects have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study we show that furosemide has two opposing effects on stimulus-induced postsynaptic excitation in the non-epileptic rat hippocampal slice: i) an enhancement of e-s coupling, which depended on intact GABAA transmission and was partially mimicked by selective blockade of K-Cl cotransport, and ii) a decrement of fEPSPs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100490/amino-terminal-domains-of-kainate-receptors-determine-the-differential-dependence-on-neto-auxiliary-subunits-for-trafficking
#11
Nengyin Sheng, Yun Stone Shi, Roger A Nicoll
The kainate receptor (KAR), a subtype of glutamate receptor, mediates excitatory synaptic responses at a subset of glutamatergic synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trafficking of its different subunits are poorly understood. Here we use the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell, which lacks KAR-mediated synaptic currents, as a null background to determine the minimal requirements for the extrasynaptic and synaptic expression of the GluK2 subunit. We find that the GluK2 receptor itself, in contrast to GluK1, traffics to the neuronal surface and synapse efficiently and the auxiliary subunits Neto1 and Neto2 caused no further enhancement of these two trafficking processes...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100076/precuneus-structure-changes-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Robert Haussmann, Annett Werner, Antonia Gruschwitz, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI...
February 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100033/relaxin-3-inputs-target-hippocampal-interneurons-and-deletion-of-hilar-relaxin-3-receptors-in-floxed-rxfp3-mice-impairs-spatial-memory
#13
M Haidar, G Guèvremont, C Zhang, Rad Bathgate, E Timofeeva, C M Smith, A L Gundlach
Hippocampus is innervated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 'projection' neurons of the nucleus incertus (NI), including a population expressing the neuropeptide, relaxin-3 (RLN3). In studies aimed at gaining an understanding of the role of RLN3 signaling in hippocampus via its Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, we examined the distribution of RLN3-immunoreactive nerve fibres and RXFP3 mRNA-positive neurons in relation to hippocampal GABA neuron populations. RLN3-positive elements were detected in close-apposition with a substantial population of somatostatin (SST)- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and a smaller population of parvalbumin- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in different hippocampal areas, consistent with the relative distribution patterns of RXFP3 mRNA and these marker transcripts...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100032/sequential-learning-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-guides-the-rate-of-systems-consolidation-implications-for-consolidation-of-multiple-memory-traces
#14
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Ana P Crestani, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100031/impact-of-melatonin-receptor-signaling-on-zeitgeber-time-dependent-changes-in-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-the-adult-murine-hippocampus
#15
Michaela Fredrich, Mareike Hampel, Kay Seidel, Elmar Christ, Horst-Werner Korf
The hippocampus is subjected to diurnal/circadian rhythms on both the morphological and molecular levels. Certain aspects of cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus are regulated by melatonin and accompanied by apoptosis to ensure proper tissue maintenance and function. The present study investigated Zeitgeber time (ZT)-dependent changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in the adult murine hippocampus and their regulation by melatonin receptor type1 and type2 (MT1/2)-mediated signaling. Adult melatonin-proficient C3H/HeN mice and melatonin-proficient (C3H/HeN) mice with targeted deletion of MT1/2 were adapted to a 12-hours light, 12-hours dark photoperiod and were sacrificed at ZT00, ZT06, ZT12, and ZT18...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099871/fluoride-and-arsenic-exposure-affects-spatial-memory-and-activates-the-erk-creb-signaling-pathway-in-offspring-rats
#17
Yu-Peng Zhu, Shu-Hua Xi, Ming-Yan Li, Ting-Ting Ding, Nan Liu, Fu-Yuan Cao, Yang Zeng, Xiao-Jing Liu, Jun-Wang Tong, Shou-Fang Jiang
Fluoride and arsenic are inorganic contaminants that occur in the natural environment. Chronic fluoride and/or arsenic exposure can induce developmental neurotoxicity and negatively influence intelligence in children, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. This study explored the effects of fluoride and arsenic exposure in drinking water on spatial learning, memory and key protein expression in the ERK/CREB signaling pathway in hippocampal and cerebral cortex tissue in rat offspring...
January 15, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099324/interaction-of-isoflurane-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-on-long-term-potentiation-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#18
Ran Zhou, Philip Bickler
BACKGROUND: The relationship between inhalational anesthetics such as isoflurane and cognitive impairment in the elderly is controversial. Both β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), associated with Alzheimer disease, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory stress-related peptide, impair the synaptic function. We hypothesized that transient exposure to isoflurane and these peptides would impair synaptic function, manifest as a depression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired pulse facilitation (PPF), in the rat hippocampus...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099137/epilepsy-associated-alterations-in-hippocampal-excitability
#19
Mojdeh Navidhamidi, Maeheh Ghasemi, Nasrin Mehranfard
The hippocampus exhibits a wide range of epilepsy-related abnormalities and is situated in the mesial temporal lobe, where limbic seizures begin. These abnormalities could affect membrane excitability and lead to overstimulation of neurons. Multiple overlapping processes refer to neural homeostatic responses develop in neurons that work together to restore neuronal firing rates to control levels. Nevertheless, homeostatic mechanisms are unable to restore normal neuronal excitability, and the epileptic hippocampus becomes hyperexcitable or hypoexcitable...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#20
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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