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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792748/portal-vein-thrombosis-imaging-the-spectrum-of-disease-with-an-emphasis-on-mri-features
#1
Reena C Jha, Satinderpal Singh Khera, Amit Dinesh Kalaria
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the classic and uncommon imaging findings of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (acute, chronic, congenital, and septic thrombus) as visualized on multiple modalities, with an emphasis on MRI findings. Additional aims are to understand the imaging of obliterative portal venopathy and its clinical significance, appreciate morphologic changes of the biliary system that may accompany PVT, and recognize changes in liver enhancement patterns seen with PVT related to the hepatic arterial buffer response...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792739/x-ray-phase-contrast-technology-in-breast-imaging-principles-options-and-clinical-application
#2
Seyedamir Tavakoli Taba, Timur E Gureyev, Maram Alakhras, Sarah Lewis, Darren Lockie, Patrick C Brennan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review different x-ray phase-contrast breast imaging techniques and their potential application in clinical settings. CONCLUSION: Phase-contrast imaging depicts not only the absorption contrast but also the refraction contrast of the transmitted x-ray beam. Early data suggest that this new modality may overcome some of the diagnostic limitations associated with current clinically available mammography systems and that it has potential for improving breast cancer detection...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792537/recognizing-quantifying-and-managing-patient-ventilator-asynchrony-in-invasive-and-noninvasive-ventilation
#3
Eugenio Garofalo, Andrea Bruni, Corrado Pelaia, Luisa Liparota, Nicola Lombardo, Federico Longhini, Paolo Navalesi
Patient-ventilator asynchrony may occur with modes of partial ventilatory support. Because this problem is associated with worsened outcomes, identifying and managing asynchronies has been recognized as a relevant clinical problem during both invasive and non-invasive (NIV) mechanical ventilation. Areas covered: In this review article, we first describe the different forms of patient-ventilator asynchrony and how they are classified and quantified. Then, we show how these asynchronies can be recognized, considering the techniques used to properly detect asynchronies, by either ventilator waveform observation, or through systems based on more complexes mathematical algorithms, by means of adjunctive signals, such as the electrical activity of the diaphragm or esophageal pressure...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#4
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792460/the-complexity-diversity-and-science-of-primary-care-teams
#5
Kevin Fiscella, Susan H McDaniel
This article examines the past, present and future of primary care and teamwork. It begins with a definition and description of primary care-its uniqueness, diversity and complexity, including the historical role of teams within primary care. The article then reviews the emergence of innovative primary care teams, including those grounded in new processes such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home and interprofessional teams that include new types of health professionals, particularly psychologists and other integrated behavioral health clinicians...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791966/outcomes-of-bethesda-categories-iii-and-iv-thyroid-nodules-over-5-years-and-performance-of-the-afirma-gene-expression-classifier-a-single-institution-study
#6
Kelsi E Deaver, Bryan R Haugen, Nikita Pozdeyev, Carrie B Marshall
OBJECTIVE: The second edition Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology estimates 6-18% malignancy rate of category III (B3) and 10-40% for category IV (B4) nodules; however, reported malignancy rates have considerable variability among institutions. Use of molecular classifiers (including Afirma Gene Expression Classifier, GEC) can be utilized in management of thyroid nodules. Our objective was to analyze malignancy rates of B3 and B4 nodules and determine clinical outcomes of GEC Benign nodules...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#7
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791718/alopecia-areata-a-review-of-disease-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
F Rajabi, L A Drake, M M Senna, N Rezaei
Alopecia areata is a disorder that results in non-scarring hair loss. The psychological impact can be significant, leading to feelings of depression and social isolation. The disease remains incurable though it has been studied for years. Available treatment options at best, are beneficial for milder cases, and the rate of relapse is high. Understanding the exact mechanisms of hair loss in alopecia areata is therefore of utmost importance to help identify potential therapeutic targets. The main theory of alopecia areata pathogenesis is that it is an autoimmune phenomenon resulting from a disruption in hair follicle immune privilege...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791700/closing-the-gap-novel-abdominal-wound-closure-techniques
#9
James Dana Kondrup, Alaina M Qayyum
Traditionally, surgical procedures within the realm of both general and gynecological surgery employ the use of staples and interrupted sutures that run continuously with knot tying or subcuticular sutures to ensure closure of large wound incisions, subcuticular incisions, and fascial repair. However, these methods may not always be cosmetically favorable and, thus, result in an unpleasant outcome for the patient, adding to their surgery-related stress. It is, therefore, imperative that surgeons and gynecologists are aware of alternative methods of wound closure that are not only cosmetically favorable, but also ensure rapid wound recovery and infection control...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790291/the-eyes-have-it-a-rheumatologist-s-view-of-uveitis
#10
REVIEW
James T Rosenbaum, Andrew D Dick
Uveitis is defined as intraocular inflammation. It is an extra-articular manifestation of many forms of joint disease which include spondyloarthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and Behcet's disease. Rheumatologists may be asked to consult on patients with uveitis in order to identify an associated systemic illness. Diagnoses such as spndyloarthritis, sarcoidosis, and interstitial nephritis with uveitis are frequently overlooked by referring ophthalmologists. Alternatively rheumatologists may be asked to help manage the immunosuppression including biologics which can be required to treat a subset of patients with uveitis...
May 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790212/dopamine-in-transplantation-written-off-or-comeback-with-novel-indication
#11
REVIEW
Peter Schnuelle, Urs Benck, Benito A Yard
Renal-dose dopamine has fallen out of favor in the intensive care unit (ICU) during past years due to its ineffectiveness to prevent impending or to ameliorate overt renal failure in the critically ill. By contrast, growing evidence indicates that low-dose dopamine administered to the stable organ donor after brain death confirmation improves the clinical course of transplanted organs after kidney and heart transplantation. Ensuring a thorough monitoring for potential circulatory side effects, employment of dopamine at a dose of 4 μg/kg per minute is safe in the deceased donor...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790197/establishing-a-publicly-available-national-database-of-us-news-articles-reporting-agriculture-related-injuries-and-fatalities
#12
Bryan Weichelt, Marsha Salzwedel, Scott Heiberger, Barbara C Lee
BACKGROUND: The AgInjuryNews system and dataset are a news report repository and information source for agricultural safety professionals, policymakers, journalists, and law enforcement officials. METHODS: AgInjuryNews was designed as a primary storage and retrieval system that allows users to: identify agricultural injury/fatality events; identify injury agents and emerging issues; provide safety messages for media in anticipation of trends; and raise awareness and knowledge of agricultural injuries and prevention strategies...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790157/pallister-killian-syndrome-review-of-fetal-phenotype
#13
S Thakur, R Gupta, B Tiwari, N Singh, K K Saxena
Pallister Killian syndrome is a multi-system sporadic disorder with developmental delay. It is a rare chromosomal abnormality involving supernumerary isochormosome 12p. The disorder exhibits tissue specific mosaicism. The first prenatal diagnosis of PKS was reported by Gilgenkrantz et al. in 1985 after ultrasound detection of fetal anomalies. Since this observation, there have been about 62 reports of fetuses with PKS In this review we cover the prenatal aspects of PKS. This article is protected by copyright...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789960/cutaneous-manifestations-of-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
REVIEW
Cory J Pettit, Katherine Mazurek, Benjamin Kaffenberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant infections present a formidable challenge to the physician due to their varied presentation. Many of these infections begin by inoculation following skin compromise or disseminate to the skin hematogenously, making cutaneous manifestations of infection an important diagnostic clue in the immunocompromised. Quality research in this field is lacking, and this articles seeks to review the literature and present a guide to physicians in order for them to suspect certain infections by their cutaneous presentation...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789103/evaluation-of-ion-pair-formation-of-adefovir-to-improve-permeation-across-artificial-and-biological-membranes
#15
Bahar Darsazan, Alireza Shafaati, Afshin Zarghi, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi
PURPOSE: Adefovir is an antiviral drug that exhibits high hydrophilic properties and negligible bioavailability (less than 12%). It is only applied in the form of the ester prodrug adefovir dipivoxil (ADV). The oral bioavailability of ADV is limited (32% to 45%) by its low permeability (Class 3) and biological conversion of the prodrug to adefovir. Ion-pair formation is considered as an alternative approach to a covalent prodrug (ADV) to enhance intestinal permeation of adefovir. METHODS: The effect of various counter-ions (anionic, cationic and two quaternary ammonium salts) on the lipophilicity of adefovir was investigated by means of the n-octanol/buffer partitioning system, an in vitro transport model (PAMPA) and a biological membrane (everted gut sac)...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789014/a-review-of-scoring-systems-for-ocular-involvement-in-chronic-cutaneous-bullous-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Brendon W H Lee, Jeremy C K Tan, Melissa Radjenovic, Minas T Coroneo, Dedee F Murrell
BACKGROUND: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) describe a group of rare chronic dermatoses characterized by cutaneous fragility and blistering. Although uncommon, significant ocular surface disease (OSD) may occur in both and require ophthalmological assessment. Disease scoring systems have a critical role in providing objective and accurate assessment of disease severity. The objectives of this report were, firstly, to document the prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD...
May 22, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788884/progress-of-oral-insulin-and-related-drug-delivery-systems-and-their-pharmacokinetics
#17
Jingjing Chen, Rui Liu, Changxiao Liu, Xin Jin, Qinghua Zhang, Jialu Wang, Fang Zhao, Ze Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Yazhuo Li, Xiulin Yi
BACKGROUND: As society has developed and living standards have improved, diabetes has become a severe public health issue. Insulin plays a crucial role in managing hyperglycemia caused by type I diabetes and particular type II diabetes. Many researchers are seeking alternative, more acceptable methods of insulin delivery, such as oral insulin. An oral formulation has become a new goal for insulin delivery in recent years. METHODS: The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for "oral insulin, " "drug delivery systems, " and "pharmacokinetics, " and 85 relevant articles were selected from the results as material for this review...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788883/models-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili-current-issues-and-future-perspectives
#18
Lucija Kuna, Ivana Bozic, Tomislav Kizivat, Kristina Bojanic, Margareta Mrso, Edgar Kralj, Robert Smolic, George Y Wu, Martina Smolic
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of acute liver failure cases in the United States, and remains a common cause of withdrawal of drugs in both preclinical and clinical phases. In this article, we review the existing knowledge of appropriate models to study DILI in vitro and in vivo with special focus on hepatic cell models, variations of 3D co-cultures, animal models, databases and predictive modeling and translational biomarkers developed to understand the mechanisms and pathophysiology of DILI...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788868/contribution-of-spinal-cord-oligodendrocytes-to-neuroinflammatory-diseases-and-pain
#19
Sergio M Borghi, Victor Fattori, Miriam S N Hohmann, Waldiceu A Verri
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory diseases that affect spinal cord or associated spinal nerves represent challenging conditions for management in current medicine because of their complex pathology, poor prognosis, and high morbidity, which strikingly reduces the quality of life of patients. In this sense, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of spinal cord neuroinflammation might contribute to the development of novel therapies. Oligodendrocytes have unique and vital biological properties in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and physiology...
May 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788841/heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-complicating-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-in-pediatric-patients-review-of-the-literature-and-alternative-anticoagulants
#20
Uri Pollak
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic, immune-mediated complication of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin therapy. HIT is characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia 5-10 days after initial heparin exposure, detection of platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies and an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of mechanical circulatory support used in critically ill patients with respiratory or cardiac failure...
May 2018: Perfusion
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