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Jonathan H Chung, Justin M Oldham, Steven M Montner, Rekha Vij, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Aliya N Husain, Imre Noth, David A Lynch, Mary E Strek
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic significance of CT patterns that cannot be classified according to current idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) guidelines and of specific findings of the inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of interstitial lung disease who had undergone surgical lung biopsy and chest CT within 1 year of each other were included in the study...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Sandrine Loubière, Alexandre Drezet, Michèle Beau-Faller, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Sylvie Friard, Marie Wislez, Hélène Blons, Catherine Daniel, Virginie Westeel, Anne Madroszyk, Hervé Léna, Patrick Merle, Julien Mazières, Gérard Zalcman, Roger Lacave, Martine Antoine, Franck Morin, Pascale Missy, Fabrice Barlesi, Pascal Auquier, Jacques Cadranel
ALK rearrangement and EGFR / KRAS mutations constitute the primary biomarkers tested to provide targeted or nontargeted therapies in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of biomarker testing for NSCLC.Between 2013 and 2014, 843 treatment-naive patients were prospectively recruited at 19 French hospitals into a longitudinal observational cohort study. Two testing strategies were compared, i.e. with "at least one biomarker status known" and "at least KRAS status known", in addition to "no biomarker testing" as the reference strategy...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira, Christian Barros Ferreira, João Adolfo Costa Hanemann, Livia Maris Ribeiro Paranaiba, Patricia Peres Iucif Pereira, Carla Isabelly Rodrigues-Fernandes, Celeste Sánchez-Romero, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Felipe Paiva Fonseca
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder driven by Esptein-Barr virus (EBV) that most commonly affects the lungs, although extra pulmonary sites like the central nervous system, skin, liver and kidney can also be involved. It is microscopically characterized by an angiocentric and angiodestructive growth pattern, predominantly composed by small T-cells, although a smaller population of atypical large B-cells is considered the true neoplastic component. Oral cavity involvement of LYG has rarely been described and the diagnosis of this neoplasm is very difficult...
March 14, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Muhammad Shuja, Ayman A Elghazaly, Asif Iqbal, Reham Mohamed, Amal Marie, Mutahir A Tunio, Moamen M Aly, Ali Balbaid, Mushabbab Asiri
Introduction Bone metastasis (BM) is a major complication of many solid tumors like breast, prostate, lung and renal cancers. BM leads to serious sequelae of pain, fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. Radiotherapy has an established role in relieving pain caused by BM. Worldwide different radiotherapy schedules are being used for BM. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of single fraction palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases. Methods Between April 2014 and April 2017, single fraction radiotherapy was used to treat 73 patients in our institution...
January 8, 2018: Curēus
Carine Ghassan Richa, Khadija Jamal Saad, Georges Habib Halabi, Elie Mekhael Gharios, Fadi Louis Nasr, Marie Tanios Merheb
The objective of this study is to report three cases of paraneoplastic or ectopic Cushing syndrome, which is a rare phenomenon of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome. Three cases are reported in respect of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment in addition to relevant literature review. The results showed that ectopic ACTH secretion can be associated with different types of neoplasm most common of which are bronchial carcinoid tumors, which are slow-growing, well-differentiated neoplasms with a favorable prognosis and small-cell lung cancer, which are poorly differentiated tumors with a poor outcome...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Aymeric Monteillier, Pierre-Marie Allard, Katia Gindro, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Muriel Cuendet
Lung cancer is the most lethal form of cancer in the world. Its development often involves an overactivation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, leading to increased cell proliferation, survival, mobility, and a decrease in apoptosis. Therefore, NF-κB inhibitors are actively sought after for both cancer chemoprevention and therapy, and fungi represent an interesting unexplored reservoir for such molecules. The aim of the present work was to find naturally occurring lung cancer chemopreventive compounds by investigating the metabolites of Penicillium vulpinum , a fungus that grows naturally on dung...
March 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fausto Petrelli, Mariangela Maltese, Gianluca Tomasello, Barbara Conti, Karen Borgonovo, Mary Cabiddu, Mara Ghilardi, Michele Ghidini, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Sandro Barni, Matteo Brighenti
Clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) associated with a strong expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1+ in > 5% of cells) have not been well elucidated. Expression of PD-L1 is a poor prognostic factor, but NSCLCs with higher levels of PD-L1 have greater benefit when treated with immunotherapy. We have performed a systematic review to synthesize the available evidence regarding clinicopathologic and molecular variables associated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Ruobing Wang, Sebastian K Welsh, Marie Budev, Hilary Goldberg, Peadar G Noone, David Zaas, Debra Boyer
Cystic fibrosis (CF) with severe lung disease is a well-recognized indication for lung transplantation. Colonization with various organisms in CF patients may impact post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is made up of distinct genomovars with significant morbidity and mortality associated with B. cenocepacia (genomovar III) following lung transplant. The outcomes of patients infected with genomovar B. dolosa (genomovar VI) have yet to be described in the literature. We performed a retrospective chart review of all cystic fibrosis patients colonized with B...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Johanna Sigaux, Jérôme Biton, Emma André, Luca Semerano, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Pollution has long been incriminated in many cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. More recently, studies evaluated the potential role for particulate pollutants in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The incidence of RA was found to be higher in urban areas. Living near air pollution emitters was associated with higher risks of developing RA and of producing RA-specific autoantibodies. Nevertheless, no strong epidemiological evidence exists to link one or more specific air pollution particles to RA...
March 7, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Malou Guérant, Marie-Aude Vaz, Michel Peoc'h, Yvan Gaillard, Baptiste Boyer
Rubber bullets weapons can have tragic consequences when used at short range and on vulnerable body areas. A man in his forties was found deceased at his house, covered in blood. A "non-lethal" firearm was found near the bed: the «SAPL GC27». This is a single shot handgun with mini Gomm Cogne ammunition: 12 rubber spherical pellets, 7.4 mm in diameter. The findings were consistent with an intra buccal shot, and an ingestion-inhalation of blood and projectiles. Cause of the death was linked to both the hemorrhage due to mouth and aero digestive crossroad trauma, responsible of a mechanical asphyxia, and blood absorption in lungs...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Lisa A Carmody, Lindsay J Caverly, Bridget K Foster, Mary A M Rogers, Linda M Kalikin, Richard H Simon, Donald R VanDevanter, John J LiPuma
Bacteria that infect the airways of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) include a group of well-described opportunistic pathogens as well as numerous, mainly obligate or facultative anaerobic species typically not reported by standard sputum culture. We sequenced the V3-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in DNA derived from 631 sputum specimens collected from 111 CF patients over 10 years. We describe fluctuations in the relative abundances of typical CF pathogens, as well as anaerobic species, in relation to changes in patients' clinical state and lung disease stage...
2018: PloS One
Jérôme Biton, Hanane Ouakrim, Agnès Dechartres, Marco Alifano, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Han Si, Rebecca Halpin, Todd Creasy, Claudie Bantsimba-Malanda, Jennifer Arrondeau, François Goldwasser, Pascaline Boudou-Rouquette, Ludovic Fournel, Nicolas Roche, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Jeremy Goc, Priyanka Devi-Marulkar, Claire Germain, Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean, Isabelle Cremer, Ronald Herbst, Diane Damotte
RATIONALE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher prevalence of lung cancer. The chronic inflammation associated with COPD probably promotes the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. However, once tumors have progressed to malignancy, the impact of COPD on the tumor immune microenvironment remains poorly defined, and its effects on immune-checkpoint blockers' efficacy are still unknown. OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of COPD on the immune contexture of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Barry H Rickman, Tim Morgan, Matthew Klope, Susan Berta, Sandra Dubpernell, Howard Garrett, Mary Jo Adams, Stephanie A Norman
Necropsy of a female adult pregnant harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena revealed a multicentric plasmacytoma. The plasmacytoma infiltrated the cranial lung lobes, mediastinal lymph nodes and the spleen. Diagnosis was based on gross, histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies. Histopathology revealed a diffuse proliferation of atypical pleomorphic neoplastic round cells with plasmacytic features. Positive immunohistochemistry with anti-CD79a and anti-CD20 antibody markers and anti-multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM-1) for plasmacytoma confirmed this neoplasm to be of B-cell origin...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Anne Marie Russell, Sandra Olive, Sarah Lines, Anna Murphy, Julie Hocking, Karen Newell, Helen Morris, Emma Harris, Catherine Dixon, Sarah Agnew, Geraldine Burge
The role of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is evolving in response to clinical guidelines and the growth of clinical research. The role is well established in the UK, although more ILD posts are needed to ensure supply meets clinical demand. This phenomenon is also happening across Europe. An appreciation of the similarities and differences between CNS and advanced nurse practitioners is important given the challenges in defining, developing and supporting this nursing specialisation...
March 2018: Breathe
Olivier Brugière, Aurelie Cazes, Laure Champion, MArie-Pierre Debray, Gisèle Mourin, Bruno Crestani, Deborah Sroussi, Vincent Bunel, Gilles Jebrak, Gaëlle Dauriat, Yves Castier, Pierre Mordant, Brice Lortat-Jacob, Sylvain Jean-Baptiste, Lila Bouadma, Hervé Mal, Gabriel Thabut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Transplantation
Kevin Bihan, Noël Zahr, Marie-Hélène Becquemin, Xiao Lu, Jean-François Bertholon, Corinne Vezinet, Charlotte Arbelot, Antoine Monsel, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Olivier Langeron, Qin Lu
Objectives: Nebulized colistimethate sodium (CMS) can be used to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by MDR bacteria. The influence of the diluent volume of CMS on aerosol delivery has never been studied. The main objectives of the study were to compare aerosol particle characteristics and plasma and urine pharmacokinetics between two diluent volumes in patients treated with nebulized CMS. Methods: A crossover study was conducted in eight patients receiving nebulized CMS every 8 h...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Chiachen Chen, Mary B Breslin, Michael S Lan
Neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors account for 20% of total lung cancer cases and represent a subset of aggressive tumors with metastatic potential. High-risk NE lung cancer patients display disseminated disease, N-myc expression/amplification, and poorly differentiated tumors. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying a zinc-finger transcription factor, INSM1 in NE lung cancer. Our study revealed that INSM1 crosstalk with the Shh-PI3K/AKT-N-myc/Ascl1-MEK/ERK1/2 transcriptional network in NE lung cancer...
March 1, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Lydia Meziani, Michele Mondini, Benoît Petit, Alexandre Boissonnas, Vincent Thomas de Montpreville, Olaf Mercier, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, Eric Deutsch
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RIF) is a delayed side-effect of chest radiotherapy, frequently associated with macrophage infiltration.We aimed to characterise the role of pulmonary macrophages in RIF using human lung biopsies from patients receiving radiotherapy for thorax malignancies and a RIF model developed in C57BL/6 mice after 16-Gy thorax irradiation.High numbers of macrophages (both interstitial and alveolar) were detected in clinical and preclinical RIF. In the preclinical model, upregulation of T-helper (Th)2 cytokines was measured, whereas Th1 cytokines were downregulated in RIF tissue lysate...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Benedicte Lelievre, Marie Briet, Charlotte Godon, Pierre Legras, Jeremie Riou, Patrick Vandeputte, Bertrand Diquet, Jean Philippe Bouchara
Cerebral Scedosporium infections usually occur in lung transplant recipients as well as in immunocompetent patients in the context of near-drowning. Voriconazole is the first-line treatment. The diffusion of voriconazole through the blood-brain barriers in the context of cerebral infection and cyclosporine administration is crucial and remains a matter of debate. To address this issue, the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole were assessed in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain, in an experimental model of cerebral scedosporiosis in rats receiving or not cyclosporine...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Dae Ho Lee, Hiroshi Isobe, Hubert Wirtz, Sabina Bandeira Aleixo, Phillip Parente, Filippo de Marinis, Min Huang, Ashwini Arunachalam, Smita Kothari, Xiting Cao, Nello Donnini, Ann-Marie Woodgate, Javier de Castro
BACKGROUND: Data are scarce regarding real-world health care resource use (HCRU) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An understanding of current clinical practices and HCRU is needed to provide a benchmark for rapidly evolving NSCLC management recommendations and therapeutic options. The objective of this study was to describe real-world HCRU for patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: This multinational, retrospective chart review study was conducted at academic and community oncology sites in Italy, Spain, Germany, Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Brazil...
March 1, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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