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Exosome pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376493/placental-exosomes-during-gestation-liquid-biopsies-carrying-signals-for-the-regulation-of-human-parturition
#1
Carlos Salomon, Zarin Nuzhat, Christopher L Dixon, Ramkumar Menon
Parturition is defined as the action or process of giving birth to offspring. Normal term human parturition ensues following the maturation of fetal organ systems typically between 37 and 40 weeks of gestation. Our conventional understanding of how parturition initiation is signaled revolves around feto-maternal immune and endocrine changes occurring in the intrauterine cavity. These changes in turn correlate with the sequence of fetal growth and development. These important physiological changes also result in homeostatic imbalances which result in heightened inflammatory signaling...
January 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357727/amniotic-fluid-hif1%C3%AE-and-exosomal-hif1%C3%AE-in-cervical-insufficiency-patients-with-physical-examination-indicated-cerclage
#2
Ji Eun Song, Seok Ju Park, Keun Young Lee, Wang Jae Lee
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) has been reported to activate inflammatory cascade. Recently, exosomes have been known to have pivotal roles in intercellular communication. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of amniotic fluid (AF) HIF1α, exosomal HIF1α, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1α (IL1α), interleukin 1β (IL1β), interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) between physical examination-indicated cerclage (PEIC) and control group...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328396/placenta%C3%A2-associated-serum-exosomal-mir%C3%A2-155-derived-from-patients-with-preeclampsia-inhibits-enos-expression-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#3
Li Shen, Yujing Li, Ruotian Li, Zhenyu Diao, Muyi Yany, Mengfei Wu, Haixiang Sun, Guijun Yan, Yali Hu
Preeclampsia (PE) is considered to be initiated by abnormal placentation in early pregnancy and results in systemic endothelial cell dysfunction in the second or third trimester. MicroRNAs (miRs) expressed in the human placenta can be secreted into maternal circulation via exosomes, which are secreted extracellular vesicles that serve important roles in intercellular communication. The present study hypothesized that upregulation of placenta‑associated serum exosomal miR‑155 from patients with PE may suppress endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in endothelial cells...
March 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277271/is-there-a-role-for-exosomes-in-foetoplacental-endothelial-dysfunction-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#4
REVIEW
Tamara Sáez, Paul de Vos, Luis Sobrevia, Marijke M Faas
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease of pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction in the foetoplacental vasculature. Foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction is characterized by changes in the l-arginine-adenosine signalling pathway and inflammation. The mechanisms involved in these alterations are suggested to be hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, and oxidative stress. These conditions increase the release of exosomes, nanovesicles that are generated from diverse cell types, including endothelial cells...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#5
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197000/proteomics-method-to-identification-of-protein-profiles-in-exosomes
#6
Andrew Lai, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Zarin Nuzhat, Ramkumar Menon, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Exosomes are membrane-bound nanovesicles that transport molecular signals (e.g., proteins) between cells and are released from a wide range of cells, including the human placenta. Interestingly, the levels of exosomes present in maternal circulation are higher in preeclamptic pregnancies and their protein content profile change in response to the microenvironment milieu. Through the discovery of candidate biomarkers, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying pregnancy-associated disorders...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196999/optimized-specific-isolation-of-placenta-derived-exosomes-from-maternal-circulation
#7
Andrew Lai, Omar Elfeky, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Exosomes are small (~100 nm) vesicles that carry a wide range of molecules including proteins, RNAs, and DNA. Exosomes are secreted from a wide range of cells including placental cells. Interestingly, exosomes secreted from placental cells have been identified in maternal circulation as early as in 6 weeks of gestation, and their concentration increases with the gestational age. While there is growing interest in elucidating the role of exosomes during normal and complicated pregnancies (such as preeclampsia), progress in the field has been delayed because of the inability to isolate placental exosomes from maternal circulation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196997/methods-to-enrich-exosomes-from-conditioned-media-and-biological-fluids
#8
Shayna Sharma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Exosomes are nano-vesicles which can transport a range of molecules including but not limited to proteins and miRNA. This ability of exosomes renders them useful in cellular communication often resulting in biological changes. They have several functions in facilitating normal biological processes such as immune responses and an involvement in pregnancy. However, they have also been linked to pathological conditions including cancer and pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. An understanding for the role of exosomes in preeclampsia is based on the ability to purify and characterize exosomes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196267/intrauterine-exosomes-are-required-for-bovine-conceptus-implantation
#9
Kazuya Kusama, Keigo Nakamura, Rulan Bai, Kentaro Nagaoka, Toshihiro Sakurai, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, are present in uterine flushing fluids (UFs), which are involved in conceptus-endometrial interactions during peri-implantation periods. Despite several studies on intrauterine exosomes conducted, the roles conceptus and endometrial exosomes play during peri-implantation periods have not been well characterized. To investigate the effect of bovine intrauterine exosomes on conceptus implantation, exosomes isolated from bovine UFs during peri-implantation periods were subjected to global protein analysis...
November 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193463/placental-exosomes-a-proxy-to-understand-pregnancy-complications
#10
Jin Jin, Ramkumar Menon
Exosomes (30- to 150-nm particles), originating from multivesicular bodies by the invagination of the endosomal membrane, are communication channels between cells. Exosomes are released by various cell types and cargo proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids reflecting the physiologic status of their cells of origin and cause functional changes in recipient cells, which are likely dependent on their quantity and/or cargo contents. Recently, placental exosomes, produced by various placental cell types, have been isolated from maternal blood using the placental protein-specific marker, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184401/placenta-derived-exosomes-potential-biomarkers-of-preeclampsia
#11
REVIEW
Preenan Pillay, Kogi Moodley, Jagidesa Moodley, Irene Mackraj
Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality, due to ineffective treatment and diagnostic strategies, compounded by the lack of clarity on the etiology of the disorder. Although several clinical and biological markers of preeclampsia have been evaluated, they have proven to be ineffective in providing a definitive diagnosis during the various stages of the disorder. Exosomes have emerged as ideal biomarkers of pathological states, such as cancer, and have more recently gained interest in pregnancy-related complications, due to their role in cellular communication in normal and complicated pregnancies...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155213/human-umbilical-vein-endothelium-derived-exosomes-play-a-role-in-foetoplacental-endothelial-dysfunction-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Tamara Sáez, Rocío Salsoso, Andrea Leiva, Fernando Toledo, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas, Luis Sobrevia
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) characterizes by foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from women with GDM show increased L-arginine transport via the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1). Moreover, expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide synthesis are increased. Exosomes are increased in maternal plasma from GDM. We evaluated the role of foetoplacental endothelial exosomes on endothelial dysfunction in GDM. Exosomes were isolated from HUVECs from normal (ExN) and GDM (ExGDM) pregnancies...
November 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153681/various-levels-of-circulating-exosomal-total-mirna-and-mir-210-hypoxamir-in-different-forms-of-pregnancy-hypertension
#13
Orsolya Biró, Bálint Alasztics, Attila Molvarec, József Joó, Bálint Nagy, János Rigó
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a common complication during pregnancy, affecting 10% of pregnant women worldwide. Several microRNA (miRNA) were shown to be involved in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. In preeclampsia (PE), placental dysfunction causes the enhanced release of extracellular vesicle-derived miRNAs. The hypoxia-sensitive hsa-mir-210 is the most common PE-associated miRNA, but its exosomal profile has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to measure exosomal total-miRNA concentration and to perform expression analysis of circulating exosomal hsa-miR-210 in women affected by chronic hypertension (CHT) gestational hypertension (GHT) or PE...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115666/potential-roles-of-metalloproteinases-of-endometrium-derived-exosomes-in-embryo-maternal-crosstalk-during-implantation
#14
REVIEW
Zeinab Latifi, Amir Fattahi, Ali Ranjbaran, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Kazuhiko Imakawa
During embryo implantation, crosstalk between the endometrial epithelium and the blastocyst, especially the trophoblasts, is a prerequisite for successful implantation. During this crosstalk, various molecular and functional changes occur to promote synchrony between the embryo and the endometrium as well as the uterine cavity microenvironment. In the past few years, growing evidence has shown that endometrium-derived exosomes play pivotal roles in the embryonic-maternal crosstalk during implantation, although the exact mechanism of this crosstalk has yet to be determined...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055565/characterization-of-b7h6-an-endogenous-ligand-for-the-nk-cell-activating-receptor-nkp30-reveals-the-identity-of-two-different-soluble-isoforms-during-normal-human-pregnancy
#15
Jorge Gutierrez-Franco, Rodolfo Hernandez-Gutierrez, Miriam Ruth Bueno-Topete, Jesse Haramati, Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernandez, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Natali Vega-Magaña, Alicia Del Toro-Arreola, Ana Laura Pereira-Suarez, Susana Del Toro-Arreola
B7H6, an endogenous ligand expressed on tumor cell surfaces, triggers NKp30-mediated activation of human NK cells. In contrast, the release of soluble B7H6 has been proposed as a novel mechanism by which tumors might evade NK cell-mediated recognition. Since NK cells are critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, it is not illogical that soluble B7H6 might also be an important factor in directing NK cell activity during normal pregnancy. Thus, this study was focused on the characterization of soluble B7H6 during the development of normal pregnancy...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021781/cross-talk-between-adipose-tissue-and-placenta-in-obese-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pregnancies-via-exosomes
#16
REVIEW
Nanthini Jayabalan, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Zarin Nuzhat, Gregory E Rice, Felipe A Zuñiga, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva, Carlos Sanhueza, Jaime Agustín Gutiérrez, Martha Lappas, Dilys Jane Freeman, Carlos Salomon
Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR). Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body's major energy reservoir...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016556/the-current-status-and-future-of-cardiac-stem-progenitor-cell-therapy-for-congenital-heart-defects-from-diabetic-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Jianxiang Zhong, Shengbing Wang, Wei-Bin Shen, Sunjay Kaushal, Peixin Yang
Pregestational maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects (CHDs). Cardiac dysfunction after palliative surgical procedures contributes to the high mortality of CHD patients. Autologous or allogeneic stem cell therapies are effective for improving cardiac function in animal models and clinical trials. c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), the most recognized CPCs, have the following basic properties of stem cells: self-renewal, multicellular clone formation, and differentiation into multiple cardiac lineages...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993808/micrornas-new-players-in-the-pathobiology-of-preeclampsia
#18
REVIEW
Kelsey R Bounds, Valorie L Chiasson, Lu J Pan, Sudhiranjan Gupta, Piyali Chatterjee
Our understanding of how microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene networks and affect different molecular pathways leading to various human pathologies has significantly improved over the years. In contrary, the role of miRNAs in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) is only beginning to emerge. Recent papers highlight that adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with aberrant expression of several miRNAs. Presently, efforts are underway to determine the biologic function of these placental miRNAs which can shed light on their contribution to these pregnancy-related disease conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947613/activating-transcription-factor-3-is-reduced-in-preeclamptic-placentas-and-negatively-regulates-sflt-1-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-soluble-endoglin-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-placenta
#19
Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Fiona C Brownfoot, Roxanne Hastie, Ashwini Chand, Ping Cannon, Minh Deo, Laura Tuohey, Clare Whitehead, Natalie J Hannan, Stephen Tong
Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication associated with poor placental perfusion and placental hypoxia. Systemic and placental inflammation and elevated placental secretion of the antiangiogenic factors sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) and sEng (soluble endoglin) are hallmarks of preeclampsia, causing endothelial dysfunction and multiorgan injury. A molecule that links placental hypoxia, inflammation, and antiangiogenic factor release has not been described. ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) is highly expressed in placenta...
November 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939895/a-single-sphingomyelin-species-promotes-exosomal-release-of-endoglin-into-the-maternal-circulation-in-preeclampsia
#20
Leonardo Ermini, Jonathan Ausman, Megan Melland-Smith, Behzad Yeganeh, Alessandro Rolfo, Michael L Litvack, Tullia Todros, Michelle Letarte, Martin Post, Isabella Caniggia
Preeclampsia (PE), an hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, exhibits increased circulating levels of a short form of the auxillary TGF-beta (TGFB) receptor endoglin (sENG). Until now, its release and functionality in PE remains poorly understood. Here we show that ENG selectively interacts with sphingomyelin(SM)-18:0 which promotes its clustering with metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) in SM-18:0 enriched lipid rafts of the apical syncytial membranes from PE placenta where ENG is cleaved by MMP14 into sENG. The SM-18:0 enriched lipid rafts also contain type 1 and 2 TGFB receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), but not soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1), another protein secreted in excess in the circulation of women with PE...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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