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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#1
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809837/protocol-for-assessing-the-relative-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-on-antler-and-body-growth-for-a-long-lived-cervid
#2
Eric S Michel, Emily B Flinn, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang, Chad M Dacus
Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808588/appropriate-weaning-practice-and-associated-factors-among-infants-and-young-children-in-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Liknaw Bewket Zeleke, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Kelemeu Abebe Gelaw
BACKGROUND: The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child's second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#4
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806489/characteristics-of-spontaneous-births-attended-by-midwives-and-physicians-in-us-hospitals-in-2014
#5
Patrick Thornton
INTRODUCTION: This study compares characteristics and birth outcomes of women attended by certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives (midwives) and physicians in US hospitals in 2014. METHODS: Data reported in 2014 on the 2003 version of the US birth certificate were examined. Spontaneous vaginal births attributed to midwives and physicians and occurring in hospitals were included. Demographic and risk profiles and adjusted odds ratios for maternal and newborn outcomes were compared by provider type...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805097/comparison-of-methods-to-assess-consumption-of-micronutrient-powders-among-young-children-in-nepal
#6
Bernadette N Ng'eno, Cria G Perrine, Giri Raj Subedi, Saba Mebrahtu, Pradiumna Dahal, Maria Elena D Jefferds
BACKGROUND: Assessing micronutrient powder (MNP) consumption is the key for monitoring program performance; no gold standard exists for assessing consumption in nutrition programs. OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of MNP consumption assessed by maternal report versus observed unopened MNP sachets in the household. METHODS: Cross-sectional household surveys of children aged 6 to 23 months were conducted to assess an MNP project in Nepal; eligible children received 60 sachets per distribution...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798151/socioeconomic-differences-in-children-s-growth-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-evidence-from-four-european-countries
#7
Cathal McCrory, Neil O'Leary, Silvia Fraga, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Noora Kartiosuo, Olli Raitakari, Mika Kivimäki, Paolo Vineis, Richard Layte
BACKGROUND: Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. METHODS: Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796908/maternal-and-infant-factors-had-a-significant-impact-on-birth-weight-and-longitudinal-growth-in-a-south-african-birth-cohort
#8
S Budree, D J Stein, K Brittain, E Goddard, N Koen, W Barnett, L Myer, H J Zar
AIM: This birth cohort study investigated longitudinal infant growth and associated factors in a multi-ethnic population living in a low-resource district surrounding the town of Paarl in South Africa. METHODS: Between March 2012 and October 2014, all mothers attending their second trimester antenatal visit at Paarl Hospital were approached for enrollment. Mother-infant pairs were followed from birth until 12 months of age. Comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and psychosocial data were collected at birth, two, six and 12 months...
August 10, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794206/lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-did-not-affect-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-bioactive-proteins-in-a-randomized-trial
#9
Josh M Jorgensen, Charles Arnold, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, David Chaima, Yin Bun Cheung, Jasmine Cc Davis, Yue-Mei Fan, Elisha Goonatilleke, Emma Kortekangas, Chiza Kumwenda, Carlito B Lebrilla, Kenneth Maleta, Sarah M Totten, Lauren D Wu, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and bioactive proteins are beneficial to infant health. Recent evidence suggests that maternal nutrition may affect the amount of HMOs and proteins in breast milk; however, the effect of nutrient supplementation on HMOs and bioactive proteins has not yet been well studied.Objective: We aimed to determine whether lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) affect milk bioactive protein and HMO concentrations at 6 mo postpartum in women in rural Malawi. These are secondary outcomes of a previously published randomized controlled trial...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793989/early-enteral-tube-feeding-in-optimizing-treatment-of-hyperemesis-gravidarum-the-maternal-and-offspring-outcomes-after-treatment-of-hyperemesis-by-refeeding-mother-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Iris J Grooten, Marjette H Koot, Joris Am van der Post, Joke Mj Bais, Carrie Ris-Stalpers, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Henk A Bremer, David P van der Ham, Wieteke M Heidema, Anjoke Huisjes, Gunilla Kleiverda, Simone Kuppens, Judith Oeh van Laar, Josje Langenveld, Flip van der Made, Mariëlle G van Pampus, Dimitri Papatsonis, Marie-José Pelinck, Paula J Pernet, Leonie van Rheenen, Robbert J Rijnders, Hubertina Cj Scheepers, Tatjana E Vogelvang, Ben W Mol, Tessa J Roseboom, Rebecca C Painter
Background: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) leads to dehydration, poor nutritional intake, and weight loss. HG has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight. Information about the potential effectiveness of treatments for HG is limited.Objective: We hypothesized that in women with HG, early enteral tube feeding in addition to standard care improves birth weight.Design: We performed a multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial [Maternal and Offspring outcomes after Treatment of HyperEmesis by Refeeding (MOTHER)] in 19 hospitals in the Netherlands...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793129/clinical-characteristics-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes-comparison-of-two-cohorts-enrolled-20-years-apart-in-southern-brazil
#11
Angela Jacob Reichelt, Letícia Schwerz Weinert, Livia Silveira Mastella, Vanessa Gnielka, Maria Amélia Campos, Vânia Naomi Hirakata, Maria Lúcia Rocha Oppermann, Sandra Pinho Silveiro, Maria Inês Schmidt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have changed over time, reflecting the nutritional transition and changes in diagnostic criteria. We aimed to evaluate characteristics of women with GDM over a 20-year interval. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison of two pregnancy cohorts enrolled in different periods, in university hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil: 1991 to 1993 (n = 216); and 2009 to 2013 (n = 375). METHODS: We applied two diagnostic criteria to the cohorts: International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)/World Health Organization (WHO); and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792500/malaria-malnutrition-and-birthweight-a-meta-analysis-using-individual-participant-data
#12
Jordan E Cates, Holger W Unger, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Sarah H Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G Dewey, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Meghna Desai, Stephanie Dellicour, Peter Ouma, Julie Gutman, Martina Oneko, Laurence Slutsker, Dianne J Terlouw, Simon Kariuki, John Ayisi, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Victor Mwapasa, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Ivo Mueller, Danielle Stanisic, Christentze Schmiegelow, John P A Lusingu, Anna Maria van Eijk, Melissa Bauserman, Linda Adair, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Steven Meshnick, Stephen Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; <2,500 g) may depend upon maternal nutritional status. We investigated this dependence further using a large, diverse study population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the interaction between maternal malaria infection and maternal anthropometric status on the risk of LBW using pooled data from 14,633 pregnancies from 13 studies (6 cohort studies and 7 randomized controlled trials) conducted in Africa and the Western Pacific from 1996-2015...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789728/circadian-feeding-patterns-of-12-month-old-infants
#13
Poh Hui Wee, See Ling Loy, Jia Ying Toh, Elaine Kwang Hsia Tham, Yin Bun Cheung, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Seang Mei Saw, Yap-Seng Chong, Ngee Lek, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Daniel Yam Thiam Goh, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Fabian Yap
Early life nutrition and feeding practices are important modifiable determinants of subsequent obesity, yet little is known about the circadian feeding pattern of 12-month-old infants. We aimed to describe the 24-h feeding patterns of 12-month-old infants and examine their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Mothers from a prospective birth cohort study (n 431) reported dietary intakes of their 12-month-old infants and respective feeding times using 24-h dietary recall. Based on their feeding times, infants were classified into post-midnight (00...
June 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783113/-omics-in-human-colostrum-and-mature-milk-looking-to-old-data-with-new-eyes
#14
REVIEW
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Reali
Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding "omics" technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition...
August 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782300/associations-between-social-support-psychological-well-being-decision-making-empowerment-infant-and-young-child-feeding-and-nutritional-status-in-ugandan-children-ages-0-to-24%C3%A2-months
#15
Scott B Ickes, Michael Wu, Maia P Mandel, Alison C Roberts
Maternal capabilities-qualities of mothers that enable them to leverage skills and resources into child health-hold potential influence over mother's adoption of child caring practices, including infant and young child feeding. We developed a survey (n = 195) that assessed the associations of 4 dimensions of maternal capabilities (social support, psychological health, decision making, and empowerment) with mothers' infant and young child feeding practices and children's nutritional status in Uganda. Maternal responses were converted to categorical subscales and an overall index...
August 7, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780476/health-behaviour-information-provided-to-clients-during-midwife-led-prenatal-booking-visits-findings-from-video-analyses
#16
Ruth Baron, Linda Martin, Janneke T Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke Noordman, Martijn W Heymans, Evelien R Spelten, Johannes Brug, Eileen K Hutton
OBJECTIVE: to quantify to what extent evidence-based health behaviour topics relevant for pregnancy are discussed with clients during midwife-led prenatal booking visits and to assess the association of client characteristics with the extent of information provided. DESIGN: quantitative video analyses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 173 video recordings of prenatal booking visits with primary care midwives and clients in the Netherlands taking place between August 2010 and April 2011...
July 10, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768834/placentome-nutrient-transporters-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-proteins-are-altered-by-the-methionine-supply-during-late-gestation-in-dairy-cows-and-are-associated-with-newborn-birth-weight
#17
Fernanda Batistel, Abdulrahman Sm Alharthi, Ling Wang, Claudia Parys, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Felipe C Cardoso, Juan J Loor
Background: To our knowledge, most research demonstrating a link between maternal nutrition and both fetal growth and offspring development after birth has been performed with nonruminants. Whether such relationships exist in large ruminants is largely unknown.Objective: We aimed to investigate whether increasing the methionine supply during late pregnancy would alter uteroplacental tissue nutrient transporters and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and their relation with newborn body weight.Methods: Multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768569/tissue-cell-stress-response-to-obesity-and-its-interaction-with-late-gestation-diet
#18
Vivek Saroha, Neele S Dellschaft, Duane H Keisler, David S Gardner, Helen Budge, Sylvain P Sebert, Michael E Symonds
Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767281/the-impact-of-prenatal-yoga-on-exercise-attitudes-and-behavior-teachable-moments-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Shilpa Babbar, Blake W Porter, Karen B Williams
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy serves as an opportune time for "teachable moments" to elicit positive behavior change. We evaluated change in exercise perception, behavior and gestational weight gain in participants engaged in a one-hour educational experience. METHODS: Women between 28 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks with no prior yoga experience carrying a non-anomalous singleton fetus participated in a randomized controlled trial on prenatal yoga. The yoga group engaged in a one-hour yoga class; the attention control educational group, in a one-hour presentation on exercise, nutrition and obesity in pregnancy...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766094/risk-of-depressive-symptoms-associated-with-morbidity-in-postpartum-women-in-rural-bangladesh
#20
Pamela J Surkan, Kwame S Sakyi, Parul Christian, Sucheta Mehra, Alain Labrique, Hasmot Ali, Barkat Ullah, Lee Wu, Rolf Klemm, Mahbubur Rashid, Keith P West, Donna M Strobino
Objectives Depression following pregnancy is common, but its extent and association with maternal morbidity in the first 6 months postpartum have not been well described in low resource settings such as rural Bangladesh. Methods We used data from a population-based, community trial of approximately 39,000 married rural Bangladeshi women aged 13-44 between 2001 and 2007 to examine the relation between women's reported morbidity symptoms from childbirth to 3 months postpartum, and subsequent depressive symptoms assessed at 6 months postpartum...
August 1, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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