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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898390/psychedelics-promote-structural-and-functional-neural-plasticity
#1
Calvin Ly, Alexandra C Greb, Lindsay P Cameron, Jonathan M Wong, Eden V Barragan, Paige C Wilson, Kyle F Burbach, Sina Soltanzadeh Zarandi, Alexander Sood, Michael R Paddy, Whitney C Duim, Megan Y Dennis, A Kimberley McAllister, Kassandra M Ori-McKenney, John A Gray, David E Olson
Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890257/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-ketamine-induced-adverse-effects-on-development-heart-rate-and-monoaminergic-neurons-in-zebrafish
#2
Bonnie Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
N-acetylcysteine, a precursor molecule of glutathione, is an antioxidant. Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, has been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity including modulation of monoaminergic systems in mammals and zebrafish. Here, we show that N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine's adverse effects on development and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish embryos. The effects of ketamine and N-acetylcysteine alone or in combination were measured on the heart rate, body length, brain serotonergic neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879390/overcoming-depression-by-inhibition-of-neural-burst-firing
#3
Daesoo Kim, Eunji Cheong, Hee-Sup Shin
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has been found to have rapid and long-lasting antidepressive effects. Two elegant studies from Hailan Hu's laboratory (Cui et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2018) showed that ketamine blocks burst firing of neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb), rapidly relieving symptoms of depression.
June 6, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867381/scaling-of-optogenetically-evoked-signaling-in-a-higher-order-corticocortical-pathway-in-the-anesthetized-mouse
#4
Xiaojian Li, Naoki Yamawaki, John M Barrett, Konrad P Körding, Gordon M G Shepherd
Quantitative analysis of corticocortical signaling is needed to understand and model information processing in cerebral networks. However, higher-order pathways, hodologically remote from sensory input, are not amenable to spatiotemporally precise activation by sensory stimuli. Here, we combined parametric channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) photostimulation with multi-unit electrophysiology to study corticocortical driving in a parietofrontal pathway from retrosplenial cortex (RSC) to posterior secondary motor cortex (M2) in mice in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859979/effects-of-low-doses-of-ketamine-on-pyramidal-neurons-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Guofang Shen, Feng Han, Wei-Xing Shi
Indirect evidence suggests that low doses of ketamine disinhibit (excite) pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we directly examined the effect of ketamine on PFC pyramidal neurons using simultaneous single-cell and local-field-potential (LFP) recording in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. In all animals studied, PFC LFPs showed oscillations (0.3-1.5 Hz) between the active UP state and the relatively quiescent DOWN state, and pyramidal neurons fired preferentially during the UP state...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801613/inhibition-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-attenuate-the-hypothermic-effect-of-ketamine-magnesium-sulfate-combination-in-rats
#6
Katarina Savić Vujović, Sonja Vučković, Aleksandar Đurović, Nebojša Nick Knežević, Milica Prostran
Ketamine and magnesium as NMDA receptor antagonists interact synergistically to decrease body temperature in rats. The mechanism of the hypothermic effect of the ketamine-magnesium sulfate combination has not been studied until now. The aim of this study was to examine whether nitric oxide (NO) has a role in the hypothermic effect of ketamine (10 mg/kg) and the combination of ketamine (5 mg/kg) and magnesium sulfate (5 mg/kg). The body temperature was measured by insertion of a thermometer probe 5 cm into the colon of unrestrained male Wistar rats (200-250 g)...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#7
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763645/agmatine-potentiates-neuroprotective-effects-of-subthreshold-concentrations-of-ketamine-via-mtor-s6-kinase-signaling-pathway
#8
Mauren K Tavares, Suellen Dos Reis, Nicolle Platt, Isabella A Heinrich, Ingrid A V Wolin, Rodrigo B Leal, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Andiara E Freitas
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most robust neurobiological findings in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) over the last 40 years. The persistent increase in glucocorticoids levels induces morphological and anatomical changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Ketamine represents a major advance for the treatment of MDD, however the psychotomimetic effects of this compound limit its widespread use. Agmatine is a neuromodulator that has been shown to be a putative novel and well-tolerated antidepressant/augmenter drug...
May 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747570/ketamine-exacerbates-cortical-neuroapoptosis-under-hyperoxic-conditions-by-upregulating-expression-of-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subunit-nr1-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#9
Changyi Wu, Jun Wang, Xiangyang Guo, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ketamine and hyperoxia are widely used in obstetric and pediatric settings. Either ketamine or hyperoxia has been reported to cause neuroapoptosis in the developing brain, and ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis may involve a compensatory upregulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 subunit. This study investigated the impact of ketamine administration under hyperoxic conditions on cortical neuroapoptosis and NR1 subunit expression in the infant rat brain. METHODS: Male, 7-day-old rats were randomly allocated to four groups: control, ketamine, hyperoxia, and ketamine + hyperoxia (n = 18 per group)...
May 10, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743582/synaptic-phospholipids-as-a-new-target-for-cortical-hyperexcitability-and-e-i-balance-in-psychiatric-disorders
#10
Carine Thalman, Guilherme Horta, Lianyong Qiao, Heiko Endle, Irmgard Tegeder, Hong Cheng, Gregor Laube, Torfi Sigrudsson, Maria Jelena Hauser, Stefan Tenzer, Ute Distler, Junken Aoki, Andrew J Morris, Gerd Geisslinger, Jochen Röper, Sergei Kirischuk, Heiko J Luhmann, Konstantin Radyushkin, Robert Nitsch, Johannes Vogt
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a synaptic phospholipid, which regulates cortical excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance and controls sensory information processing in mice and man. Altered synaptic LPA signaling was shown to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here, we show that the LPA-synthesizing enzyme autotaxin (ATX) is expressed in the astrocytic compartment of excitatory synapses and modulates glutamatergic transmission. In astrocytes, ATX is sorted toward fine astrocytic processes and transported to excitatory but not inhibitory synapses...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738804/alcohol-aggravates-ketamine-induced-behavioral-morphological-and-neurochemical-alterations-in-adolescent-rats-the-involvement-of-creb-related-pathways
#11
Daiying Zuo, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Jiahui Cui, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734230/ketamine-alters-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-and-improves-learning-in-mice-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Austin J Peters, Laura E Villasana, Eric Schnell
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury induces cellular proliferation in the hippocampus, which generates new neurons and glial cells during recovery. This process is regulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, which are inhibited by ketamine. The authors hypothesized that ketamine treatment after traumatic brain injury would reduce hippocampal cell proliferation, leading to worse behavioral outcomes in mice. METHODS: Traumatic brain injury was induced in mice using a controlled cortical impact injury, after which mice (N = 118) received either ketamine or vehicle systemically for 1 week...
April 30, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722313/ketamine-enhances-structural-plasticity-in-human-dopaminergic-neurons-possible-relevance-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#13
Ginetta Collo, Emilio Merlo Pich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713269/effects-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-administration-on-visual-and-auditory-event-related-potentials-erp-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#14
André Schwertner, Maxciel Zortea, Felipe V Torres, Wolnei Caumo
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist whose effect in subanesthetic doses has been studied for chronic pain and mood disorders treatment. It has been proposed that ketamine could change the perception of nociceptive stimuli by modulating the cortical connectivity and altering the top-down mechanisms that control conscious pain perception. As this is a strictly central effect, it would be relevant to provide fresh insight into ketamine's effect on cortical response to external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713142/ketamine-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-nrf2-pathway
#15
Jinwei Liang, Shanhu Wu, Wenxi Xie, Hefan He
Background: Ketamine can act as a multifunctional neuroprotective agent by inhibiting oxidative stress, cellular dysfunction, and apoptosis. Although it has been proven to be effective in various neurologic disorders, the mechanism of the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective function of ketamine in models of TBI and the potential role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in this putative protective effect...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710504/pharmacological-interaction-of-galphimia-glauca-extract-and-natural-galphimines-with-ketamine-and-haloperidol-on-different-behavioral-tests
#16
Mayra Alejandra Santillán-Urquiza, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, Alejandro Zamilpa, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Rubén Román-Ramos, Jaime Tortoriello
Due to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the prevalent side effects produced by the antipsychotic drugs available, it is necessary to search for new therapeutic options. Galphimia glauca has been used for many years in Mexican traditional medicine for treating mental diseases. From this plant, some compounds, denominated galphimines, have been discovered and have shown to possess the ability of modifying the frequency of discharge of dopaminergic neurons in the Ventral tegmental area. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect produced by the G...
April 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702122/temporally-dissociable-effects-of-ketamine-on-neuronal-discharge-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-thalamo-cortical-networks
#17
Maria Amat-Foraster, Anders A Jensen, Niels Plath, Kjartan F Herrik, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas...
April 24, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695090/scale-up-synthesis-and-identification-of-glyx-13-a-nmdar-glycine-site-partial-agonist-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Wenchao Li, Jingjian Liu, Minghua Fan, Zhongtang Li, Yin Chen, Guisen Zhang, Zhuo Huang, Liangren Zhang
GLYX-13, a NMDAR glycine-site partial agonist, was discovered as a promising antidepressant with rapidly acting effects but no ketamine-like side effects. However, the reported synthetic process route had deficiencies of low yield and the use of unfriendly reagents. Here, we report a scaled-up synthesis of GLYX-13 with an overall yield of 30% on the hectogram scale with a column chromatography-free strategy, where the coupling and deprotection reaction conditions were systematically optimized. Meanwhile, the absolute configuration of precursor compound of GLYX-13 was identified by X-ray single crystal diffraction...
April 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691465/longitudinal-two-photon-imaging-in-somatosensory-cortex-of-behaving-mice-reveals-dendritic-spine-formation-enhancement-by-subchronic-administration-of-low-dose-ketamine
#19
Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Ekaterina Mugantseva, Plinio Casarotto, Julia Kolikova, Senem Merve Fred, Dmytro Toptunov, Ramil Afzalov, Pirta Hotulainen, Vootele Voikar, Ryan Terry-Lorenzo, Sharon Engel, Sergei Kirov, Eero Castren, Leonard Khiroug
Ketamine, a well-known anesthetic, has recently attracted renewed attention as a fast-acting antidepressant. A single dose of ketamine induces rapid synaptogenesis, which may underlie its antidepressant effect. To test whether repeated exposure to ketamine triggers sustained synaptogenesis, we administered a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg i.p.) once-daily for 5 days, and repeatedly imaged dendritic spines of the YFP-expressing pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake female mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681435/hypothermic-preconditioning-but-not-ketamine-reduces-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced-neuronal-injury-correlated-with-downregulation-of-cox-2-expression-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#20
Shan Jiang, Yong Wu, De-Fang Fang, Ying Chen
Hypothermic preconditioning is an effective treatment for limiting ischemic injury, but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study was aimed to explore the effect of hypothermic and ketamine preconditioning on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in mouse hippocampal slices, and to investigate its possible mechanism. The population spike (PS) was recorded in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices using extracellular recordings, Na+ /K+ ATPase activity in slices was determined by spectrophotometer and the expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was measured by Western blot...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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