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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049297/functional-connectivity-structure-of-cortical-calcium-dynamics-in-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#1
Patrick W Wright, Lindsey M Brier, Adam Q Bauer, Grant A Baxter, Andrew W Kraft, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
The interplay between hemodynamic-based markers of cortical activity (e.g. fMRI and optical intrinsic signal imaging), which are an indirect and relatively slow report of neural activity, and underlying synaptic electrical and metabolic activity through neurovascular coupling is a topic of ongoing research and debate. As application of resting state functional connectivity measures is extended further into topics such as brain development, aging and disease, the importance of understanding the fundamental physiological basis for functional connectivity will grow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972576/the-effects-of-ketamine-on-dopaminergic-function-meta-analysis-and-review-of-the-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
M Kokkinou, A H Ashok, O D Howes
Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. It has recently been found to have antidepressant effects and is a drug of abuse, suggesting it may have dopaminergic effects. To examine the effect of ketamine on the dopamine systems, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of dopamine measures in the rodent, human and primate brain following acute and chronic ketamine administration relative to a drug-free baseline or control condition. Systematic search of PubMed and PsychInfo electronic databases yielded 40 original peer-reviewed studies...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963039/ketamine-induces-hippocampal-apoptosis-through-a-mechanism-associated-with-the-caspase-1-dependent-pyroptosis
#3
Zhi Ye, Qing Li, Qulian Guo, Yunchuan Xiong, Dong Guo, Hong Yang, Yan Shu
Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, is widely used in clinical practice. There was growing evidence showing that ketamine can promote neuronal death in developing brains of both humans and animals. In this study, we used in vivo neonatal and juvenile mouse models to induce ketamine-related neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. Active caspase-3 and -9 proteins, which are responsible for the release of cytochrome C, and the mitochondrial translocation of p53, which is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis, were found to be significantly up-regulated in the ketamine-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity...
September 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937692/bdnf-at-the-synapse-why-location-matters
#4
M Song, K Martinowich, F S Lee
Neurotrophic factors, a family of secreted proteins that support the growth, survival and differentiation of neurons, have been intensively studied for decades due to the powerful and diverse effects on neuronal physiology, as well as their therapeutic potential. Such efforts have led to a detailed understanding on the molecular mechanisms of neurotrophic factor signaling. One member, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has drawn much attention due to its pleiotropic roles in the central nervous system and implications in various brain disorders...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926001/ketamine-differential-neurophysiological-dynamics-in-functional-networks-in-the-rat-brain
#5
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921742/processing-of-temporally-patterned-sounds-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-seba-s-short-tailed-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#6
Lisa M Martin, Francisco García-Rosales, M Jerome Beetz, Julio C Hechavarría
This article presents a characterization of cortical responses to artificial and natural temporally-patterned sounds in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that produces vocalizations at rates above 50 Hz. Multi-unit activity was recorded in three different experiments. In the first experiment, amplitude modulated (AM) pure tones were used as stimuli to drive auditory cortex (AC) units. AC units of both ketamine-anesthetized and awake bats could lock their spikes to every cycle of the stimulus modulation envelope, but only if the modulation frequency was below 22 Hz...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902622/functional-interaction-between-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-and-ascorbic-acid-during-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-chronic-constriction-injury-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#7
Sepideh Saffarpour, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain condition, which is resistant to therapy. Ascorbate was released because of the activation of glutaminergic neurons. Due to the important role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, this study investigated the analgesic efficacy of ascorbic acid (AA) in neuropathic pain condition and the role of NMDA receptors in this effect. METHODS: For this purpose, adult male rats were randomly allocated to experimental groups (n=8 in each group)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877967/memantine-and-ketamine-differentially-alter-nmda-receptor-desensitization
#8
Nathan G Glasgow, Nadezhda V Povysheva, Andrea M Azofeifa, Jon W Johnson
Memantine and ketamine are clinically useful NMDA receptor (NMDAR) open channel blockers that inhibit NMDARs with similar potency and kinetics, but display vastly different clinical profiles. This discrepancy has been hypothesized to result from inhibition by memantine and ketamine of overlapping but distinct NMDAR subpopulations. For example, memantine but not ketamine may inhibit extrasynaptic NMDARs more effectively than synaptic NMDARs. However, the basis for preferential NMDAR inhibition depending on subcellular location has not been investigated systematically...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874724/alcohol-amplifies-ketamine-induced-apoptosis-in-primary-cultured-cortical-neurons-and-pc12-cells-through-down-regulating-creb-related-signaling-pathways
#9
Daiying Zuo, Feng Sun, Jiahui Cui, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Xuejiao Zhou, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Recreational use of ketamine (KET) has been increasing worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated that KET induced neurotoxicity; however, few studies have examined how alcohol (ALC) affects KET-induced neurotoxicity. In light of the fact that some KET abusers combine KET with ALC, the present study was aimed to investigate the effects of ALC on KET-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in vitro. Our data revealed that co-treatment with ALC and KET was more detrimental to cell viability than KET single treatment in both PC12 cells and primary cultured rat cortical neurons...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870222/general-anesthetics-protects-against-cardiac-arrest-induced-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-calcium-wave-propagation-in-zebrafish
#10
Dao-Jie Xu, Bin Wang, Xuan Zhao, Yi Zheng, Jiu-Lin Du, Ying-Wei Wang
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often suffer from serious brain injury, even leading to a "persistent vegetative state". Therefore, it is need to explore therapies which restore and protect brain function after cardiac arrest. In the present study, using Tg (HuC:GCaMP5) zebrafish as a model, we found the zebrafish brain generated a burst of Ca(2+) wave after cardiac arrest by in vivo time-lapse confocal imaging. The Ca(2+) wave was firstly initiated at hindbrain and then sequentially propagated to midbrain and telencephalon, the neuron displayed Ca(2+) overload after Ca(2+) wave propagation...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843752/molecular-and-cellular-dissection-of-nmda-receptor-subtypes-as-antidepressant-targets
#11
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lang, Anne S Mallien, Andrei-Nicolae Vasilescu, Dimitri Hefter, Alessia Luoni, Marco A Riva, Stefan Borgwardt, Rolf Sprengel, Undine E Lang, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta
A growing body of evidence supports the idea that drugs targeting the glutamate system may represent a valuable therapeutic alternative in major depressive disorders (MDD). The rapid and prolonged mood elevating effect of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has been studied intensely. However, its clinical use is hampered by deleterious side-effects, such as psychosis. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms of the psychotropic effects after NMDAR blockade is necessary to develop glutamatergic antidepressants with improved therapeutic profile...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840469/early-exposure-to-ketamine-impairs-axonal-pruning-in-developing-mouse-hippocampus
#12
Aleksandar Lj Obradovic, Navya Atluri, Lorenza Dalla Massara, Azra Oklopcic, Nikola S Todorovic, Gaurav Katta, Hari P Osuru, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
Mounting evidence suggests that prolonged exposure to general anesthesia (GA) during brain synaptogenesis damages the immature neurons and results in long-term neurocognitive impairments. Importantly, synaptogenesis relies on timely axon pruning to select axons that participate in active neural circuit formation. This process is in part dependent on proper homeostasis of neurotrophic factors, in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We set out to examine how GA may modulate axon maintenance and pruning and focused on the role of BDNF...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835217/ketamine-attenuates-the-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-the-ventral-posteromedial-nucleus-slices-of-rats
#13
Bao Fu, Chengxi Liu, Yajun Zhang, Xiaoyun Fu, Lin Zhang, Tian Yu
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a frequently used intravenous anesthetic, which can reversibly induce loss of consciousness (LOC). Previous studies have demonstrated that thalamocortical system is critical for information transmission and integration in the brain. The ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) is a critical component of thalamocortical system. Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and may be involved in ketamine-induced LOC. METHODS: The study used whole-cell patch-clamp to observe the effect of ketamine (30 μM-1000 μM) on glutamatergic neurotransmission in VPM slices...
August 23, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834750/synaptic-regulation-of-a-thalamocortical-circuit-controls-depression-related-behavior
#14
Oliver H Miller, Andreas Bruns, Imen Ben Ammar, Thomas Mueggler, Benjamin J Hall
The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine elicits a long-lasting antidepressant response in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Understanding how antagonism of NMDARs alters synapse and circuit function is pivotal to developing circuit-based therapies for depression. Using virally induced gene deletion, ex vivo optogenetic-assisted circuit analysis, and in vivo chemogenetics and fMRI, we assessed the role of NMDARs in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in controlling depression-related behavior in mice...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#15
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798343/isoflurane-produces-antidepressant-effects-and-induces-trkb-signaling-in-rodents
#16
Hanna Antila, Maria Ryazantseva, Dina Popova, Pia Sipilä, Ramon Guirado, Samuel Kohtala, Ipek Yalcin, Jesse Lindholm, Liisa Vesa, Vinicius Sato, Joshua Cordeira, Henri Autio, Mikhail Kislin, Maribel Rios, Sâmia Joca, Plinio Casarotto, Leonard Khiroug, Sari Lauri, Tomi Taira, Eero Castrén, Tomi Rantamäki
A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795276/topiramate-via-nmda-ampa-kainate-gabaa-and-alpha2-receptors-and-by-modulation-of-creb-bdnf-and-akt-gsk3-signaling-pathway-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-methylphenidate-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#17
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulail Fatima, Tabassom Beiranvand, Shiva Mozaffari
Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) often causes neuronal cell death. Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective effects, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the role of various doses of TPM and its possible mechanisms, receptors and signaling pathways involved against MPH-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration were evaluated in vivo. Thus, domoic acid (DOM) was used as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist, bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, ketamine (KET) as NMDA receptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH) as α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and haloperidol (HAL) was used as dopamine D2 receptor antagonist...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782587/prolonged-ketamine-exposure-induces-increased-activity-of-the-glun2b-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-neonatal-rats
#18
Saurabh S Kokane, Kerui Gong, Jianhui Jin, Qing Lin
Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic among pediatric patients due to its high efficacy. However, it has been demonstrated by several preclinical studies that, widespread accelerated programmed death of neurons (neuroapoptosis) occurs due to prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine specifically in the neonatal brain. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective vulnerability of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis becomes important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets, which would help prevent or at least ameliorate this neuroapoptosis...
August 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771568/laminar-differences-in-response-to-simple-and-spectro-temporally-complex-sounds-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex-of-ketamine-anesthetized-gerbils
#19
Markus K Schaefer, Manfred Kössl, Julio C Hechavarría
In mammals, acoustic communication plays an important role during social behaviors. Despite their ethological relevance, the mechanisms by which the auditory cortex represents different communication call properties remain elusive. Recent studies have pointed out that communication-sound encoding could be based on discharge patterns of neuronal populations. Following this idea, we investigated whether the activity of local neuronal networks, such as those occurring within individual cortical columns, is sufficient for distinguishing between sounds that differed in their spectro-temporal properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758582/potential-novel-treatments-for-bipolar-depression-ketamine-fatty-acids-anti-inflammatory-agents-and-probiotics
#20
G H Vázquez, S Camino, L Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Treatments for depression in bipolar disorder (BD) are far less well developed than for unipolar major depressive disorder. Several innovative and experimental approaches have been emerging recently, including use of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine and other antagonists of central NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as unsaturated fatty acids, anti-inflammatory agents, and possibly probiotic methods. METHODS: We reviewed relevant reports from the past decade...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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