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Ketamine neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202503/vitamin-d-and-depression-cellular-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Depression is caused by a change in neural activity resulting from an increase in glutamate that drives excitatory neurons and may be responsible for the decline in the activity and number of the GABAergic inhibitory neurons. This imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurons may contribute to the onset of depression. At the cellular level there is an increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) within the inhibitory neurons that is driven by an increase in entry through the NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and through activation of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway that generates inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) that releases Ca(2+) from the internal stores...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115237/initial-characterization-of-behavior-and-ketamine-response-in-a-mouse-knockout-of-the-post-synaptic-effector-gene-anks1b
#2
Rachel M Enga, Ann C Rice, Pamela Weller, Mark A Subler, Daiyoon Lee, Chelsea P Hall, Jolene J Windle, Patrick M Beardsley, Edwin J van den Oord, Joseph L McClay
The human ANKS1B gene encodes an activity-dependent effector of post-synaptic signaling. It was recently associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes in genome-wide studies. While the biological function of ANKS1B has been partly elucidated, its role in behavior is poorly understood. Here, we breed and characterize a full knockout (KO) for murine Anks1b. We found that the homozygous KO genotype was partially lethal, showing significant deviation from expected segregation ratios at weaning. Behaviorally, KOs exhibited no difference in baseline acoustic startle response, but showed deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087359/the-effect-of-nmda-r-antagonism-on-simultaneously-acquired-local-field-potentials-and-tissue-oxygen-levels-in-the-brains-of-freely-moving-rats
#3
John Kealy, Sean Commins, John P Lowry
Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists are known to induce psychosis-like symptoms in rodents. Administration of such compounds cause behavioural effects such as memory impairment and hyperlocomotion. Additionally, drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and MK-801 all cause distinctive increases in striatal local field potential (LFP) in the high frequency oscillation (HFO) band in the power spectrum (140-180 Hz). Amperometric sensors provide a means to measure tissue oxygen (tO2; a BOLD-like signal) in the brains of freely-moving rats while simultaneously acquiring LFP using the same electrode...
January 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079589/in-vogue-ketamine-for-neuroprotection-in-acute-neurologic-injury
#4
Josh D Bell
Neurologic deterioration following acute injury to the central nervous system may be amenable to pharmacologic intervention, although, to date, no such therapy exists. Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic emerging as a novel therapy for a number of clinical entities in recent years, including refractory pain, depression, and drug-induced hyperalgesia due to newly discovered mechanisms of action and new application of its known pharmacodynamics. In this focused review, the evidence for ketamine as a neuroprotective agent in stroke, neurotrauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus is highlighted, with a focus on its applications for excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and neuronal hyperexcitability...
January 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063836/inhibiting-effects-of-rhynchophylline-on-methamphetamine-dependent-zebrafish-are-related-with-the-expression-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-th
#5
Chen Zhu, Wei Liu, Chaohua Luo, Yi Liu, Chan Li, Miao Fang, Yingbo Lin, Jinying Ou, Minting Chen, Daoqi Zhu, Ken Kin-Lam Yung, Zhixian Mo
In this study, to study the effect of rhynchophylline on TH in midbrain of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) adult zebrafish, place preference adult zebrafish models were established by methamphetamine (40μg/g) and the expression of TH was observed by immunohistochemistry technique and Western blot. Ketamine (150μg/g), high dose of rhynchophylline (100μg/g) group can significantly reduce the place preference; immunohistochemistry results showed that the number of TH-positive neurons in midbrain was increased in the methamphetamine model group, whereas less TH-positive neurons were found in the ketamine group and high dosage rhynchophylline group...
January 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062203/semi-mechanistic-computer-simulation-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-with-a-model-of-a-humanized-cortico-striatal-thalamocortical-loop
#6
Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Hugo Geerts
Despite new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and clinical trials with highly selective drugs, no new therapeutic breakthroughs have been identified. We present a semi-mechanistic Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) computer model of a biophysically realistic cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical loop. The model incorporates the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia and CNS drug targets that modulate neuronal firing, based on preclinical data about their localization and coupling to voltage-gated ion channels...
February 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043916/ketamine-accelerates-fear-extinction-via-mtorc1-signaling
#7
Matthew J Girgenti, Sriparna Ghosal, Dora LoPresto, Jane R Taylor, Ronald S Duman
Impaired fear extinction contributes to the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and can be utilized for the study of novel therapeutic agents. Glutamate plays an important role in the formation of traumatic memories, and in the pathophysiology and treatment of PTSD, highlighting several possible drug targets. Recent clinical studies demonstrate that infusion of ketamine, a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, rapidly and significantly reduces symptom severity in PTSD patients. In the present study, we examine the mechanisms underlying the actions of ketamine in a rodent model of fear conditioning, extinction, and renewal...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984263/ketamine-increases-the-function-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptors-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#8
Dian-Shi Wang, Antonello Penna, Beverley A Orser
BACKGROUND: The "dissociative " general anesthetic ketamine is a well-known N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. However, whether ketamine, at clinically relevant concentrations, increases the activity of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor type A (GABAA) receptors in different brain regions remains controversial. Here, the authors studied the effects of ketamine on synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons. Ketamine modulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in cortical neurons was also examined...
December 14, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982047/a-clickable-analogue-of-ketamine-retains-nmda-receptor-activity-psychoactivity-and-accumulates-in-neurons
#9
Christine Emnett, Hairong Li, Xiaoping Jiang, Ann Benz, Joseph Boggiano, Sara Conyers, David F Wozniak, Charles F Zorumski, David E Reichert, Steven Mennerick
Ketamine is a psychotomimetic and antidepressant drug. Although antagonism of cell-surface NMDA receptors (NMDARs) may trigger ketamine's psychoactive effects, ketamine or its major metabolite norketamine could act intracellularly to produce some behavioral effects. To explore the viability of this latter hypothesis, we examined intracellular accumulation of novel visualizable analogues of ketamine/norketamine. We introduced an alkyne "click" handle into norketamine (alkyne-norketamine, A-NK) at the key nitrogen atom...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981535/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-provides-neuroprotection-impact-on-ketamine-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#10
W Ma, Y-Y Cao, S Qu, S-S Ma, J-Z Wang, L-Q Deng, W-J Yuan, J-H Meng
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that the commonly used anesthetic ketamine can acutely increase apoptosis and have long-lasting detrimental effects on cognitive function as the animal matures. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been confirmed to have a cerebral protective role in animal models of brain damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RIPC can protect the developing brain from anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the protective properties of RIPC, 60 new-born Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into four groups: ketamine (20 mg/kg was diluted in saline, six times at an interval of 2 hours); RIPC (left hind row ischemia 5 min, reperfusion 5 min, a total of four cycles); ketamine + RIPC: RIPC was induced at postnatal day 5 and rats underwent the same treatment with the ketamine group after 48 hours; and saline (group vehicle)...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973590/investigating-power-density-and-the-degree-of-nonlinearity-in-intrinsic-components-of-anesthesia-eeg-by-the-hilbert-huang-transform-an-example-using-ketamine-and-alfentanil
#11
Feng-Fang Tsai, Shou-Zen Fan, Yi-Shiuan Lin, Norden E Huang, Jia-Rong Yeh
Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an adaptive filter bank for processing nonlinear and non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. EMD works well to decompose a time series into a set of intrinsic mode functions with specific frequency bands. An IMF therefore represents an intrinsic component on its correspondingly intrinsic frequency band. The word of 'intrinsic' means the frequency is totally adaptive to the nature of a signal. In this study, power density and nonlinearity are two critical parameters for characterizing the amplitude and frequency modulations in IMFs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932959/exposure-to-ketamine-anesthesia-affects-rat-impulsive-behavior
#12
António Melo, Hugo Leite-Almeida, Clara Ferreira, Nuno Sousa, José M Pêgo
Introduction: Ketamine is a general anesthetic (GA) that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as GA are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behavior trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914827/inhibition-of-long-non-coding-rna-igf2as-protects-apoptosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-anesthetic-damaged-mouse-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#13
Chengwei Song, Chengjun Song, Kui Chen, Xiangdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of neural stem cell-derived neurons serves as an excellent model to study anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. In our study, we examined the functional role of long non-coding RNA, IGF2AS, in regulating ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in murine neural stem cells. METHODS: Murine E18.5 brain-derived neural stem cells were cultured in vitro. During neural differentiation stage, ketamine-induced gene expression changes of IGF2 and IGF2AS were recorded by qRT-PCR...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893511/continuous-infusion-antiepileptic-medications-for-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-review-for-nurses
#14
Adam L Wiss, Michael Samarin, Jacob Marler, G Morgan Jones
Status epilepticus requires treatment with emergent initial therapy with a benzodiazepine and urgent control therapy with an additional antiepileptic drug (AED) to terminate clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity. However, nearly one-third of patients will prove refractory to the aforementioned therapies and are prone to a higher degree of neuronal injury, resistance to pharmacotherapy, and death. Current guidelines for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) recommend initiating a continuous intravenous (CIV) anesthetic over bolus dosing with a different AED...
January 2017: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890484/25-years-of-advances-in-definition-classification-and-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#15
Eugen Trinka, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) requires not only urgent symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs but also rapid identification and treatment of its cause. This narrative review summarizes the most important advances in classification and treatment of SE. METHOD: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and back tracking of references in pertinent studies, reviews, and books. RESULTS: SE is now defined as "a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1)...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851801/whole-cell-properties-of-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-in-vivo
#16
Cathrin B Canto, Laurens Witter, Chris I De Zeeuw
Cerebellar nuclei neurons integrate sensorimotor information and form the final output of the cerebellum, projecting to premotor brainstem targets. This implies that, in contrast to specialized neurons and interneurons in cortical regions, neurons within the nuclei encode and integrate complex information that is most likely reflected in a large variation of intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of individual neurons. Yet, whether this large variation in properties is reflected in a heterogeneous physiological cell population of cerebellar nuclei neurons with well or poorly defined cell types remains to be determined...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826232/variable-effects-of-acoustic-trauma-on-behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-tinnitus-in-individual-animals
#17
Ryan J Longenecker, Alexander V Galazyuk
The etiology of tinnitus is known to be diverse in the human population. An appropriate animal model of tinnitus should incorporate this pathological diversity. Previous studies evaluating the effect of acoustic over exposure (AOE) have found that animals typically display increased spontaneous firing rates and bursting activity of auditory neurons, which often has been linked to behavioral evidence of tinnitus. However, only a subset of studies directly associated these neural correlates to individual animals...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826117/neonatal-inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-prevents-ketamine-induced-spatial-learning-and-memory-impairments
#18
Ryan A Stevens, Brandon D Butler, Saurabh S Kokane, Andrew W Womack, Qing Lin
Prolonged ketamine exposure in neonates at anesthetic doses is known to cause long-term impairments of learning and memory. A current theoretical mechanism explains this phenomenon as being neuro-excitotoxicity mediated by compensatory upregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which then initiates widespread neuroapoptosis. Additionally, the excitatory behavior of GABAergic synaptic transmission mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs), occurring during the early neuronal development period, is proposed as contributing to the susceptibility of neonatal neurons to ketamine-induced injury...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821870/disinhibition-of-somatostatin-positive-gabaergic-interneurons-results-in-an-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-brain-state
#19
T Fuchs, S J Jefferson, A Hooper, P-Hp Yee, J Maguire, B Luscher
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are normalized by antidepressant therapies. Moreover, depressive-like phenotypes of GABAA receptor mutant mice can be reversed by treatment with conventional antidepressants drugs, as well as by subanesthetic doses of ketamine. Thus GABAergic deficits may causally contribute to depressive disorders, while antidepressant therapies may enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission. Here we tested the hypothesis that sustained enhancement of GABAergic transmission alone is sufficient to elicit antidepressant-like behavior, using disinhibition of GABAergic interneurons...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815416/s-ketamine-rapidly-reverses-synaptic-and-vascular-deficits-of-hippocampus-in-genetic-animal-model-of-depression
#20
Maryam Ardalan, Gregers Wegener, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: The neurovascular plasticity of hippocampus is an important theory underlying major depression. Ketamine as a novel glutamatergic antidepressant drug can induce a rapid antidepressant effect within hours. In a mechanistic proof of this concept, we examined whether ketamine leads to an increase in synaptogenesis and vascularization within 24 hours after a single injection in a genetic rat model of depression. METHODS: Flinders Sensitive Line and Flinders Resistant Line rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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