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Arctic Front

Mitch D Weegman, Stuart Bearhop, Geoff M Hilton, Alyn J Walsh, Larry Griffin, Yehezkel S Resheff, Ran Nathan, Anthony David Fox
Understanding how individuals manage costs during the migration period is challenging because individuals are difficult to follow between sites; the advent of hybrid Global Positioning System-acceleration (ACC) tracking devices enables researchers to link spatial and temporal attributes of avian migration with behavior for the first time ever. We fitted these devices on male Greenland white-fronted geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at 2 sites (Loch Ken, Scotland and Wexford, Ireland) to understand whether birds migrating further during spring fed more on wintering and staging areas in advance of migration episodes...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Wilber Su, G Joseph Orme, Robert Hoyt, James Baker, Steven Compton, Christopher Fellows, John Harding, J Thomas Svinarich, Marcin Kowalski, Bryan Piedad, David Kenigsberg, John Seger, Zeshan K Ahmad, Paul Wang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) via catheter ablation is an approved therapy for patients with drug-refractory and symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Furthermore, cryoballoon is now considered to be as effective as focal radiofrequency catheter ablation. This study examines the second-generation cryoballoon performance in a US multicenter review of real-world practices. METHODS: By retrospective chart collections, the long-term efficacy and safety of the cryoballoon procedure were assessed in 15 US centers...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Christopher Carcaillet, Jean-Louis Latil, Sébastien Abou, Adam Ali, Bassam Ghaleb, Frédéric Magnin, Paul Roiron, Serge Aubert
Up to now, the most widely accepted idea of the periglacial environment is that of treeless ecosystems such as the arctic or the alpine tundra, also called the tabula rasa paradigm. However, several palaeoecological studies have recently challenged this idea, that is, treeless environments in periglacial areas where all organisms would have been exterminated near the glacier formed during the Last Glacial Maximum, notably in the Scandinavian mountains. In the Alps, the issue of glacial refugia of trees remains unanswered...
February 21, 2018: Global Change Biology
Griet Neukermans, Laurent Oziel, Marcel Babin
The Arctic Ocean and its surrounding shelf seas are warming much faster than the global average, which potentially opens up new distribution areas for temperate-origin marine phytoplankton. Using over three decades of continuous satellite observations, we show that increased inflow and temperature of Atlantic waters in the Barents Sea resulted in a striking poleward shift in the distribution of blooms of Emiliania huxleyi, a marine calcifying phytoplankton species. This species' blooms are typically associated with temperate waters and have expanded north to 76°N, five degrees further north of its first bloom occurrence in 1989...
February 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Conte Antonella, Papale Maria, Amalfitano Stefano, Mikkonen Anu, Rizzo Carmen, De Domenico Emilio, Michaud Luigi, Lo Giudice Angelina
Open fjords are subject to contrasting environmental conditions, owing to meltwater glacial inputs, terrestrial runoff, and marine water mass exchanges, which are exacerbated by anthropogenic and climate perturbations. Following a slope-dependent water circulation, the subtidal sandy sediment belt regulates the convergent transport of nutrients downward the fjord depths, and the effective entrapment of suspended particles and microorganisms. In this study, we aimed at testing how glacial and seawater inputs may influence the bacterial community structure of subtidal sand deposits in the Kongsfjorden...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Noortje Dijkstra, Juho Junttila, Steffen Aagaard-Sørensen
Metal concentrations, sediment properties and benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated in sediment cores in the SW Barents Sea, to reconstruct environmental baselines and natural variability of Atlantic Water inflow since 1800 CE. Metal concentrations correspond to no effect levels and do not influence the foraminifera. Increased Hg and Pb was linked to inflow of Atlantic Water. The data set is considered to reflect the pre-impacted environmental baseline and range in natural variability of the study area...
October 28, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Valentina De Regibus, Juan-Pablo Abugattas, Saverio Iacopino, Giacomo Mugnai, Cesare Storti, Giulio Conte, Angelo Auricchio, Erwin Ströker, Hugo-Enrique Coutiño, Ken Takarada, Francesca Salghetti, Ian Lusoc, Lucio Capulzini, Pedro Brugada, Carlo de Asmundis, Gian-Battista Chierchia
Aims: The single-freeze strategy using the second-generation cryoballoon (CB-A, Arctic Front Advance, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) has been reported to be as effective as the recommended double-freeze approach in several single-centre studies. In this retrospective, international, multicentre study, we compare the 3-min single-freeze strategy with the 4-min single-freeze strategy. Methods and results: Four hundred and thirty-two patients having undergone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by means of CB-A using a single-freeze strategy were considered for this analysis...
November 2, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jason G Andrade, Marc W Deyell, Mariano Badra, Jean Champagne, Marc Dubuc, Peter Leong-Sit, Laurent Macle, Paul Novak, Jean-Francois Roux, John Sapp, Anthony Tang, Atul Verma, George A Wells, Paul Khairy
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), but it has limitations. The two most significant recent advances have centred on the integration of real-time quantitative assessment of catheter contact force into focal radio frequency (RF) ablation catheters and the development of dedicated ablation tools capable of achieving PVI with a single ablation lesion (Arctic Front cryoballoon, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Although each of these holds promise for improving the clinical success of catheter ablation of AF, there has not been a rigorous comparison of these advanced ablation technologies...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
Klaus Kettering, Felix Gramley, Stephan von Bardeleben
AIM: To evaluate the long-term outcome of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) facilitated by preprocedural three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography. METHODS: In 50 patients, 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) was performed immediately prior to an ablation procedure (paroxysmal AF: 30 patients, persistent AF: 20 patients). The images were available throughout the ablation procedure. Two different ablation strategies were used. In most of the patients with paroxysmal AF, the cryoablation technique was used (Arctic Front Balloon, CryoCath Technologies/Medtronic; group A2)...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
Valentina De Regibus, Saverio Iacopino, Juan Pablo Abugattas, Hugo Enrique Coutiño, Giacomo Mugnai, Cesare Storti, Giulio Conte, Angelo Auricchio, Darragh Moran, Erwin Ströker, Luis Marroquin, Ken Takarada, Rajin Choudhury, Carlo de Asmundis, Pedro Brugada, Gian-Battista Chierchia
PURPOSE: The second-generation cryoballoon (CB-A, Arctic Front Advance, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) has proven to be highly effective in achieving freedom from atrial fibrillation; nonetheless, the ideal number and duration of freezing cycles is still a matter of debate. We investigated the acute success, procedural complications, and clinical outcome of a single freeze strategy using the CB-A in a large, retrospective, international multicenter study. METHODS: Between January 2013 and September 2015, 818 consecutive patients (58 ± 12 years, 68% males) with drug-resistant atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent a CB-A using a single freeze strategy were taken into consideration for our analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Amanda L Muller, Sarah P Hardy, Steven D Mamet, Mitsuaki Ota, Eric G Lamb, Steven D Siciliano
Moisture is critical for plant success in polar deserts but not by the obvious pathway of reduced water stress. We hypothesized that an indirect, nutrient-linked, pathway resulting from unique water/frozen soil interactions in polar deserts creates nutrient-rich patches critical for plant growth. These nutrient-rich patches (diapirs) form deep in High Arctic polar deserts soils from water accumulating at the permafrost freezing front and ultimately rising into the upper soil horizons through cryoturbated convective landforms (frost boils)...
August 2017: Ecology
Koji Miyamoto, Atsushi Doi, Naoki Amaya, Yoshiaki Morita, Takashi Noda, Masanori Asakura, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Hiroshi Tada, Masahiko Takagi, Satoshi Yasuda, Kengo Kusano
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone of catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), and balloon-based ablation has been recently performed worldwide. Ablation using the second-generation cryoballoon (CB2) (Arctic Front Advance(TM), Medtronic, MN, USA) is useful for PVI; however, there is some debate concerning the optimal freezing time and number of cycles after PVI is achieved. METHODS: The AD-Balloon study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the optimal strategy (freezing cycles) of CB2 ablation (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000020130)...
April 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
Charmain D Hamilton, Kit M Kovacs, Rolf A Ims, Jon Aars, Christian Lydersen
Climate change is impacting different species at different rates, leading to alterations in biological interactions with ramifications for wider ecosystem functioning. Understanding these alterations can help improve predictive capacity and inform management efforts designed to mitigate against negative impacts. We investigated how the movement and space use patterns of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in coastal areas in Svalbard, Norway, have been altered by a sudden decline in sea ice that occurred in 2006...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Klaus Kettering, Felix Gramley
BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation has become the first line of therapy in patients with symptomatic, recurrent, drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Cryoablation has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. However, the arrhythmia recurrence rate is high after cryoablation procedures. Radiofrequency catheter ablation has been shown to be an effective strategy for redo procedures in these patients and to provide a favourable outcome during midterm follow-up...
June 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Alexander Schirdewan, Juliane Herm, Mattias Roser, Ulf Landmesser, Matthias Endres, Lydia Koch, Karl Georg Haeusler
PURPOSE: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an established approach to treat symptomatic non-permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Detecting AF recurrence after PVI is important, if discontinuation of oral anticoagulation after ablation is considered. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF were enrolled in the prospective randomized mesh ablator vs. cryoballoon pulmonary vein (PV) ablation of symptomatic paroxysmal AF study, comparing efficacy and safety of the HD Mesh Ablator(®) (C...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Cristina M Hansen, Elizabeth A Himschoot, Rebekah F Hare, Brandt W Meixell, Caroline Van Hemert, Karsten Hueffer
During the summers of 2013 and 2014, isolates of a novel Gram-stain-negative coccus in the genus Neisseriawere obtained from the contents of nonviable greater white-fronted goose (Anseralbifrons) eggs on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. We used a polyphasic approach to determine whether these isolates represent a novel species. 16S rRNA gene sequences, 23S rRNA gene sequences, and chaperonin 60 gene sequences suggested that these Alaskan isolates are members of a distinct species that is most closely related to Neisseria canis, Neisseriaanimaloris and Neisseriashayeganii...
May 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Lawrence C Hamilton, Kei Saito, Philip A Loring, Richard B Lammers, Henry P Huntington
Residents of towns and villages in Arctic Alaska live on "the front line of climate change." Some communities face immediate threats from erosion and flooding associated with thawing permafrost, increasing river flows, and reduced sea ice protection of shorelines. The term climigration, referring to migration caused by climate change, originally was coined for these places. Although initial applications emphasized the need for government relocation policies, it has elsewhere been applied more broadly to encompass unplanned migration as well...
2016: Population and Environment
Kristin L Laidre, Twila Moon, Donna D W Hauser, Richard McGovern, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Rune Dietz, Ben Hudson
Glacial fronts are important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros); however, no studies have quantified which glacial properties attract whales. We investigated the importance of glacial habitats using telemetry data from n = 15 whales tagged in September of 1993, 1994, 2006 and 2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. For 41 marine-terminating glaciers, we estimated (i) narwhal presence/absence, (ii) number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers and (iii) the fraction of narwhals that visited each glacier (at 5, 7 and 10 km) in autumn...
October 2016: Biology Letters
C L Amundson, N J Traub, A J Smith-Herron, P L Flint
Climate change is occurring rapidly at high latitudes, and subsequent changes in parasite communities may have implications for hosts including wildlife and humans. Waterfowl, in particular, harbor numerous parasites and may facilitate parasite movement across broad geographic areas due to migratory movements. However, little is known about helminth community structure of waterfowl at northern latitudes. We investigated the helminth communities of two avian herbivores that breed at high latitudes, Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), to examine effects of species, geographic area, age, and sex on helminth species richness, aggregation, prevalence, and intensity...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Hugo Enrique Coutiño, Carlo de Asmundis, Giacomo Mugnai, Darragh Moran, Valentina De Regibus, Erwin Ströker, Ken Takarada, Diego Ruggiero, Rajin Choudhury, Stefan Beckers, Carla Van Gompel, Jan Poelaert, Saverio Iacopino, Pasquale Filannino, Pedro Brugada, Gian-Battista Chierchia
PURPOSE: Data indicate that the second-generation cryoballoon (Arctic Front Advance, Medtronic, Minnesota, USA) could be effective for persistent atrial fibrillation. However, electrophysiological findings and the midterm clinical outcome of repeat procedures following second-generation cryoballoon ablation are lacking. METHODS: Consecutive patients with drug-resistant persistent atrial fibrillation who underwent a repeat ablation due to arrhythmia recurrence following an index procedure with second-generation cryoballoon were retrospectively included in our analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
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