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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300954/selection-of-words-for-implementation-of-the-picture-exchange-communication-system-pecs-in-non-verbal-autistic-children
#1
Carine Ferreira, Monica Bevilacqua, Mariana Ishihara, Aline Fiori, Aline Armonia, Jacy Perissinoto, Ana Carina Tamanaha
Purpose: It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298891/white-matter-deterioration-may-foreshadow-impairment-of-emotional-valence-determination-in-early-stage-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-type
#2
Ravi Rajmohan, Ronald C Anderson, Dan Fang, Austin G Meyer, Pavis Laengvejkal, Parunyou Julayanont, Greg Hannabas, Kitten Linton, John Culberson, Hafiz M R Khan, John De Toledo, P Hemachandra Reddy, Michael O'Boyle
In Alzheimer Disease (AD), non-verbal skills often remain intact for far longer than verbally mediated processes. Four (1 female, 3 males) participants with early-stage Clinically Diagnosed Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (CDDAT) and eight neurotypicals (NTs; 4 females, 4 males) completed the emotional valence determination test (EVDT) while undergoing BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We expected CDDAT participants to perform just as well as NTs on the EVDT, and to display increased activity within the bilateral amygdala and right anterior cingulate cortex (r-ACC)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291301/-acute-dystonia-due-to-aripiprazole-use-in-two-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-first-five-years-of-life
#3
Mustafa Küçükköse, Bürge Kabukçu Başay
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impairment in social interactions, in verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of interest and behavior within the first 3 years of life. Pharmacologic interventions may be needed for the treatment of temper tantrums, aggression, hyperactivity, and stereotypes in children with ASD. The approval of aripiprazole by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for the treatment of temper tantrums in children and adolescents with ASD has gained increased interest for the use in these patients...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289462/the-perception-of-low-salt-bread-among-preschool-children-and-the-role-of-educational-personnel-in-creating-a-positive-attitude-towards-reformulated-food
#4
Boris Kovac, Maja Knific
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the possibility of unnoticed reduction in salt content of bread as a basic food in the diet of preschool children. The response of children to less salty bread and the role of teachers and teacher assistants in the introduction of novelties into children's nutrition ware studied. METHODS: Using hedonic sensory evaluation in the case of bread, the perception of salty taste and responses of preschool children to salt reduction were observed...
March 1, 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285893/motor-and-verbal-perspective-taking-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-changes-in-social-interaction-with-people-and-tools
#5
Breanna E Studenka, Sandra L Gillam, Daphne Hartzheim, Ronald B Gillam
BACKGROUND: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have difficulty communicating with others nonverbally, via mechanisms such as hand gestures, eye contact and facial expression. Individuals with ASD also have marked deficits in planning future actions (Hughes, 1996), which might contribute to impairments in non-verbal communication. Perspective taking is typically assessed using verbal scenarios whereby the participant imagines how an actor would interact in a social situation (e...
March 9, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278590/evidence-of-altered-pressure-pain-thresholds-in-persons-with-disorders-of-consciousness-as-measured-by-the-nociception-coma-scale-italian-version
#6
Davide Sattin, Caroline Schnakers, Marco Pagani, Francesca Arenare, Guya Devalle, Fabrizio Giunco, GianBattista Guizzetti, Maurizio Lanfranchi, Ambra M Giovannetti, Venusia Covelli, Anna Bersano, Anna Nigri, Ludovico Minati, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Eugenio Parati, MariaGrazia Bruzzone, Silvana Franceschetti, Matilde Leonardi
Pain assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is a controversial issue for clinicians, who require tools and standardised procedures for testing nociception in non-communicative patients. The aims of the present study were, first, to analyse the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Nociception Coma Scale and, second, to evaluate pressure pain thresholds in a group of patients with DoC. The authors conducted a multi-centre study on 40 healthy participants and 60 DoC patients enrolled from six hospitals in Italy...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260405/using-and-choosing-digital-health-technologies-a-communications-science-perspective
#7
John Ovretveit, Albert Wu, Richard Street, Harold Thimbleby, Friederike Thilo, Annegret Hannawa
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a non-technical overview for leaders and researchers about how to use a communications perspective to better assess, design and use digital health technologies (DHTs) to improve healthcare performance and to encourage more research into implementation and use of these technologies. Design/methodology/approach Narrative overview, showing through examples the issues and benefits of introducing DHTs for healthcare performance and the insights that communications science brings to their design and use...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241759/smokers-and-drinkers-choice-of-smartphone-applications-and-expectations-of-engagement-a-think-aloud-and-interview-study
#8
Olga Perski, Ann Blandford, Harveen Kaur Ubhi, Robert West, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Public health organisations such as the National Health Service in the United Kingdom and the National Institutes of Health in the United States provide access to online libraries of publicly endorsed smartphone applications (apps); however, there is little evidence that users rely on this guidance. Rather, one of the most common methods of finding new apps is to search an online store. As hundreds of smoking cessation and alcohol-related apps are currently available on the market, smokers and drinkers must actively choose which app to download prior to engaging with it...
February 28, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228339/the-effect-on-reliability-and-sensitivity-to-level-of-training-of-combining-analytic-and-holistic-rating-scales-for-assessing-communication-skills-in-an-internal-medicine-resident-osce
#9
Vijay John Daniels, Dwight Harley
OBJECTIVE: Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. METHODS: The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents...
February 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222331/the-moro-reaction-more-than-a-reflex-a-ritualized-behavior-of-nonverbal-communication
#10
Pierre V Rousseau, Florence Matton, Renaud Lecuyer, Willy Lahaye
OBJECTIVE: To propose a phylogenetic significance to the Moro reflex which remains unexplained since its publication in 1918 because both hands are free at the end of the gesture. METHOD: Among the 75 videos of healthy term newborns we have filmed in a research project on antenatal education to parenthood, we describe a sequence that clearly showed the successive movements of the Moro reflex and we report the occurrence of this reflex in the videos that were recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215549/caregiver-communication-to-the-child-as-moderator-and-mediator-of-genes-for-language
#11
Luca Onnis
Human language appears to be unique among natural communication systems, and such uniqueness impinges on both nature and nurture. Human babies are endowed with cognitive abilities that predispose them to learn language, and this process cannot operate in an impoverished environment. To be effectively complete the acquisition of human language in human children requires highly socialised forms of learning, scaffolded over years of prolonged and intense caretaker-child interactions. How genes and environment operate in shaping language is unknown...
February 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198329/show-me-where-it-hurts
#12
Elaine Cole
A tool created by a school nurse to enable children with communication difficulties to express pain and discomfort has been developed into an app that is being used in special schools and hospitals across Wales. Though developed for children, the Show Me Where app has also been picked up by pain management teams as an aid to the care of non-verbal adults, with the Welsh Ambulance Service trialling the tool through its ambulance crews and first responders.
February 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181042/should-we-change-targets-and-methods-of-early-intervention-in-autism-in-favor-of-a-strengths-based-education
#13
Laurent Mottron
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) and its recent variant, naturalist developmental behavioral intervention (NDBI) aim to increase socialization and communication, and to decrease repetitive and challenging behaviors in preschool age autistic children. These behaviorist techniques are based on the precocity and intensity of the intervention, face-to-face interaction, errorless learning, and information fragmentation. Once considered to be "scientifically proven", the efficacy of these approaches has been called into question in the last decade due to poor-quality data, small effects, low cost-efficiency, and the evolution of ethical and societal standards...
February 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168003/cognitive-and-adaptive-correlates-of-an-ados-derived-joint-attention-composite
#14
Ashley Johnson Harrison, Zhenqiu Laura Lu, Rebecca L McLean, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Joint attention skills have been shown to predict language outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Less is known about the relationship between joint attention (JA) abilities in children with ASD and cognitive and adaptive abilities. In the current study, a subset of items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), designed to quantify JA abilities, were used to investigate social attention among an unusually large cross-sectional sample of children with ASD (n = 1061). An examination of the association between JA and a range of functional correlates (cognitive and adaptive) revealed JA was significantly related to verbal (VIQ) and non-verbal (NVIQ) cognitive ability as well as all domains of adaptive functioning (socialization, communication, and daily living skills)...
September 2016: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#15
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
April 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164412/j%C3%A3-rgen-habermas-and-the-dilemmas-of-experience-of-disability
#16
Krzysztof Pezdek, Wojciech Doliński
The article addresses Jürgen Habermas' theory of communicative action, which offers very productive tools for analysing disability. The Habermasian division of social reality helps examine positive and negative effects of tensions between the lifeworld of a person with disability and the system. By exploring such an individual's communicative action, one can obtain an insight into his/her validity claims and disruptions in the communication process and self-understandings inscribed in group narratives. The study reported in the article used in-depth interviews, which narratively reveal the experiences of a person with disability in family, education, sports and labour...
February 6, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156679/decision-support-needs-assessment-in-newly-diagnosed-malignant-glioma
#17
Camilo E Fadul, Heather Wishart
33 Background: Diagnosis of malignant glioma is catastrophic and standard treatment options remain non-curative. Patients are not guaranteed a good outcome, have significantly decreased QOL and exposure to risk. Shared decision making, is believed to diffuse decisional distress accompanying complex situations. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews explored patient, caregiver and physician perceptions of standard of care treatment recommendations following diagnosis. Cognitive, neurological and functional ability was evaluated with neurological examination, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), Trail-Making Test and The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156544/equity-in-patient-provider-communication-regarding-treatment-related-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#18
Jennifer Schaal, Linda Robertson, Eugenia Eng, Jemeia G Kollie, Christina Yongue, Karen Foley, Beth Smith, Mellissa K Yee, Kristin Black, Katrina Ellis, Lucretia Hoffman, Alexandra Lightfoot, Claire Morse, Neda Padilla, Sam Cykert
127 Background: Compared with white breast cancer patients, black patients more often report inadequate symptom control and decrements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Racial differences in patient-provider communication (PPC) are well-documented and linked to worse health outcomes for minorities; however, less is known about inequities in symptom and HRQOL discussions among cancer patients and providers. As part of an NCI-funded systems change intervention to improve racial equity in treatment completion among Black and White cancer patients, we assessed racial differences in PPC regarding treatment-related symptoms, HRQOL issues (e...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149288/attention-orienting-in-response-to-non-conscious-hierarchical-arrows-individuals-with-higher-autistic-traits-differ-in-their-global-local-bias
#19
Robin Laycock, Daniel Chan, Sheila G Crewther
One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129143/riemannian-geometry-applied-to-detection-of-respiratory-states-from-eeg-signals-the-basis-for-a-brain-ventilator-interface
#20
Xavier Navarro-Sune, Anna L Hudson, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Jaques Martinerie, Adrien Witon, Pierre Pouget, Mathieu Raux, Thomas Similowski, Mario Chavez
During mechanical ventilation, patient-ventilator disharmony is frequently observed and may result in increased breathing effort, compromising the patient's comfort and recovery. This circumstance requires clinical intervention and becomes challenging when patients are sedated or verbal communication is difficult. In this work, we propose a brain computer interface (BCI) to automatically and non-invasively detect patient-ventilator disharmony from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals: a brain-ventilator interface...
July 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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