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Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Tyler J Titcomb, Samantha T Schmaelzle, Emily T Nuss, Jesse F Gregory, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
BACKGROUND: Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
David R Sannino, Adam J Dobson, Katie Edwards, Esther R Angert, Nicolas Buchon
The microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster has a substantial impact on host physiology and nutrition. Some effects may involve vitamin provisioning, but the relationships between microbe-derived vitamins, diet, and host health remain to be established systematically. We explored the contribution of microbiota in supplying sufficient dietary thiamine (vitamin B1 ) to support D. melanogaster at different stages of its life cycle. Using chemically defined diets with different levels of available thiamine, we found that the interaction of thiamine concentration and microbiota did not affect the longevity of adult D...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Jovana Jeremic, Tamara Nikolic Turnic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Nevena Jeremic, Isidora Milosavljevic, Ivan Srejovic, Radmila Obrenovic, Snezana Jancic, Milena Rakocevic, Stevan Matic, Dragan Djuric, Vladimir Jakovljevic
This research is designed to test the hypothesis that elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels in vivo, caused by a deficit in vitamin B complex, promote changes in cardiac function and redox status that lead to heart failure. In order to conduct the study, we used adult male Wistar albino rats (n=30; 4 weeks old; 100±15 g body weight). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in these animals was achieved by dietary manipulation. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed with a standard rodent chow (control - CF), a diet enriched in methionine with no deficiency in B vitamins (i...
March 6, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
A David Smith, Helga Refsum, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Michael Fenech, Babak Hooshmand, Andrew McCaddon, Joshua W Miller, Irwin H Rosenberg, Rima Obeid
Identification of modifiable risk factors provides a crucial approach to the prevention of dementia. Nutritional or nutrient-dependent risk factors are especially important because dietary modifications or use of dietary supplements may lower the risk factor level. One such risk factor is a raised concentration of the biomarker plasma total homocysteine, which reflects the functional status of three B vitamins (folate, vitamins B12, B6). A group of experts reviewed literature evidence from the last 20 years...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Azadeh Mesripour, Fatima Alhimma, Valiollah Hajhashemi
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have an important role in mediating the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on brain plasticity and mood. GC drugs and elevated cortisol level can cause psychiatric disorders including depression. The B-vitamins have numerous benefits on general health as well as mood, and cognition. The aim was evaluating the effect of vitamin B6 following dexamethasone (DEX)-induced depression in mice, to see if it can be proposed as a remedy for psychiatric problems following GC therapy...
February 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Maria Mosor, Juliusz Przysławski, Jerzy Nowak
As ageing and increased body fat are the signs of insulin resistance, we have studied whether the presence of Pro12Ala and C1431T of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 gene and Trp64Arg of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene may predispose to the hyperglycaemia development in postmenopausal women, who have never undergone hypoglycaemic treatment. The distributions of selected allele and genotype frequencies were determined by the PCR-RFLP method in normo- and hyperglycaemic, who have never been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus were measured...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
S V Kotov, E V Isakova, V Yu Leidvoll, Yu A Belova, T V Volchenkova, A V Borodin, V A Shvedov
AIM: To study the efficacy of the complex therapy, including cocarnit (group B vitamins, triphosadenine and nicotinamide), of diabetic neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy were examined. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients of the main group (n=26) received complex therapy, including cocarnit, and patients of the comparison group (n=15) received standard treatment...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Maree T Brinkman, Allison M Hodge, Julie K Bassett, Damien Bolton, Anthony Longano, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Dallas R English, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles
Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism may play a role in carcinogenesis through DNA replication, repair and methylation mechanisms. Most studies on urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have focused on folate. We sought to examine the association between B-group vitamins and methionine intake and UCC risk, overall and by subtype, and to test whether these associations are different for population subgroups whose nutritional status may be compromised. We followed participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N=41,513) for over 20 years, and observed 500 UCC cases (89% originating in the bladder; superficial: 279, invasive: 221)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Boyoung Park, Jinhee Lee, Jeongseon Kim
This study was conducted to examine the nutrient intake status of cancer survivors. A total of 5224 cancer survivors, 19,926 non-cancer individuals without comorbidities (non-cancer I), and 20,622 non-cancer individuals with comorbidities, matched by age, gender, and recruitment center location were included in the analysis. Generally, the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher and the proportion from fat was lower in cancer survivors. The odds ratios (ORs) for total energy (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0...
February 14, 2018: Nutrients
Ching-Yu Julius Chen, Tzu-Ching Yang, Christopher Chang, Shao-Chun Lu, Po-Yuan Chang
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine has been long considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, cardiovascular events cannot be reduced through homocysteine lowering by B vitamin supplements. Although several association studies have reported an elevation of serum homocysteine levels in cardiovascular diseases, the relationship of homocysteine with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is not well established. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled STEMI patients who were consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit following coronary intervention in a single medical center in Taiwan...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
K L Westmacott, A Crew, O Doran, J P Hart
This paper describes the development of a novel electrochemical assay for the measurement of water-soluble vitamins in food and pharmaceutical products. The optimum conditions for the determination of vitamin B 1 (thiamine), B 2 (riboflavin) and B 6 (pyridoxine) in phosphate buffer were established using cyclic voltammetry in conjunction with screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The optimum current response for all three vitamins was achieved in 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 11 using an initial potential of -1...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Monika H E Christensen, Dag J Fadnes, Therese H Røst, Eva R Pedersen, John R Andersen, Villy Våge, Arve Ulvik, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård, Gunnar Mellgren
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with increased inflammation and insulin resistance. In conditions with chronic immune activation, low plasma vitamin B6-levels are described, as well as an increased kynurenine:tryptophan-ratio (KTR). We investigated circulating tryptophan, kynurenine and its metabolites, neopterin, B-vitamins, CRP, and HbA1c in individuals with obesity before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 37 patients with severe obesity, scheduled for bariatric surgery...
2018: PloS One
R Obeid, U Hübner, M Bodis, S Graeber, J Geisel
BACKGROUND AND AIM: B-vitamins may influence DNA methylation. We studied the effects of vitamin D + Ca + B versus D + Ca on epigenetic age markers and biological age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants (mean ± SD of age = 68.4 ± 10.1 years) were randomized to receive 1200 IE vitamin D3 plus 800 mg Ca-carbonate alone (n = 31) or with 0.5 mg B9, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 (n = 32). The CpG methylation of 3 genes (ASPA, ITGA2B, and PDE4C) and the changes in methylation were compared between the groups after 1 year...
December 29, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Jonathan G Gerhart, H Auguste Dutcher, Amanda E Brenner, Abraham S Moses, Libor Grubhoffer, Rahul Raghavan
Bacterial endosymbionts of ticks are of interest due to their close evolutionary relationships with tick-vectored pathogens. For instance, while many ticks contain Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs), others transmit the mammalian pathogen Francisella tularensis. We recently sequenced the genome of an FLE present in the hard tick Amblyomma maculatum (FLE-Am) and showed that it likely evolved from a pathogenic ancestor. In order to expand our understanding of FLEs, in the current study we sequenced the genome of an FLE in the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (FLE-Om) and compared it to the genomes of FLE-Am, F...
January 29, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Jin-Lian Ma, Ting Zhang, Feng-Zhi Suo, Jiao Chang, Xiang-Bin Wan, Xue-Jian Feng, Yi-Chao Zheng, Hong-Min Liu
B vitamins play an essential role in the biosynthesis of nucleotides, replication of DNA, supply of methyl-groups, growth and repair of cells, aberrancies of which have all been implicated in carcinogenesis. Although the potential role of vitamin B in relation to the risk of cancer, including breast and colorectal cancer, has been investigated in several observational studies, the mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, vitamin B2 exhibited efficient activation of LSD1 by occupying the active sites where FAD stands...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Maria Grau-Perez, Chin-Chi Kuo, Matthew O Gribble, Poojitha Balakrishnan, Miranda Jones Spratlen, Dhananjay Vaidya, Kevin A Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Eliseo Guallar, Ellen K Silbergeld, Jason G Umans, Lyle G Best, Elisa T Lee, Barbara V Howard, Shelley A Cole, Ana Navas-Acien
BACKGROUND: High arsenic exposure has been related to diabetes, but at low-moderate levels the evidence is mixed. Arsenic metabolism, which is partly genetically controlled and may rely on certain B vitamins, plays a role in arsenic toxicity. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prospective association of arsenic exposure and metabolism with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. METHODS: We included 1,838 American Indian men and women free of diabetes (median age, 36 y)...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Katie Moore, Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward, Leane Hoey, Helene McNulty
Globally populations are ageing. By 2050, it is estimated that there will be two billion people aged 60 years or over, of which 131 million are projected to be affected by dementia, while depression is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Preventing or delaying the onset of these disorders should therefore be a public health priority. There is some evidence linking certain dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet, with a reduced risk of dementia and depression...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Yuanlong Pan, Adam D Kennedy, Thomas J Jönsson, Nortan W Milgram
This study focused on the hypothesis that cognitive decline in aged dogs could be attenuated by dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend consisting of antioxidants, B vitamins, fish oil and l-arginine, referred to hereafter as the Brain Protection Blend (BPB). Baseline cognitive assessment before the start of treatment was used to establish cognitively equivalent control (10·464+2·33 kg) and treatment (12·118+3·386 kg) groups of aged dogs between 9·1 and 11·5 years of age and with body condition score of 5...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Nathan M D'Cunha, Ekavi N Georgousopoulou, Lakshika Dadigamuwage, Jane Kellett, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Jackson Thomas, Andrew J McKune, Duane D Mellor, Nenad Naumovski
Nutraceuticals have generated interest as a way to mitigate the cognitive decline in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the evidence for these claims from the scientific literature in randomised, double-blinded, controlled trials (duration: ≥1 year; participants: n≥100; age(mean): ≥65 years). Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science) and identified twenty-five studies published between the 15·June·2006 and 14·June·2016...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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