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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316987/diet-nutrition-and-the-ageing-brain-current-evidence-and-new-directions
#1
Katie Moore, Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward, Leane Hoey, Helene McNulty
Globally populations are ageing. By 2050, it is estimated that there will be two billion people aged 60 years or over, of which 131 million are projected to be affected by dementia, while depression is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Preventing or delaying the onset of these disorders should therefore be a public health priority. There is some evidence linking certain dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet, with a reduced risk of dementia and depression...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316985/cognitive-enhancement-in-old-dogs-from-dietary-supplementation-with-a-nutrient-blend-containing-arginine-antioxidants-b-vitamins-and-fish-oil
#2
Yuanlong Pan, Adam D Kennedy, Thomas J Jönsson, Nortan W Milgram
This study focused on the hypothesis that cognitive decline in aged dogs could be attenuated by dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend consisting of antioxidants, B vitamins, fish oil and l-arginine, referred to hereafter as the Brain Protection Blend (BPB). Baseline cognitive assessment before the start of treatment was used to establish cognitively equivalent control (10·464+2·33 kg) and treatment (12·118+3·386 kg) groups of aged dogs between 9·1 and 11·5 years of age and with body condition score of 5...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310724/effect-of-long-term-nutraceutical-and-dietary-supplement-use-on-cognition-in-the-elderly-a-10-year-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
Nathan M D'Cunha, Ekavi N Georgousopoulou, Lakshika Dadigamuwage, Jane Kellett, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Jackson Thomas, Andrew J McKune, Duane D Mellor, Nenad Naumovski
Nutraceuticals have generated interest as a way to mitigate the cognitive decline in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the evidence for these claims from the scientific literature in randomised, double-blinded, controlled trials (duration: ≥1 year; participants: n≥100; age(mean): ≥65 years). Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science) and identified twenty-five studies published between the 15·June·2006 and 14·June·2016...
January 9, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283790/smoking-b-vitamins-and-lung-cancer-the-chicken-or-the-egg-causality-dilemma
#4
Rima Obeid, Klaus Pietrzik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258268/chemopreventive-potential-of-raw-and-roasted-pistachios-regarding-colon-carcinogenesis
#5
Michael Glei, Diana Ludwig, Julia Lamberty, Sonja Fischer, Stefan Lorkowski, Wiebke Schlörmann
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206-215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (CAT, SOD2, GPx1, and GSTP1)...
December 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250466/arsenophonus-and-sodalis-replacements-shape-evolution-of-symbiosis-in-louse-flies
#6
Eva Šochová, Filip Husník, Eva Nováková, Ali Halajian, Václav Hypša
Symbiotic interactions between insects and bacteria are ubiquitous and form a continuum from loose facultative symbiosis to greatly intimate and stable obligate symbiosis. In blood-sucking insects living exclusively on vertebrate blood, obligate endosymbionts are essential for hosts and hypothesized to supplement B-vitamins and cofactors missing from their blood diet. The role and distribution of facultative endosymbionts and their evolutionary significance as seeds of obligate symbioses are much less understood...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244251/effect-of-combination-folic-acid-vitamin-b6-and-vitamin-b12-supplementation-on-fracture-risk-in-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Katie L Stone, Li-Yung Lui, William G Christen, Aron M Troen, Douglas C Bauer, Deborah Kado, Christopher Schambach, Steven R Cummings, JoAnn E Manson
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association of elevated plasma homocysteine levels with greater bone resorption and fracture risk. Vitamins B12 , B6 , and folic acid are cofactors in homocysteine metabolism, and supplementation with B vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine levels in humans. However, randomized trials of supplemental B vitamins for reduction of fracture risk have been limited. Therefore, we performed an ancillary study to the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study (WAFACS), a large randomized trial of women with preexisting cardiovascular disease or three or more coronary risk factors, to test whether a daily B vitamin intervention including folic acid (2...
December 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207502/relationship-between-vitamin-intake-and-depressive-symptoms-in-elderly-japanese-individuals-differences-with-gender-and-body-mass-index
#8
Thao Thi Thu Nguyen, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Yasuhiro Kambayashi, Akinori Hara, Sakae Miyagi, Yohei Yamada, Haruki Nakamura, Yukari Shimizu, Daisuke Hori, Fumihiko Suzuki, Koichiro Hayashi, Hiroyuki Nakamura
Only a few studies have focused on the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in 1634 elderly Japanese individuals (65 years and older). The consumption of fifteen vitamins including retinol, a retinol equivalent, beta-carotene equivalent, vitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin group B, vitamin C, and cryptoxanthine was analyzed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ)...
December 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#9
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188863/cross-sectional-associations-of-total-plasma-homocysteine-with-cortical-%C3%AE-amyloid-independently-and-as-a-function-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-status-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#10
C Hooper, P De Souto Barreto, N Coley, E Caussé, P Payoux, A S Salabert, M Cesari, S Andrieu, G-L Bowman, M Weiner, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: Elevated total plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is some evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can modulate the effects of homocysteine-lowering B vitamins on AD related pathologies. Hence we investigated the relationship between total plasma homocysteine and cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) in older adults at risk of dementia. The role of erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFAs (omega 3 index) on this relationship was also explored...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187089/pyridoxine-deficiency-after-solid-organ-transplant
#11
Summer Van Arsdale, Sarah E Yost, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Mary Meer, Shari Schoentag, Shahid Habib
OBJECTIVE: Pyridoxine is 1 of 8 B vitamins that assist in a variety of essential functions including immune functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with low pyridoxine levels in solid organ transplantation recipients. DESIGN: The study cohort was divided into 2 groups: (a) patients with normal pyridoxine levels or (b) patients with low pyridoxine levels. Dietary evaluation and clinical characteristics of all patients, rejection episodes, and immunosuppression were collected...
September 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182708/b-vitamin-therapy-for-kidney-transplant-recipients-lowers-homocysteine-and-improves-selective-cognitive-outcomes-in-the-randomized-favorit-ancillary-cognitive-trial
#12
T M Scott, G Rogers, D E Weiner, K Livingston, J Selhub, P F Jacques, I H Rosenberg, A M Troen
BACKGROUND: Objectives: Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia. Results of clinical trials using B-vitamins to reduce the cognitive risks attributed to tHcy have been inconsistent. The high prevalence of both hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive impairment among kidney transplant recipients makes them an important population in which to evaluate the effect of lowering homocysteine on cognitive function. We therefore evaluated whether B-vitamin therapy to lower tHcy would prevent cognitive-decline in a cohort of stable kidney transplant recipients...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171643/nutritional-supplements-in-psychotic-disorders
#13
Vicent Balanzá Martínez
There is growing interest about the potential of diet and nutrients to improve the mental health of the population and for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In the case of schizophrenia, the limitations of antipsychotic drugs to achieve adequate rates of clinical remission and functional recovery have promoted the search for complementary approaches. This narrative review approaches the dietary patterns and interventions in schizophrenia, efficacy of specific nutrients and therapeutic modulation of the gut microflora by probiotics...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171639/nutritional-supplements-in-depressive-disorders
#14
Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Ana González-Pinto
There is increasing evidence about the role of nutrients in mental health. An adequate intake of nutrients contributes to better overall health and mental health in particular. Major depression is a severe mental illness with a high prevalence for which effective treatments exist but not in all cases the patient’s remission is achieved. Therefore, it is increasingly aimed at optimizing the supply of nutrients necessary for adequate brain functioning as adjunctive therapy to antidepressant treatment in depressive disorders...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154172/association-between-b-vitamins-and-schizophrenia-a-population-based-case-control-study
#15
Bing Cao, Xiao-Yu Sun, Chuan-Bo Zhang, Jing-Jing Yan, Qian-Qian Zhao, Si-Yu Yang, Lai-Lai Yan, Ning-Hua Huang, Jing Zeng, Jie-Ying Liao, Jing-Yu Wang
To explore the association between schizophrenia and six types of B vitamins, including choline, biotin, riboflavin, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine and nicotinamide, based on the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC) Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. We conducted the case-control study between November 2015 and September 2016 in Weifang, Shandong Province, China. Blood samples from 128 cases of schizophrenia and 101 controls were collected, and B vitamin were measured by LC-MS coupled with HILIC...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153154/a-100-year-review-from-ascorbic-acid-to-zinc-mineral-and-vitamin-nutrition-of-dairy-cows
#16
W P Weiss
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#17
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129471/higher-intake-of-fish-and-fat-is-associated-with-lower-plasma-s-adenosylhomocysteine-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Mads V Lind, Lotte Lauritzen, Oluf Pedersen, Henrik Vestergaard, Ken D Stark, Torben Hansen, Alastair B Ross, Mette Kristensen
Several B-vitamins act as co-factors in one-carbon metabolism, a pathway that plays a central role in several chronic diseases. However, there is a lack of knowledge of how diet affects markers in one-carbon metabolism. The aim of this study was to explore dietary patterns and components associated with one-carbon metabolites. We hypothesized that intake of whole-grains and fish would be associated with lower Hcy, and higher SAM:SAH ratio due to their nutrient content. We assessed dietary information using a four-day dietary record in 118 men and women with features of the metabolic syndrome...
October 2, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129284/the-b-vitamin-nutrition-of-insects-the-contributions-of-diet-microbiome-and-horizontally-acquired-genes
#19
REVIEW
Angela E Douglas
Insects generally cannot synthesize eight B vitamins that function as co-enzymes in various required enzymatic reactions. Most insects derive their B vitamin requirements from the diet, microbial symbionts, or a combination of these complementary sources. Exceptionally, the genomes of a few insects bear genes in vitamin B5 (pantothenate) and B7 (biotin) synthesis, horizontally acquired from bacteria. Biomarkers of B vitamin deficiency (e.g. vitamin titers, activity of vitamin-dependent enzymes) offer routes to investigate the incidence and the physiological and fitness consequences of B vitamin deficiency in laboratory and field populations of insects...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098943/vitamin-intake-is-associated-with-improved-visuospatial-and-verbal-semantic-memory-in-middle-aged-individuals
#20
Miles Flitton, Ian A Macdonald, Helen M Knight
OBJECTIVES: Factors maintaining cognitive health are still largely unknown. In particular, the cognitive benefits associated with vitamin intake and vitamin supplementation are disputed. We investigated self-reported vitamin intake and serum vitamin levels with performance in cognitive factors sensitive to dementia progression in two large middle-aged general population cohorts. METHODS: Survey data were used to assess regular vitamin intake in 4400 NCDS 1958 and 1177 TwinsUK cohort members, and serum homocysteine and B vitamin levels were measured in 675 individuals from the TwinsUK study...
November 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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