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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738703/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-is-mitigated-in-cyp3a-null-female-mice
#1
Ramiya Kumar, Elizabeth J Litoff, W Tyler Boswell, William S Baldwin
Recent studies indicate a role for the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X-receptor (PXR), and hepatic xenobiotic detoxifying CYPs in fatty liver disease or obesity. Therefore, we examined whether Cyp3a-null mice show increased obesity and fatty liver disease following 8-weeks of exposure to a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Surprisingly, HFD-fed Cyp3a-null females fed a HFD gained 50% less weight than wild-type (WT; B6) females fed a HFD. In contrast, Cyp3a-null males gained more weight than WT males, primarily during the first few weeks of HFD-treatment...
May 5, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730527/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-carnitine-and-choline-acyltransferases-suggests-distinct-evolution-of-cpt2-versus-cpt1-and-related-variants
#2
Marjanne D van der Hoek, Ole Madsen, Jaap Keijer, Feike R van der Leij
Carnitine/choline acyltransferases play diverse roles in energy metabolism and neuronal signalling. Our knowledge of their evolutionary relationships, important for functional understanding, is incomplete. Therefore, we aimed to determine the evolutionary relationships of these eukaryotic transferases. We performed extensive phylogenetic and intron position analyses. We found that mammalian intramitochondrial CPT2 is most closely related to cytosolic yeast carnitine transferases (Sc-YAT1 and 2), whereas the other members of the family are related to intraorganellar yeast Sc-CAT2...
May 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730294/live-imaging-reveals-a-conserved-role-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-early-lymphatic-development-in-zebrafish
#3
Annalisa Zecchin, Brian Wong, Bieke Tembuyser, Joris Souffreau, An Van Nuffelen, Sabine Wyns, Stefan Vinckier, Peter Carmeliet, Mieke Dewerchin
During embryonic development, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) differentiate from venous endothelial cells (VECs), a process that is tightly regulated by several genetic signals. While the aquatic zebrafish model is regularly used for studying lymphangiogenesis and offers the unique advantage of time-lapse video-imaging of lymphatic development, some aspects of lymphatic development in this model differ from those in the mouse. It therefore remained to be determined whether fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO), which we showed to regulate lymphatic formation in the mouse, also co-determines lymphatic development in this aquatic model...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727683/fasting-activates-fatty-acid-oxidation-to-enhance-intestinal-stem-cell-function-during-homeostasis-and-aging
#4
Maria M Mihaylova, Chia-Wei Cheng, Amanda Q Cao, Surya Tripathi, Miyeko D Mana, Khristian E Bauer-Rowe, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Laura Clavain, Aysegul Erdemir, Caroline A Lewis, Elizaveta Freinkman, Audrey S Dickey, Albert R La Spada, Yanmei Huang, George W Bell, Vikram Deshpande, Peter Carmeliet, Pekka Katajisto, David M Sabatini, Ömer H Yilmaz
Diet has a profound effect on tissue regeneration in diverse organisms, and low caloric states such as intermittent fasting have beneficial effects on organismal health and age-associated loss of tissue function. The role of adult stem and progenitor cells in responding to short-term fasting and whether such responses improve regeneration are not well studied. Here we show that a 24 hr fast augments intestinal stem cell (ISC) function in young and aged mice by inducing a fatty acid oxidation (FAO) program and that pharmacological activation of this program mimics many effects of fasting...
May 3, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721083/targeting-cpt1a-mediated-fatty-acid-oxidation-sensitizes-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-to-radiation-therapy
#5
Zheqiong Tan, Lanbo Xiao, Min Tang, Fang Bai, Jiangjiang Li, Liling Li, Feng Shi, Namei Li, Yueshuo Li, Qianqian Du, Jingchen Lu, Xinxian Weng, Wei Yi, Hanwen Zhang, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou, Qiang Gao, José N Onuchic, Ann M Bode, Xiangjian Luo, Ya Cao
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a particularly high prevalence in southern China, southeastern Asia and northern Africa. Radiation resistance remains a serious obstacle to successful treatment in NPC. This study aimed to explore the metabolic feature of radiation-resistant NPC cells and identify new molecular-targeted agents to improve the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy in NPC. Methods : Radiation-responsive and radiation-resistant NPC cells were used as the model system in vitro and in vivo . Metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the global metabolic changes...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694503/neonatal-tobacco-smoke-reduces-thermogenesis-capacity-in-brown-adipose-tissue-in-adult-rats
#6
T C Peixoto, E G Moura, E Oliveira, V Younes-Rapozo, P N Soares, V S T Rodrigues, T R Santos, N Peixoto-Silva, J C Carvalho, C Calvino, E P S Conceição, D S Guarda, S Claudio-Neto, A C Manhães, P C Lisboa
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674640/the-cpt1a-inhibitor-etomoxir-induces-severe-oxidative-stress-at-commonly-used-concentrations
#7
Roddy S O'Connor, Lili Guo, Saba Ghassemi, Nathaniel W Snyder, Andrew J Worth, Liwei Weng, Yoonseok Kam, Benjamin Philipson, Sophie Trefely, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Ian A Blair, Carl H June, Michael C Milone
Etomoxir (ETO) is a widely used small-molecule inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) through its irreversible inhibitory effects on the carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1a (CPT1a). We used this compound to evaluate the role of fatty acid oxidation in rapidly proliferating T cells following costimulation through the CD28 receptor. We show that ETO has a moderate effect on T cell proliferation with no observable effect on memory differentiation, but a marked effect on oxidative metabolism. We show that this oxidative metabolism is primarily dependent upon glutamine rather than FAO...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668854/prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-sulforaphane-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism
#8
Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Subrata K Pore, Bruce L Jacobs, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664569/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cd8-t-cell-memory-challenging-current-concepts
#9
REVIEW
Brenda Raud, Peter J McGuire, Russell G Jones, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
CD8+ T cells are key members of the adaptive immune response against infections and cancer. As we discuss in this review, these cells can present diverse metabolic requirements, which have been intensely studied during the past few years. Our current understanding suggests that aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of activated CD8+ T cells, while naive and memory (Tmem ) cells often rely on oxidative phosphorylation, and thus mitochondrial metabolism is a crucial determinant of CD8+ Tmem cell development. Moreover, it has been proposed that CD8+ Tmem cells have a specific requirement for the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LC-FAO), a process modulated in lymphocytes by the enzyme CPT1A...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564706/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-molecular-mechanism-of-hepatic-metabolism-disorder-caused-by-chromium-poisoning-in-chickens
#10
Xinxin Tian, Hui Zhang, Yali Zhao, Khalid Mehmood, Xiaoxing Wu, Zhenyu Chang, Min Luo, Xueting Liu, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Tariq Javed, Donghai Zhou
Chromium (Cr) is one of the most important environmental pollutants which are released into the environment due to their wide usage in numerous industries. The excess of Cr (VI) can induce hepatotoxicity, while the molecular mechanism that is involved in Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. We demonstrated the induction of chromium poisoning model in chickens to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and their functions were analyzed under different physiological and pathological conditions...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561648/social-status-affects-lipid-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
Daniel Joseph Kostyniuk, Brett Matthew Culbert, Jan Alexander Mennigen, Kathleen M Gilmour
Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which socially subordinate fish display characteristic traits, including reduced growth rates and altered glucose metabolism. These effects are, in part, mediated by chronically elevated cortisol levels and/or reduced feeding. To determine the effects of social status on lipid metabolism, trout were held in pairs for 4 d, following which organismal and liver-specific indices of lipid metabolism were measured. At the organismal level, circulating triglycerides were elevated in dominant trout, whereas subordinate trout exhibited elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528548/adaptive-evolution-to-a-high-purine-and-fat-diet-of-carnivorans-revealed-by-gut-microbiomes-and-host-genomes
#12
Lifeng Zhu, Qi Wu, Cao Deng, Mengjie Zhang, Chenglin Zhang, Hua Chen, Guoqing Lu, Fuwen Wei
Carnivorous members of the Carnivora reside at the apex of food chains and consume meat-only diets, rich in purine, fats and protein. Here, we aimed to identify potential adaptive evolutionary signatures compatible with high purine and fat metabolism based on analysis of host genomes and symbiotic gut microbial metagenomes. We found that the gut microbiomes of carnivorous Carnivora (e.g., Felidae, Canidae) clustered in the same clade, and other clades comprised omnivorous and herbivorous Carnivora (e.g., badgers, bears and pandas)...
May 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528039/berberine-protects-against-palmitate-induced-apoptosis-in-tubular-epithelial-cells-by-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation
#13
Jiye Sun, Xuemei Chen, Ting Liu, Xushun Jiang, Yue Wu, Shan Yang, Wei Hua, Zhengdong Li, Huizhe Huang, Xiongzhong Ruan, Xiaogang Du
BACKGROUND Increased lipid accumulation in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) contributes to their injury and dysfunction and progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Berberine (BBR), a natural plant alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, is effective in lowing serum lipid, and has a protective effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) with dyslipidemia, including diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BBR on palmitate (PA)-induced lipid accumulation and apoptosis in TECs...
March 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519241/clinical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-patients-with-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders-identified-by-newborn-screening
#14
Eungu Kang, Yoon-Myung Kim, Minji Kang, Sun-Hee Heo, Gu-Hwan Kim, In-Hee Choi, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo, Beom Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) include more than 15 distinct disorders with variable clinical manifestations. After the introduction of newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry, early identification of FAODs became feasible. This study describes the clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of FAODs patients detected by newborn screening (NBS) compared with those of 9 patients with symptomatic presentations. METHODS: Clinical and genetic features of FAODs patients diagnosed by NBS and by symptomatic presentations were reviewed...
March 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514634/multi-tissue-transcriptomic-study-reveals-the-main-role-of-liver-in-the-chicken-adaptive-response-to-a-switch-in-dietary-energy-source-through-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-lipogenesis
#15
C Desert, E Baéza, M Aite, M Boutin, A Le Cam, J Montfort, M Houee-Bigot, Y Blum, P F Roux, C Hennequet-Antier, C Berri, S Metayer-Coustard, A Collin, S Allais, E Le Bihan, D Causeur, F Gondret, M J Duclos, S Lagarrigue
BACKGROUND: Because the cost of cereals is unstable and represents a large part of production charges for meat-type chicken, there is an urge to formulate alternative diets from more cost-effective feedstuff. We have recently shown that meat-type chicken source is prone to adapt to dietary starch substitution with fat and fiber. The aim of this study was to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to changes in dietary energy sources through the fine characterization of transcriptomic changes occurring in three major metabolic tissues - liver, adipose tissue and muscle - as well as in circulating blood cells...
March 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512720/alogliptin-alleviates-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-promoting-cpt1a-expression-via-thr172-phosphorylation-of-ampk%C3%AE-in-the-liver
#16
Hiroshi Tobita, Shuichi Sato, Tomotaka Yazaki, Tsuyoshi Mishiro, Norihisa Ishimura, Shunnji Ishihara, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Pioglitazone (PIO) has been reported to be effective for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alogliptin (ALO) may have efficacy against NAFLD progression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study examined the effectiveness of ALO in a rodent model of NAFLD and diabetes mellitus. KK‑Ay mice were used to produce an NAFLD model via administration of a choline‑deficient (CD) diet. To examine the effects of alogliptin, KK‑Ay mice were provided with a CD diet with 0.03% ALO and/or 0...
May 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476742/celastrol-mediates-th17-and-treg-cell-generation-via-metabolic-signaling
#17
Jiabi Zhang, Juan Shan, Xuelu Chen, Shengfu Li, Dan Long, Youping Li
A T helper 17 (Th17) cell/regulatory T (Treg) cell imbalance is involved in many immune disorders and diseases. Celastrol, a Chinese herbal compound that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, has been indicated to suppress T cell proliferation and Th17 cell induction, while facilitating Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) expression and Treg cell generation. In this study, we explored the impact and mechanism of celastrol on Th17 cell/induced Treg (iTreg) cell induction. CD4+ CD25- T cells were purified, stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, and polarized in vitro to generate Th17 or iTreg cells in the presence or absence of celastrol...
March 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471546/longitudinal-analyses-of-blood-transcriptome-during-conversion-to-psychosis
#18
Boris Chaumette, Oussama Kebir, Juliette Pouch, Bertrand Ducos, Fekrije Selimi, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs
The biological processes associated with the onset of schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Current hypotheses favor gene × environment interactions as supported by our recent report about DNA methylation changes during the onset of psychosis. Here, we conducted the first longitudinal transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from 31 at-risk individuals who later converted to psychosis and 63 at-risk individuals who did not. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 1 year. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of follow-up and individuals served as their own controls...
February 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458450/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-responses-induced-in-the-livers-of-growing-pigs-by-a-short-term-intravenous-infusion-of-sodium-butyrate
#19
E Ren, X Chen, S Yu, J Xu, Y Su, W Zhu
Previous studies showed that butyrate played benefit roles in the health and metabolism of animals. However, little information on the effects of butyrate on the metabolism of piglets at the extraintestinal level is available. The present study investigated transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of intravenous sodium butyrate (SB) on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Large White growing barrows (60 days of age) fitted with jugular vein cannula were randomly allocated to either the SB group or the control (CO) group...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433421/the-distribution-of-three-candidate-cold-resistant-snps-in-six-minorities-in-north-china
#20
Qiuyan Li, Kexian Dong, Lidan Xu, Xueyuan Jia, Jie Wu, Wenjing Sun, Xuelong Zhang, Songbin Fu
BACKGROUND: Heilongjiang Province located in northeast China is a multi-ethnic region with people who have lived in cold conditions for several generations. Fatty acids are important to people with cold resistance. CPT1A encodes a protein that imports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for fatty-acid oxidation. FADS is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated the distributions of three cold resistance-related SNPs (rs80356779 G > A in CPT1A, rs7115739 T > G in FADS3 and rs174570 C > T in FADS2) from six populations that included 1093 individuals who have lived in Heilongjiang Province for at least three generations...
February 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
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