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Amanda Marchant, Keith Hawton, Ann Stewart, Paul Montgomery, Vinod Singaravelu, Keith Lloyd, Nicola Purdy, Kate Daine, Ann John
BACKGROUND: Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, Cochrane and PsychInfo...
2017: PloS One
Joanne Neale, Charlotte N E Tompkins, John Strang
Relationships between peers are often considered central to the therapeutic process, yet there is relatively little empirical research either on the nature of peer-to-peer relationships within residential treatment or on how those relationships generate positive behaviour change or facilitate recovery. In this paper, we explore relationships between peers in residential addiction treatment, drawing upon the concept of social capital to frame our analyses. Our study was undertaken during 2015 and 2016 in two English residential treatment services using the same therapeutic community-informed model of treatment...
July 5, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
Deborah Kahan, Daniel Poremski, Deborah Wise-Harris, Daniel Pauly, Molyn Leszcz, Donald Wasylenki, Vicky Stergiopoulos
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the service needs and preferences of frequent emergency department users with mental health and addictions concerns who participated in a brief intensive case management intervention. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 20 frequent emergency department users with mental health and addictions challenges, 13 service providers involved in the delivery of a brief case management intervention, and a focus group with intervention case managers...
2016: PloS One
Sungjae Kim, Wooksoo Kim, Suzanne S Dickerson
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of women problem gamblers, focusing on the meaning of gambling to them, how and why these women continue to gamble or stop gambling, and their needs and concerns. In order to effectively help women problem gamblers, practical in-depth knowledge is necessary to develop intervention programs for prevention, treatment, and recovery among women problem gamblers. METHODS: The hermeneutic phenomenology approach was used to guide in-depth interviews and team interpretation of data...
October 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Genevieve A Dingle, Tegan Cruwys, Daniel Frings
There exists a predominant identity loss and "redemption" narrative in the addiction literature describing how individuals move from a "substance user" identity to a "recovery" identity. However, other identity related pathways influencing onset, treatment seeking and recovery may exist, and the process through which social identities unrelated to substance use change over time is not well understood. This study was designed to provide a richer understanding of such social identities processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults residing in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community (TC) and thematic analysis revealed two distinct identity-related pathways leading into and out of addiction...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
L A Croft, A C Hayward, A Story
SETTING: Peer education is a relatively unexplored intervention for tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among socially excluded communities. In London, peer educators are used to raise awareness of TB and promote uptake of radiological screening among people using homeless and/or drug and alcohol treatment services. OBJECTIVE: To understand the motivation and personal impact of being a peer educator on people with experience of anti-tuberculosis treatment, homelessness and addiction...
October 2013: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Jayati Banerjee, Reena Gyanda, Yi-Pin Chang, Christopher J Armishaw
α-Conotoxins are peptide neurotoxins isolated from the venom ducts of carnivorous marine cone snails that exhibit exquisite pharmacological potency and selectivity for various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. As such, they are important research tools and drug leads for treating various diseases of the central nervous system, including pain and tobacco addiction. Despite their therapeutic potential, the chemical synthesis of α-conotoxins for use in structure-activity relationship studies is complicated by the possibility of three disulfide bond isomers, where inefficient folding methods can lead to a poor recovery of the pharmacologically active isomer...
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leopoldo J Cabassa, Andel Nicasio, Rob Whitley
OBJECTIVES: Recovery from mental disorders encompasses multiple interrelated dimensions. This study used photovoice to explore how individuals with serious mental illness and a history of substance abuse and homelessness envisioned their recovery. A dimensional recovery model was applied to examine how the interrelationships between recovery dimensions supported consumers' recovery journeys. METHODS: Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers people by giving them cameras to document their experiences and inform social action...
September 1, 2013: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Marek Schwendt, Carmela M Reichel, Ronald E See
Methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive and widely abused psychostimulant. Repeated use of meth can quickly lead to dependence, and may be accompanied by a variety of persistent psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairments. The neuroadaptations underlying motivational and cognitive deficits produced by chronic meth intake remain poorly understood. Altered glutamate neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum has been linked to both persistent drug-seeking and cognitive dysfunction...
2012: PloS One
Elias Miranda-G, Monserrat Sordo, Ana M Salazar, Claudia Contreras, Leoncio Bautista, Aurora E Rojas García, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman
Amphetamine, a CYP2D6 substrate, is widely used by truck drivers, and the extent to which different people metabolize the drug has only been determined in an isolated or reduced number of samples. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is implemented to simultaneously determine amphetamine, methamphetamine, and hydroxyamphetamine in the urine of drug users. This method is a useful contribution to a well-established field. The main improvements are the use of liquid-liquid extraction, the trapping of the amphetamines as their hydrochloride salt, as a solution to the volatility of these analytes, and its application to assess the CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype of amphetamine users, which is innovative...
January 2007: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
N Jourdil, J Bessard, F Vincent, H Eysseric, G Bessard
A sensitive and specific method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has been developed for the quantitative determination of flunitrazepam (F) and its metabolites 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7-AF), N-desmethylflunitrazepam (N-DMF) and 3-hydroxyflunitrazepam (3-OHF) in biological fluids. After the addition of deuterium labelled standards of F,7-AF and N-DMF, the drugs were isolated from urine or plasma by automated solid-phase extraction, then chromatographed in an isocratic elution mode with a salt-free eluent...
May 25, 2003: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Michael Winkelman
OBJECTIVES: This article examines drumming activities as complementary addiction treatments and discusses their reported effects. METHODS: I observed drumming circles for substance abuse (as a participant), interviewed counselors and Internet mailing list participants, initiated a pilot program, and reviewed literature on the effects of drumming. RESULTS: Research reviews indicate that drumming enhances recovery through inducing relaxation and enhancing theta-wave production and brain-wave synchronization...
April 2003: American Journal of Public Health
M Shen, W Yan, B Shen, P Xiang, Z Huang, W Liu, J Bo
The purpose of this study is to investigate the metabolism of MDMA in the person and establish the methods for the determination of MDMA and its metabolites in urine. MDMA and its metabolite were isolated from urine by liquid-liquid extraction after acidic or enzymatic hydrolysis and were determined by GC/MS(EI, PCI) and GC/FID. The results showed that MDMA was metabolized to MDA and HMMA in man. MDA in the urine after MDMA administration was approximately 0.10-0.14 that of the parent drug. The sensitivity limits of methods were 2-50 ng/ml, and the recoveries were greater than 85%(CV < 10%)...
1998: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
M Fayne, M Silvan
For the most part, physician-addict patients are affable, cooperative and tend to be bright, verbal and engaging. However, on a deeper level they experience significant internal obstacles to truly using treatment. The role of the healer adopted after years of training and work experience is not easily exchanged for the role of patient. Furthermore, the armour of defenses and character style that have been built up over a lifetime is resistant to modification. Additionally, most of these patients have not chosen to change...
1999: Psychiatric Quarterly
J M Hall
In narratives of 35 lesbians in alcohol recovery, 46% unexpectedly disclosed having survived childhood sexual abuse (CSA), linking it with addiction and recovery experiences. This subgroup described unbounded difficulties that pervaded their lives well into recovery. They reported multiple addictions, self-harm, isolation, sexual problems, depression, self-loathing, physical illness, and inability to work more often than did other participants. Those not reporting CSA were more socially and occupationally stable, self-satisfied, and physically well in recovery; their alcohol problems seemed circumscribed and responsive to conventional intervention...
January 1996: Substance Use & Misuse
G D Talbott, E B Benson
Physicians addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs demonstrate characteristic behaviors in six areas of life. First they withdraw from community and family. Next they change jobs, often repeatedly. Then their physical status begins to deteriorate. Finally they can no longer function effectively at office or hospital. By learning the warning signs, those who come in contact with physicians can detect such problems earlier, while there is still a good chance of recovery.
December 1980: Postgraduate Medicine
F Suter, R Maserati, G Carnevale, P Marone, C Filice, E Concia
Staphylococcal endocarditis is a condition affecting intravenous drug abusers at increasing rates, and its treatment is still controversial. We used, successfully, high doses of rifampicin, associated with an aminoglycoside, for the treatment of two heroin addicts. In the first we found a left-sided endocarditis with metastatic abscesses in brain, both kidneys, liver and spleen; in the other the finding of bilateral lung abscesses was related to embolic episodes from a diseased tricuspid valve. Since the isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were tolerant to methicillin, we used oral rifampicin (20 mg/kg/day) plus an aminoglycoside (amikacin in the former and gentamicin in the latter), after in-vitro testing had proved these combinations to be effective...
June 1984: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
L Wermuth, S Brummett, J L Sorensen
Clinical issues are described in opiate addicts attempting to taper off methadone maintenance, and techniques are suggested to help this patient population. The observations were generated in an experimental "Tapering Network" project, in which opiate addicts on methadone maintenance had the opportunity to receive individual and group counseling, relapse prevention training, self-help groups, and other services. Vignettes illustrate clinical problems with intimacy and social isolation, identity as a former addict, and a "post methadone syndrome" characterized by vulnerability, dramatic swings in mood, and disordered thinking for a period of up to six months after detoxification...
1987: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
E Anggård, L M Gunne, J Homstrand, R E McMahon, C G Sandberg, H R Sullivan
Six detoxified opiate addicts housed in a closed metabolic ward received methadone in stepwise increasing doses of 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/day during 1 month. Four were given 14C-methadone at the lowest dose and again at the highest dose. Of the subjects receiving radiomethadone, 2 excreted the major part of the radioactivity in urine and 2 about equally in urine and feces. In addition to methadone, 7 metabolites were isolated and identified in urine and 3 metabolites in feces. About 75% of the urinary and fecal radioactive metabolites were unconjugated...
March 1975: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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