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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912181/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-genetics-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Ali J Marian, Eugene Braunwald
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder that is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy unexplained by secondary causes and a nondilated left ventricle with preserved or increased ejection fraction. It is commonly asymmetrical with the most severe hypertrophy involving the basal interventricular septum. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is present at rest in about one third of the patients and can be provoked in another third. The histological features of HCM include myocyte hypertrophy and disarray, as well as interstitial fibrosis...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864371/left-ventricular-noncompaction-in-older-patients
#2
Tao Tian, Kun-Qi Yang, Yi Mao, Lan-Lan Zhou, Lin-Ping Wang, Yan Xiao, Yan-Kun Yang, Yin Zhang, Xu Meng, Xian-Liang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Information on left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) in older people is sparse. This study aimed to investigate the clinical profile of LVNC in an older cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2007 and September 2015, older patients (age ≥ 60 years) who were diagnosed with LVNC using cardiovascular magnetic resonance were prospectively enrolled at our hospital. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (male, 80%; mean age, 65 ± 5 years) were prospectively included in this study...
August 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858113/extraction-of-a-dual-chamber-pacemaker-and-inserting-of-a-new-automatic-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-the-easy-procedure-almost-became-catastrophic-a-case-report
#3
Márcio Galindo Kiuchi, Guilherme Miglioli Lobato, Shaojie Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular illnesses are in the middle of the foremost reasons of death around the world. Deaths in Europe, from sudden cardiac death (SCD), reach nearby 700,000 individuals every year. In the United States, statistics point to the existence of nearly 1 million yearly deaths from cardiovascular sickness, of which 330,000 are the consequence of abrupt. The significance of automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been proven in subjects with preceding myocardial infarction and stark systolic left ventricular dysfunction (secondary prevention)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671805/valvular-heart-disease-in-adults-management-of-native-valve-disease
#4
REVIEW
Xin Zhang, Steven M Hollenberg
Patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) should be treated for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. They also should receive therapy for left ventricular dysfunction, undergo interval echocardiography, and participate in aerobic exercise. Valve replacement should be considered for patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and syncope, presyncope, heart failure, angina, or severe AS with left ventricular dysfunction. Valve replacement is performed with open or transcatheter procedures; the latter are preferred for patients with high surgical risk...
June 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507838/recurrent-stress-cardiomyopathy-during-copd-exacerbation-are-beta-adrenergic-agonists-only-to-blame
#5
Ioanna Katsa, Panagiota Christia, Daniele Massera, Robert Faillace
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a variant of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction that may be associated with emotional or physical triggers. We present the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian female with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who presented with syncope and was found to have her second lifetime episode of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Eight months prior, she had been admitted with a COPD exacerbation and was found to have left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with ejection fraction (EF) of 22% attributed to TCM with subsequent normalization of her left ventricular function...
April 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492156/electrical-storm-or-naxos-syndrome-in-an-adult-causing-recurrent-syncope
#6
Muhammad Furrakh Maqbool, Muhammad Sajid, Ahmed Noeman
Among the rare and well-known causes of sudden cardiac death by malignant arrthymias is a condition called arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. It commonly presents with right ventricular dilatation, dysfunction and ventricular tachycardia of left bundle branch morphology due to fibro-fatty infiltration of right ventricle in second to fifth decade of life, making it an unrecognized and important cause of sudden cardiac death. Two rare variants of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are Carvajal syndrome and Naxos syndrome...
April 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431063/left-ventricular-dysfunction-is-associated-with-frequent-premature-ventricular-complexes-and-asymptomatic-ventricular-tachycardia-in-children
#7
R A Bertels, L M Harteveld, L H Filippini, S A Clur, N A Blom
Aims: To assess the risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a paediatric population with idiopathic frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and asymptomatic ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Methods and Results: Paediatric patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic frequent PVCs and asymptomatic VTs were retrospectively evaluated. Frequent PVCs were defined as ≥5% on 24 h Holter recording. Left ventricular dysfunction was defined as a shortening fraction of ≤28%...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275558/myocardial-strain-and-symptom-severity-in-severe-aortic-stenosis-insights-from-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#8
Tarique Al Musa, Akhlaque Uddin, Peter P Swoboda, Pankaj Garg, Timothy A Fairbairn, Laura E Dobson, Christopher D Steadman, Anvesha Singh, Bara Erhayiem, Sven Plein, Gerald P McCann, John P Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a class I indication for replacement in patients when left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is preserved. However, symptom reporting is often equivocal and decision making can be challenging. We aimed to quantify myocardial deformation using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients classified by symptom severity. METHODS: Forty-two patients with severe AS referred to heart valve clinic were studied using tagged CMR imaging...
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247566/natural-history-of-severe-aortic-stenosis-diastolic-wall-strain-as-a-novel-prognostic-marker
#9
Edinrin Obasare, Vikas Bhalla, Deepakraj Gajanana, Mary Rodriguez Ziccardi, Jose N Codolosa, Vincent M Figueredo, Dennis Lynn Morris, Gregg S Pressman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diastolic wall strain (DWS) has been proposed as a simple noninvasive measure of left ventricular (LV) stiffness. This study investigated DWS as a possible predictor of mortality in severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: 138 patients with severe AS (indexed aortic valve area [AVA]<0.6 cm(2) /m(2) ) and normal ejection fraction (>55%) were included. 52 patients (38%) had aortic valve interventions or poor image quality (n=5) and were excluded leaving 86 in the study group (84±8 years, 70% female, 69% African American)...
March 1, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079110/left-ventricular-noncompaction-cardiomyopathy-cardiac-neuromuscular-and-genetic-factors
#10
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Claudia Stöllberger, Jeffrey A Towbin
Left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT) or noncompaction is a myocardial abnormality of unknown aetiology, frequently associated with monogenic disorders, particularly neuromuscular disorders, or with chromosomal defects. LVHT is diagnosed usually by echocardiography by the presence of a bilayered myocardium consisting of a thick, spongy, noncompacted endocardial layer and a thin, compacted, epicardial layer. The pathogenesis of LVHT is unsolved, and the diagnostic criteria, prognosis, and optimal treatment of patients with LVHT are under debate...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747019/cardiogenic-syncope-possibly-related-to-bevacizumab-containing-combination-chemotherapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
EDITORIAL
Haruka Chino, Yosuke Amano, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Jun Matsuda, Norihiko Takeda, Goh Tanaka, Daiya Takai, Takahide Nagase
We report the case of a 55-year-old man with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who received carboplatin-paclitaxel-bevacizumab chemotherapy as second-line therapy. After four cycles of chemotherapy, he experienced syncope with a decrease in blood pressure. Electrocardiography (ECG) revealed atrial fibrillation. Cardiac ultrasonography showed a markedly reduced ejection fraction (45%), with moderate decrease in comparison to that before chemotherapy (66%). Bisoprolol fumarate was initiated, and the conversion to sinus rhythm was detected by ECG 4 days after the syncope...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707537/exercise-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-review-of-current-evidence-national-guideline-recommendations-and-a-proposal-for-a-new-direction-to-fitness
#12
REVIEW
Waseem Hindieh, Arnon Adler, Adaya Weissler-Snir, Dana Fourey, Sarah Harris, Harry Rakowski
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1:500 in the general population. Amongst a varied spectrum of clinical presentations, the most feared complication of this cardiac disorder is sudden cardiac death. Although only a minority of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who suffer sudden cardiac death or resuscitated cardiac arrest do so during exercise, strenuous physical activity is regarded as an important trigger for these tragic outcomes. Furthermore, during exercise, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may develop augmentation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, myocardial ischemia, diastolic dysfunction and/or inappropriate vasodilation in non-exercising vascular beds...
April 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439928/sinus-surgery-complicated-by-ventricular-fibrillation-in-a-young-patient-inverted-reverse-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#13
Gültekin Günhan Demir, Gamze Babur Güler, Ekrem Güler, Hacı Murat Güneş, Filiz Kızılırmak
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), also known as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome or stress cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the absence of obstructive lesion in the epicardial coronary arteries. The most common presentation is acute substernal chest pain, although occasionally dyspnea and syncope, and rarely shock with ST-segment elevation and elevated cardiac biomarkers have been observed. Inverted (reverse) TTC is a rare pattern characterized hypokinesis of the basal and midventricular segments...
July 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296905/episodic-left-bundle-branch-block-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
George Bazoukis, Konstantinos Tsimos, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos
Episodic (transient/ intermittent) left bundle branch block (LBBB) has been associated with different conditions such as bradycardia, tachycardia, anesthesia, acute pulmonary embolism, changes in intrathoracic pressure, chest trauma, cardiac interventional procedures, mad honey poisoning, and in other clinical settings. Of note, exclusion of an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of episodic LBBB is of great importance. Moreover, episodic LBBB is sometimes symptomatic and may be associated with left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction or conduction disturbances leading to syncope...
March 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247014/left-ventricular-dysfunction-is-associated-with-frequent-premature-ventricular-complexes-and-asymptomatic-ventricular-tachycardia-in-children
#15
R A Bertels, L M Harteveld, L H Filippini, S A Clur, N A Blom
AIMS: To assess the risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a paediatric population with idiopathic frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and asymptomatic ventricular tachycardias (VTs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Paediatric patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic frequent PVCs and asymptomatic VTs were retrospectively evaluated. Frequent PVCs were defined as ≥5% on 24 h Holter recording. Left ventricular dysfunction was defined as a shortening fraction of ≤28%...
May 31, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063413/pulmonary-embolism-as-a-complication-of-an-electrophysiological-study-a-case-report
#16
Sahela Nasrin, Fathima Aaysha Cader, Mohammad Salahuddin, Tahera Nazrin, Jabed Iqbal, Masuma Jannat Shafi
BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological studies have become an established practice in the evaluation and treatment of arrhythmias. Symptomatic pulmonary embolism as a result of deep vein thrombosis arising from multiple venous sheath femoral vein catheterization is an uncommon complication associated with it. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who developed pulmonary embolism after an electrophysiological study, which was successfully treated at a cardiac hospital in Bangladesh. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Bangladeshi woman with hypertension and diabetes had initially presented with recurrent episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation that manifested as palpitations for 2 years...
April 11, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009208/-refractory-epilepsy-what-lies-beneath
#17
Syedah Saira Bokhari, Satwat Hashmi
A 30-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with recurrent seizures for 5 days. She had been diagnosed with epilepsy 2 years previously but stopped treatment due to the side effects of her medications. She was now experiencing episodes every 15-30 min. While undergoing a brain MRI to investigate for structural central nervous system pathology, she experienced another episode, preceded by prodromal symptoms. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia was noted during the event. Further investigation revealed a normal QT interval, normal electrolyte panel, normal coronaries and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction...
March 23, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002622/left-ventricular-non-compaction-in-athletes-to-play-or-not-to-play
#18
REVIEW
Eric Emmanuel Coris, Byron Keith Moran, Raymond De Cuba, Ted Farrar, Anne B Curtis
Isolated left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) has usually been viewed as a rare cardiomyopathy in athletes. However, with advances in diagnostic imaging techniques and increased use of pre-participation screening electrocardiograms (ECGs), apparent LVNC is being recognized in an increasing number of athletes. Given the lack of a true gold standard for diagnosis, significant debate continues regarding optimal diagnostic criteria. There are increasing data to support the possibility of over-diagnosing this cardiomyopathy in an athletic population due to the physiologic adaptation to the extreme preload and afterload characteristic of intense athletic participation...
September 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926974/aortic-stenosis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Brian H Grimard, Robert E Safford, Elizabeth L Burns
Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and atrial augmentation of preload compensate for the increase in afterload caused by aortic stenosis. As the disease worsens, these compensatory mechanisms become inadequate, leading to symptoms of heart failure, angina, or syncope. Aortic valve replacement is recommended for most symptomatic patients with evidence of significant aortic stenosis on echocardiography...
March 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475296/arrhythmogenic-phenotype-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-natural-history-and-predictors-of-life-threatening-arrhythmias
#20
Anita Spezzacatene, Gianfranco Sinagra, Marco Merlo, Giulia Barbati, Sharon L Graw, Francesca Brun, Dobromir Slavov, Andrea Di Lenarda, Ernesto E Salcedo, Jeffrey A Towbin, Jeffrey E Saffitz, Frank I Marcus, Wojciech Zareba, Matthew R G Taylor, Luisa Mestroni
BACKGROUND: Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) may present with ventricular arrhythmias early in the disease course, unrelated to the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. These patients may be classified as having an arrhythmogenic DCM (AR-DCM). We investigated the phenotype and natural history of patients with AR-DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-five patients with a recent diagnosis of DCM (median duration of the disease 1 month, range 0 to 7 months) and who had Holter monitoring at baseline were comprehensively evaluated and followed for 107 months (range 29 to 170 months)...
October 16, 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
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