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ACT chronic pain

S Sukhbir, S Yashpal, A Sandeep
Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a non-opioid centrally acting analgesic drug used to treat chronic condition such as neuropathic pain. In current research, sustained release nefopam hydrochloride loaded nanospheres (NFH-NS) were auspiciously synthesized using binary mixture of eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 with sorbitan monooleate as surfactant by quasi solvent diffusion technique and optimized by 3(5) Box-Behnken designs to evaluate the effects of process and formulation variables. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirmed absence of drug-polymer incompatibility and confirmed formation of nanospheres...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
D Reiss, R A Ceredig, T Secher, J Boué, F Barreau, G Dietrich, C Gavériaux-Ruff
BACKGROUND: Opiates act through opioid receptors to diminish pain. Here, we investigated whether mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) receptor endogenous activity assessed in the whole mouse body or in particular at peripheral receptors on primary nociceptive neurons, control colonic pain. METHODS: We compared global MOR and DOR receptor knockout (KO) mice, mice with a conditional deletion of MOR and DOR in Nav1.8-positive nociceptive primary afferent neurons (cKO), and control floxed mice of both genders for visceral sensitivity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Peng Luo, Shuo Li, Yitai Chen, Yuwen Luo, Yun Li, Kai Wang, Yuxia Huang, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor recommended by clinical guideline, is always being used in combination with at least one long-acting bronchodilator in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are few evidences about whether the combination of roflumilast and long-acting bronchodilators is safer and more effective in patients with moderate-to-very severe stable COPD. In our study, we investigate the effect and safety of roflumilast combined with long-acting bronchodilators on moderate-to-severe stable COPD patients...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Marcelina Jasmine Silva, Andrea Rubinstein
Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
William L Hasler
Chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting (CUNV) refers to a symptom complex defined by nausea and/or vomiting with normal diagnostic testing, including anatomic assessments (including upper endoscopy) and measures of upper gut function (e.g., gastric emptying testing). Nausea and vomiting in this condition are postulated to result from aberrant peripheral or central neurohumoral activity. A substantial subset of patients satisfies this diagnosis as more than half of individuals referred for scintigraphic testing exhibit normal gastric emptying rates...
October 10, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Janne Gierthmühlen, Ralf Baron
Diagnosing neuropathic pain and distinguishing it from nociceptive pain can be challenging, but is essential because both forms of pain require different treatment strategies. The diagnosis of neuropathic pain is primarily based on clinical findings. Therefore, a careful, focused history and an examination of the signs characteristic of neuropathic pain are crucial. Imaging techniques and electrophysiological examinations, as well as punch skin biopsy can support the clinical diagnosis. Ideally, treatment should be individualized using a mechanism-based approach...
October 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Juliane C Silva, Jackson R G S Almeida, Jullyana S S Quintans, Rajiv Gandhi Gopalsamy, Saravanan Shanmugam, Mairim Russo Serafini, Maria R C Oliveira, Bruno A F Silva, Anita O B P B Martins, Fyama F Castro, Irwin R A Menezes, Henrique D M Coutinho, Rita C M Oliveira, Parimelazhagan Thangaraj, Adriano A S Araújo, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior
Orofacial pain is associated with diagnosis of chronic pain of head, face, mouth, neck and all the intraoral structures. Carvacrol, a naturally occurring isoprenoid with diverse class of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Now, the antinociceptive effect was studied in mice pretreatment with carvacrol (CARV) and β-cyclodextrin complex containing carvacrol (CARV-βCD) in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate- induced orofacial nociception. Mice were pretreated with vehicle (0...
September 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gabriel Rusanescu, Jianren Mao
Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling occurs throughout the hindbrain, and in addition to regions involved in pain processing, also affects other sensory modalities...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Richard Lawson, James Ryan, Frederic King, Jo Wern Goh, Eszter Tichy, Kevin Marsh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most common adverse effect reported in patients receiving opioids to manage pain. Initial treatment with laxatives provides inadequate response in some patients. Naloxegol is a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist used to treat patients with inadequate response to laxative(s) (laxative inadequate responder [LIR]). A cost-effectiveness model was constructed from the UK payer perspective to compare oral naloxegol 25 mg with placebo in non-cancer LIR patients receiving opioids for chronic pain, and a scenario analysis of naloxegol 25 mg with rescue laxatives compared with placebo with rescue laxatives in the same patient population...
September 23, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Jai Shankar K Yadlapalli, Benjamin M Ford, Amit Ketkar, Anqi Wan, Narasimha R Penthala, Robert L Eoff, Paul L Prather, Maxim Dobretsov, Peter A Crooks
: This study determined the antinociceptive effects of morphine and morphine-6-O-sulfate (M6S) in both normal and diabetic rats, and evaluated the comparative role of mu-opioid receptors (mu-ORs) and delta-opioid receptors (delta-ORs) in the antinociceptive action of these opioids. In vitro characterization of mu-OR and delta-OR-mediated signaling by M6S and morphine in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells showed that M6S exhibited a 6-fold higher affinity for delta-ORs and modulated G-protein and adenylyl cyclase activity via delta-ORs more potently than morphine...
September 13, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Aisling Daly-Eichenhardt, Whitney Scott, Matthew Howard-Jones, Thaleia Nicolaou, Lance M McCracken
AIMS: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Christoforos Tsantoulas, Elizabeth R Mooney, Peter A McNaughton
Nociception - the ability to detect painful stimuli - is an invaluable sense that warns against present or imminent damage. In patients with chronic pain, however, this warning signal persists in the absence of any genuine threat and affects all aspects of everyday life. Neuropathic pain, a form of chronic pain caused by damage to sensory nerves themselves, is dishearteningly refractory to drugs that may work in other types of pain and is a major unmet medical need begging for novel analgesics. Hyperpolarisation-activated cyclic nucleotide (HCN)-modulated ion channels are best known for their fundamental pacemaker role in the heart; here, we review data demonstrating that the HCN2 isoform acts in an analogous way as a 'pacemaker for pain', in that its activity in nociceptive neurons is critical for the maintenance of electrical activity and for the sensation of chronic pain in pathological pain states...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Natalia Malek, Katarzyna Starowicz
Compared with acute pain that arises suddenly in response to a specific injury and is usually treatable, chronic pain persists over time, and is often resistant to medical treatment. Because of the heterogeneity of chronic pain origins, satisfactory therapies for its treatment are lacking, leading to an urgent need for the development of new treatments. The leading approach in drug design is selective compounds, though they are often less effective and require chronic dosing with many side effects. Herein, we review novel approaches to drug design for the treatment of chronic pain represented by dual-acting compounds, which operate at more than one biological target...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jessica Han Ying Tan, Anne Ann Ling Hsu
BACKGROUND: Patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) also recently known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) must avoid aspirin and all other oral NSAIDs. The effect of topical NSAID (tNSAID), especially salicylates which are commonly present in topical medicated preparations, on asthma control of this phenotype is studied. METHODS: The study inclusion criteria were adults with: 1) NSAID hypersensitivity; 2) nasal polyposis/chronic rhinosinusitis; 3) not well-/poorly controlled asthma and 4) exposure to tNSAID...
September 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Karen L Barker, Leila Heelas, Francine Toye
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in pain rehabilitation emphasise the importance of promoting psychological flexibility. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one approach that has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, studies have shown that introducing innovative approaches such as ACT into established health care can cause some anxiety for professional groups. We used Action Research to evaluate the implementation of ACT to a physiotherapy-led pain rehabilitation programme...
February 2016: British Journal of Pain
Andréa A G Nes, Sandra van Dulmen, Rikard Wicksell, Egil A Fors, Hilde Eide
PURPOSE: This study investigated change processes resulting from a randomized controlled trial smartphone-delivered maintenance intervention with daily electronic diaries and personalized written feedback based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) following a rehabilitation program for patients with chronic widespread pain. METHOD: This study included 48 women who during a 5-week period completed electronic diaries three times daily, totaling 3372 entries...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Genna R Prather, James A MacLean, Mingxin Shi, Daniel K Boadu, Marilène Paquet, Kanako Hayashi
Endometriosis causes severe chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Because the standard medication and surgical treatments of endometriosis show high recurrence of symptoms, it is necessary to improve current treatment options. In the initial study, we examined whether niclosamide can be a useful drug for endometriosis in a preclinical setting. Endometriotic implants were induced using an established mouse model involving transimplantation of mouse endometrial fragments to the peritoneal wall of recipient mice...
August 17, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Bobbi Jo H Yarborough, Scott P Stumbo, Shannon L Janoff, Micah T Yarborough, Dennis McCarty, Howard D Chilcoat, Paul M Coplan, Carla A Green
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse and misuse are significant public health issues. The CDC estimated 72% of pharmaceutical-related overdose deaths in the US in 2012 involved opioids. While studies of opioid overdoses have identified sociodemographic characteristics, agents used, administration routes, and medication sources associated with overdoses, we know less about the context and life circumstances of the people who experience these events. METHODS: We analyzed interviews (n=87) with survivors of opioid overdoses or family members of decedents...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrea L Rubinstein, Diane M Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: Androgen deficiency is common among men who use opioids daily for chronic pain. In previous studies, we found that long-acting opioids are associated with greater odds of androgen suppression than equipotent doses of short-acting opioids. Here we examined whether specific commonly prescribed opioids were associated with greater odds of androgen deficiency compared to hydrocodone. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Within a large, integrated health care delivery system, this study was comprised of men ages 18-80 on a stable regimen of a single opioid for chronic non-cancer pain...
August 11, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Claudia Tosti, Antonella Biscione, Giuseppe Morgante, Giuseppe Bifulco, Stefano Luisi, Felice Petraglia
Endometriotic lesions are associated with hormonal imbalance, including increased estrogen synthesis, metabolism and progesterone resistance. These hormonal changes cause increased proliferation, inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalances are targets for treatment. Therapeutic strategies and innovations of hormonal drugs for endometriosis are increasing. Acting on estrogen receptors are hormonal drugs decreasing systemic and local estrogen synthesis (GnRH analogs, GnRH antagonists, Aromatase inhibitors) or estrogen activity (selective estrogen receptor modulators)...
May 27, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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