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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352260/effect-of-in-vitro-storage-duration-on-measured-mechanical-properties-of-brain-tissue
#1
Wei Zhang, Li-Fu Liu, Yue-Jiao Xiong, Yi-Fan Liu, Sheng-Bo Yu, Cheng-Wei Wu, Weihong Guo
Accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of brain tissue is essential for understanding the mechanisms of traumatic brain injuries and developing protective gears or facilities. However, how storage conditions might affect the mechanical properties of brain tissue remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of in vitro storage duration on the mechanical performance of brain tissue since measurements are usually carried out in vitro. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements and uniaxial compression mechanical experiments are carried out...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352102/teenage-onset-progressive-myoclonic-epilepsy-due-to-a-familial-c9orf72-repeat-expansion
#2
Jelle van den Ameele, Ivana Jedlickova, Anna Pristoupilova, Anne Sieben, Sara Van Mossevelde, Chantal Ceuterick-de Groote, Helena Hůlková, Radoslav Matej, Alfred Meurs, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Samuel F Berkovic, Patrick Santens, Stanislav Kmoch, Bart Dermaut
BACKGROUND: The progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PME) are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which a specific diagnosis cannot be made in a subset of patients, despite exhaustive investigation. C9orf72 repeat expansions are emerging as an important causal factor in several adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders, in particular frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. An association with PME has not been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative mutation in a Belgian family where the proband had genetically unexplained PME...
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344929/pla2g6-deficiency-in-zebrafish-leads-to-dopaminergic-cell-death-axonal-degeneration-increased-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-and-defects-in-brain-functions-and-pathways
#3
Elena Sánchez, Luis J Azcona, Coro Paisán-Ruiz
This study aimed to gain insights into the pathophysiology underlying PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration that is implicated in three different neurological disorders, suggesting that other, unknown genetic or environmental factors might contribute to its wide phenotypic expression. To accomplish this, we downregulated the function of pla2g6 in the zebrafish nervous system, performed parkinsonism-related phenotypic characterization, and determined the effects of gene regulation upon the loss of pla2g6 function by using RNA sequencing and downstream analyses...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344870/cell-specific-rna-quantification-in-human-sn-da-neurons-from-heterogeneous-post-mortem-midbrain-samples-by-uv-laser-microdissection-and-rt-qpcr
#4
Johanna Duda, Michael Fauler, Jan Gründemann, Birgit Liss
Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is from particular relevance when the abundance of target cells is not homogeneous in the compared tissue samples, like it is the case, e.g., when comparing brain tissues from controls and in neurodegenerative disease states. While single-cell gene expression profiling is already a methodological challenge per se, it becomes even more prone to artifacts when analyzing individual cells from human post-mortem samples. Not only because human samples can never be matched as precisely as those from animal models, but also, because the RNA-quality that can be obtained from human samples usually displays a high range of variability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#5
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344864/laser-capture-microdissection-in-traumatic-brain-injury-research-obtaining-hippocampal-subregions-and-pools-of-injured-neurons-for-genomic-analyses
#6
Deborah R Boone, Harris A Weisz, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich
The methods presented here are based on our laboratory's 15 years of experience using laser capture microdissection to obtain samples for the study of gene expression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a well-established rat model of experimental TBI. Here, we describe how to use the ArcturusXT laser capture microdissection system to capture swaths of specific regions of the rat hippocampus as well as specific neuronal populations defined by Fluoro-Jade C staining. Staining with Fluoro-Jade C identifies a neuron that is in the process of degeneration...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343821/focal-hyperintensity-in-the-dorsal-brain-stem-of-patients-with-cerebellopontine-angle-tumor-a-high-resolution-3%C3%A2-t-mri-study
#7
Hirotaka Yamamoto, Atsushi Fujita, Taichiro Imahori, Takashi Sasayama, Kohkichi Hosoda, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Eiji Kohmura
Focal hyperintensity (FHI) in the dorsal brain stem on T2-weighted images of patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor was thought to indicate degeneration of the vestibular nucleus and to be specific to vestibular schwannoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FHI by using high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3 T MRI) and the relation to clinical characteristics. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and MRI of 45 patients with CPA tumors (34 vestibular schwannomas and 11 other tumors)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341318/cognitive-trajectories-and-spectrum-of-neuropathology-in-superagers-the-first-ten-cases
#8
Emily Rogalski, Tamar Gefen, Qinwen Mao, Maureen Connelly, Sandra Weintraub, Changiz Geula, Eileen H Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam
On average, memory capacity is significantly higher in populations of 50-60 year olds than in populations of 80 year olds. We define SuperAgers as individuals 80 or older whose episodic memory capacity is at least as good as that of cognitively average individuals in their 50s and 60s. SuperAgers therefore have memory capacity that is superior for age. Previous work showed that SuperAgers have greater cortical volumes and greater resistance to age-related cortical atrophy than 'cognitively average' individuals of the same age...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341299/autonomous-purkinje-cell-axonal-dystrophy-causes-ataxia-in-peroxisomal-multifunctional-protein-2-deficiency
#9
Stephanie De Munter, Dorien Bamps, Ana Rita Malheiro, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Pedro Brites, Myriam Baes
BACKGROUND: Peroxisomes play a crucial role in normal neurodevelopment and in the maintenance of the adult brain. This depends largely on intact peroxisomal β-oxidation given the similarities in pathologies between peroxisome biogenesis disorders and deficiency of multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), the central enzyme of this pathway. Recently, adult patients diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia were shown to have mild mutations in the MFP2 gene, hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (17 beta) type 4 (HSD17B4)...
January 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339464/propionate-enters-gabaergic-neurons-inhibits-gaba-transaminase-causes-gaba-accumulation-and-lethargy-in-a-model-of-propionic-acidemia
#10
Cecilie Morland, Anne-Sofie Frøland, Mi Nyguyen Pettersen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Vidar Gundersen, Frode Rise, Bjørnar Hassel
Propionic acidemia is the accumulation of propionate in blood due to dysfunction of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The condition causes lethargy and striatal degeneration with motor impairment in humans. How propionate exerts its toxic effect is unclear. Here we show that intravenous administration of propionate causes dose-dependent propionate accumulation in the brain and transient lethargy in mice. Propionate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, entered GABAergic neurons, as could be seen from increased neuronal histone H4 acetylation in striatum and neocortex...
January 16, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325992/quantitative-analysis-of-lipid-debris-accumulation-caused-by-cuprizone-induced-myelin-degradation-in-different-cns-areas
#11
Attila Ozsvár, Róbert Szipőcs, Zoltán Ozsvár, Judith Baka, Pál Barzó, Gábor Tamás, Gábor Molnár
Degradation of myelin sheath is thought to be the cause of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), but definitive agreement on mechanism of how myelin is lost is currently lacking. Autoimmune initiation of MS has been recently questioned by proposing that the immune response is a consequence of oligodendrocyte degeneration. To study the process of myelin breakdown, we induced demyelination with cuprizone and applied coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, a non-destructive label-free method to image lipid structures in living tissue...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323198/paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-pnh-brain-mri-ischemic-lesions-in-neurologically-asymtomatic-patients
#12
Wilma Barcellini, Elisa Scola, Silvia Lanfranconi, Marika Grottaroli, Francesca Binda, Bruno Fattizzo, Anna Zaninoni, Gloria Valcamonica, Claudia Maria Cinnante, Carla Boschetti, Massimiliano Buoli, Carlo Alfredo Altamura, Nereo Bresolin, Fabio Triulzi, Alberto Zanella, Agostino Cortelezzi
This study investigated for the first time brain ischemic involvement in 19 consecutive neurologically asymptomatic PNH patients by non-enhanced cerebral MRI, and by intracranial arterial and venous angio-MRI. Eleven cases (58%, 7 aged <65) showed pathological findings: 9 white matter (WM) abnormalities related to chronic ischemic small vessel disease, 2 a focal abnormality >5 mm, and 5 cases a score >4 by the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale. Compared with age and sex-matched controls (1:2 ratio), patients showed an increased frequency of periventricular WM vascular degeneration (32% versus 5...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321977/imidacloprid-exposure-cause-the-histopathological-changes-activation-of-tnf-%C3%AE-inos-8-ohdg-biomarkers-and-alteration-of-caspase-3-inos-cyp1a-mt1-gene-expression-levels-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#13
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun Arslan
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317290/running-exercise-protects-against-myelin-breakdown-in-the-absence-of-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-ad-mice
#14
Feng-Lei Chao, Lei Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Lin Jiang, Qian Xiao, Yan-Min Luo, Fu-Lin Lv, Qi He, Yong Tang
Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclearwhether running exercise could protect the myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a control group (Tg control) or a running group (Tg runner), and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group (WT control)...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315361/networks-of-tau-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Merle C Hoenig, Gérard N Bischof, Joseph Seemiller, Jochen Hammes, Juraj Kukolja, Özgür A Onur, Frank Jessen, Klaus Fliessbach, Bernd Neumaier, Gereon R Fink, Thilo van Eimeren, Alexander Drzezga
A stereotypical anatomical propagation of tau pathology has been described in Alzheimer's disease. According to recent concepts (network degeneration hypothesis), this propagation is thought to be indicative of misfolded tau proteins possibly spreading along functional networks. If true, tau pathology accumulation should correlate in functionally connected brain regions. Therefore, we examined whether independent components could be identified in the distribution pattern of in vivo tau pathology and whether these components correspond with specific functional connectivity networks...
January 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315334/immune-related-genetic-enrichment-in-frontotemporal-dementia-an-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies
#16
Iris Broce, Celeste M Karch, Natalie Wen, Chun C Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Chin Hong Tan, Naomi Kouri, Owen A Ross, Günter U Höglinger, Ulrich Muller, John Hardy, Parastoo Momeni, Christopher P Hess, William P Dillon, Zachary A Miller, Luke W Bonham, Gil D Rabinovici, Howard J Rosen, Gerard D Schellenberg, Andre Franke, Tom H Karlsen, Jan H Veldink, Raffaele Ferrari, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Bruce L Miller, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Rahul S Desikan, Leo P Sugrue
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that immune-mediated dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although genetic studies have shown that immune-associated loci are associated with increased FTD risk, a systematic investigation of genetic overlap between immune-mediated diseases and the spectrum of FTD-related disorders has not been performed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) (total n = 192,886 cases and controls) and recently developed tools to quantify genetic overlap/pleiotropy, we systematically identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) jointly associated with FTD-related disorders-namely, FTD, corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-and 1 or more immune-mediated diseases including Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), celiac disease (CeD), and psoriasis...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310486/focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-in-children-complicated-by-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#17
Magdalena Stârcea, Cristina Gavrilovici, Mihaela Munteanu, Ingrith Miron
An uncommon side effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) use is posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES usually develops because of disturbed capacity of posterior cerebral blood flow to autoregulate an acute rise in blood pressure. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl who was previously diagnosed in our department with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. She was treated with CsA and developed seizures, progressive loss of consciousness, and visual disturbance on the 7th day of treatment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed degeneration of white matter with diffuse demyelination in the parietal and posterior occipital lobes, consistent with the diagnosis of PRES...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309541/fibre-specific-white-matter-reductions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Remika Mito, David Raffelt, Thijs Dhollander, David N Vaughan, J-Donald Tournier, Olivier Salvado, Amy Brodtmann, Christopher C Rowe, Victor L Villemagne, Alan Connelly
Alzheimer's disease is increasingly considered a large-scale network disconnection syndrome, associated with progressive aggregation of pathological proteins, cortical atrophy, and functional disconnections between brain regions. These pathological changes are posited to arise in a stereotypical spatiotemporal manner, targeting intrinsic networks in the brain, most notably the default mode network. While this network-specific disruption has been thoroughly studied with functional neuroimaging, changes to specific white matter fibre pathways within the brain's structural networks have not been closely investigated, largely due to the challenges of modelling complex white matter structure...
January 4, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309493/rates-of-amyloid-imaging-positivity-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-aphasia
#19
Miguel A Santos-Santos, Gil D Rabinovici, Leonardo Iaccarino, Nagehan Ayakta, Gautam Tammewar, Iryna Lobach, Maya L Henry, Isabel Hubbard, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Edoardo Spinelli, Zachary A Miller, Peter S Pressman, James P O'Neil, Pia Ghosh, Andreas Lazaris, Marita Meyer, Christa Watson, Soo Jin Yoon, Howard J Rosen, Lea Grinberg, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, William J Jagust, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
Importance: The ability to predict the pathology underlying different neurodegenerative syndromes is of critical importance owing to the advent of molecule-specific therapies. Objective: To determine the rates of positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity in the main clinical variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective clinical-pathologic case series was conducted at a tertiary research clinic specialized in cognitive disorders...
January 8, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307662/moringa-oleifera-phytochemicals-protect-the-brain-against-experimental-nicotine-induced-neurobehavioral-disturbances-and-cerebellar-degeneration
#20
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Shakirat Opeyemi Dada-Habeeb, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson
Nicotine is a neuro-stimulant that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many brain diseases. The need to prevent or alleviate the resulting dysfunction is therefore paramount, which has also given way to the use of medicinal plants in the management of brain conditions. This study was designed to determine the histomorphological and neurobehavioural changes in the cerebellum of Wistar rats following nicotine insult and how such injuries respond to Moringa intervention. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups...
January 4, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
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