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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#1
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214917/mtss1-promotes-maturation-and-maintenance-of-cerebellar-neurons-via-splice-variant-specific-effects
#2
Thorsten Sistig, Fanziska Lang, Sebastian Wrobel, Stephan L Baader, Karl Schilling, Britta Eiberger
Efficient coupling of the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane is crucial for histogenesis and maintenance of the nervous system. At this critical interface, BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) proteins regulate membrane bending, shown to be instrumental for mobility and morphogenesis of individual cells. Yet, the systemic significance of these proteins remains largely unexplored. Here, we probe the role of a prominent member of this protein family, the inverse-BAR protein Mtss1, for the development and function of a paradigmatic neuronal circuit, the cerebellar cortex...
February 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#3
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213070/selective-a2a-receptors-blockade-reduces-degeneration-of-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-histological-study
#4
Ahmed M Fathalla, Amira M Soliman, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Adenosine is a neuromodulator that inhibit the release of dopamine via a disinhibitory mechanism. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and ZM241385 (respectively, A1 and A2A receptors antagonists), on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons degradation reduction in a rotenone-induced PD model using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212893/traffic-related-air-pollution-impact-on-mouse-brain-accelerates-myelin-and-neuritic-aging-changes-with-specificity-for-ca1-neurons
#5
Nicholas C Woodward, Payam Pakbin, Arian Saffari, Farimah Shirmohammadi, Amin Haghani, Constantinos Sioutas, Mafalda Cacciottolo, Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with lower cognition and reduced white matter volume in older adults, specifically for particulate matter <2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5). Rodents exposed to TRAP have shown microglial activation and neuronal atrophy. We further investigated age differences of TRAP exposure, with focus on hippocampus for neuritic atrophy, white matter degeneration, and microglial activation. Young- and middle-aged mice (3 and 18 months female C57BL/6J) were exposed to nanoscale-PM (nPM, <0...
January 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#6
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212107/rheb-in-neuronal-degeneration-regeneration-and-connectivity
#7
Veena Nambiar Potheraveedu, Miriam Schöpel, Raphael Stoll, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Rheb was originally detected as an immediate early response protein whose expression was induced by NMDA-dependent synaptic activity in the brain. Rheb's activity is highly regulated by its GTPase activating protein (GAP), the tuberous sclerosis complex protein, which stimulates the conversion from the active, GTP-loaded into the inactive, GDP-loaded conformation. Rheb has been established as an evolutionarily conserved molecular switch protein regulating cellular growth, cell volume, cell cycle, autophagy, and amino acid uptake...
February 17, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211008/injected-amyloid-beta-in-the-olfactory-bulb-transfers-to-other-brain-regions-via-neural-connections-in-mice
#8
Baixuan He, Minying Zheng, Qiang Liu, Zhe Shi, Simei Long, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Ti-Fei Yuan, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration and pathological accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain. It has been proposed that the prion-like spreading of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein could contribute to the progression of the disease. Olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the earliest brain regions affected in AD and olfaction is easily impaired prior to cognitive symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether Aβ accumulation in the OB would spread along olfactory projections to other connected brain regions and trigger further neurodegeneration...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210876/effect-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-on-redox-balance-and-redox-defence-enzymes-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-or-after-ischemic-preconditioning-in-rats
#9
Martin Petráš, Anna Drgová, Mária Kovalská, Zuzana Tatarková, Barbara Tóthová, Oľga Križanová, Ján Lehotský
Increased level of homocysteine (hHcy) in plasma is an accompanying phenomenon of many diseases, including a brain stroke. This study determines whether hyperhomocysteinemia (which is a risk factor of brain ischemia) itself or in combination with ischemic preconditioning affects the ischemia-induced neurodegenerative changes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the rat brain cortex. The hHcy was induced by subcutaneous administration of homocysteine (0...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208742/aav-vector-mediated-gene-delivery-to-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-implications-for-gene-therapy-and-disease-models
#10
REVIEW
Katrina Albert, Merja H Voutilainen, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208233/neonatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-impair-learning-behaviour-by-disrupting-hippocampal-organization-in-male-swiss-albino-mice
#11
Rakesh Bhaskar, Ashish K Mishra, Banalata Mohanty
Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63...
February 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205009/mixed-pathologies-including-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-account-for-dementia-in-retired-association-football-soccer-players
#12
Helen Ling, Huw R Morris, James W Neal, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz, David D R Williams
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur...
February 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#13
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197357/disturbed-matrix-metalloproteinase-pathway-in-both-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Ali Aijaz Hussain, Yunhee Lee, Jin-Jun Zhang, Paul T Francis, John Marshall
Purpose. Abnormal protein deposits including β-amyloid, found in ageing Bruch's membrane and brain, are susceptible to degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In ageing Bruch's membrane, these MMPs become less effective due to polymerisation and aggregation reactions (constituting the MMP Pathway), a situation much advanced in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The likely presence of this MMP Pathway in brain with the potential to compromise the degradation of β-amyloid associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been investigated...
2017: Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196545/roles-of-programmed-death-protein-1-programmed-death-ligand-1-in-secondary-brain-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats-selective-modulation-of-microglia-polarization-to-anti-inflammatory-phenotype
#15
Jie Wu, Liang Sun, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Weiwei Zhai, Zhengquan Yu, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Microglia and its polarization play critical roles in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury. Programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 has been reported to regulate neuroimmune cell functions. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 participate in microglia polarization, and programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 could regulate the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1. We herein show the critical role of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in the polarization of microglia during intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rat models...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194885/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-of-neurogenesis-the-role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Inga B Fricke, Sonja Schelhaas, Bastian Zinnhardt, Thomas Viel, Sven Hermann, Sébastien Couillard-Després, Andreas H Jacobs
Bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase in Doublecortin(+) (Dcx) neuroblasts might serve as a powerful tool to study the role of neurogenesis in models of brain injury and neurodegeneration using non-invasive, longitudinal in vivo imaging. Therefore, we aimed to use BLI in B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J Dcx-Luc (Doublecortin-Luciferase, Dcx-Luc) mice to investigate its suitability to assess neurogenesis in a unilateral injection model of Parkinson's disease. We further aimed to assess the blood brain barrier leakage associated with the intranigral 6-OHDA injection to evaluate its impact on substrate delivery and bioluminescence signal intensity...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194132/molecular-imaging-markers-to-track-huntington-s-disease-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Heather Wilson, Rosa De Micco, Flavia Niccolini, Marios Politis
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive, monogenic dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by repeat expansion mutation in the huntingtin gene. The accumulation of mutant huntingtin protein, forming intranuclear inclusions, subsequently leads to degeneration of medium spiny neurons in the striatum and cortical areas. Genetic testing can identify HD gene carriers before individuals develop overt cognitive, psychiatric, and chorea symptoms. Thus, HD gene carriers can be studied in premanifest stages to understand and track the evolution of HD pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193453/energy-and-the-alzheimer-brain
#18
REVIEW
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the poorly myelinated long axon hippocampal and cortical neurons render these neurons selectively vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. However, pathology engages all of the major elements of the neurovascular unit of the mature Alzheimer brain, the neurons, glia and blood vessels. Neurons present with retrograde degeneration of the axodendritic tree, capillaries with string vessels and markedly reduced densities and glia with signs of inflammatory activation. The neurons, capillaries and astrocytes of the mature Alzheimer brain harbor structurally defective mitochondria...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191500/insights-from-genetic-model-systems-of-retinal-degeneration-role-of-epsins-in-retinal-angiogenesis-and-vegfr2-signaling
#19
Yunzhou Dong, Xue Cai, Yong Wu, Yanjun Liu, Lin Deng, Hong Chen
The retina is a light sensitive tissue that contains specialized photoreceptor cells called rods and cones which process visual signals. These signals are relayed to the brain through interneurons and the fibers of the optic nerve. The retina is susceptible to a variety of degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other inherited retinal degenerations. In order to reveal the mechanism underlying these diseases and to find methods for the prevention/treatment of retinal degeneration, animal models have been generated to mimic human eye diseases...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190639/characterizing-white-matter-changes-in-chronic-schizophrenia-a-free-water-imaging-multi-site-study
#20
Lena K L Oestreich, Amanda E Lyall, Ofer Pasternak, Zora Kikinis, Dominick T Newell, Peter Savadjiev, Sylvain Bouix, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Thomas J Whitford, Simon McCarthy-Jones
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in chronic schizophrenia have found widespread but often inconsistent patterns of white matter abnormalities. These studies have typically used the conventional measure of fractional anisotropy, which can be contaminated by extracellular free-water. A recent free-water imaging study reported reduced free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT) in chronic schizophrenia across several brain regions, but limited changes in the extracellular volume. The present study set out to validate these findings in a substantially larger sample...
February 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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