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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#1
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731447/chromatin-bound-oxidized-%C3%AE-synuclein-causes-strand-breaks-in-neuronal-genomes-in-in-vitro-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Velmarini Vasquez, Joy Mitra, Pavana M Hegde, Arvind Pandey, Shiladitya Sengupta, Sankar Mitra, K S Rao, Muralidhar L Hegde
Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) overexpression and misfolding/aggregation in degenerating dopaminergic neurons have long been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The neurotoxicity of α-Syn is enhanced by iron (Fe) and other pro-oxidant metals, leading to generation of reactive oxygen species in PD brain. Although α-Syn is predominantly localized in presynaptic nerve terminals, a small fraction exists in neuronal nuclei. However, the functional and/or pathological role of nuclear α-Syn is unclear. Following up on our earlier report that α-Syn directly binds DNA in vitro, here we confirm the nuclear localization and chromatin association of α-Syn in neurons using proximity ligation and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729832/the-role-of-microglia-in-retinal-neurodegeneration-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-and-glaucoma
#3
REVIEW
Ana I Ramirez, Rosa de Hoz, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Juan J Salazar, Blanca Rojas, Daniel Ajoy, Inés López-Cuenca, Pilar Rojas, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez
Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS), act as neuropathology sensors and are neuroprotective under physiological conditions. Microglia react to injury and degeneration with immune-phenotypic and morphological changes, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory cytokine production. An uncontrolled microglial response secondary to sustained CNS damage can put neuronal survival at risk due to excessive inflammation. A neuroinflammatory response is considered among the etiological factors of the major aged-related neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, and microglial cells are key players in these neurodegenerative lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729427/sialylated-glycosylphosphatidylinositols-suppress-the-production-of-toxic-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers
#4
William Nolan, Harriet McHale-Owen, Clive Bate
The production of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a key factor driving pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing concentrations of soluble Aβ oligomers within the brain lead to synapse degeneration and the progressive dementia characteristic of AD. Since Aβ exists in both disease-relevant (toxic) and non-toxic forms, the factors that affected the release of toxic Aβ were studied in a cell model. 7PA2 cells expressing the human amyloid precursor protein released Aβ oligomers that caused synapse damage when incubated with cultured neurons...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729077/white-matter-microstructure-degenerates-in-patients-with-postherpetic-neuralgia
#5
Fuxiang Chen, Fuyong Chen, Zhanfang Shang, Yuan Shui, Guorong Wu, Chen Liu, Zhangya Lin, Yuanxiang Lin, Lianghong Yu, Dezhi Kang, Wei Tao, Yongjie Li
OBJECTIVE: The central mechanisms underlying postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) pain remain unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to identify microstructural white matter changes closely related to the PHN pain by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. METHODS: DTI data of the brains were obtained from 8 PHN patients and 8 healthy controls (HC) that were matched in age, gender, and educational level. DTI metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were separately compared between the two groups using TBSS analysis to detect subtle microstructural changes...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728022/loss-of-tmem106b-ameliorates-lysosomal-and-frontotemporal-dementia-related-phenotypes-in-progranulin-deficient-mice
#6
Zoe A Klein, Hideyuki Takahashi, Mengxiao Ma, Massimiliano Stagi, Melissa Zhou, TuKiet T Lam, Stephen M Strittmatter
Progranulin (GRN) and TMEM106B are associated with several common neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A TMEM106B variant modifies GRN-associated FTLD risk. However, their functional relationship in vivo and the mechanisms underlying the risk modification remain unclear. Here, using transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with Grn(-/-) and Tmem106b(-/-) mice, we show that, while multiple lysosomal enzymes are increased in Grn(-/-) brain at both transcriptional and protein levels, TMEM106B deficiency causes reduction in several lysosomal enzymes...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725655/cell-replacement-therapy-is-the-remedial-solution-for-treating-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Venkatesan Dhivya, Vellingiri Balachandar
The selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) has made an idol target for cell replacement therapies and other emerging surgical treatments. Certainly, by transplantation method, the therapeutic regimens such as human fetal ventral midbrain (hfVM) cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human neural stem/precursor/ progenitor cells (hNSCs/hNPCs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human induced neural stem cells (hiNSCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used into DA deficient striatum...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720882/cell-type-specific-differences-in-promoter-activity-of-the-als-linked-c9orf72-mouse-ortholog
#8
Abraham J Langseth, Juhyun Kim, Janet E Ugolino, Yajas Shah, Ho-Yon Hwang, Jiou Wang, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716963/chemokine-ccl2-ccr2-signaling-induces-neuronal-cell-death-via-stat3-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-production-after-status-epilepticus
#9
Dai-Shi Tian, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Lijie Feng, Jun-Li Liu, Ukpong B Eyo, Li-Jun Zhou, Rochelle Mogilevsky, Wei Wang, Long-Jun Wu
Elevated levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in experimental seizures. However, the functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying CCL2-CCR2 signaling in epileptic brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the upregulated CCL2 was mainly expressed in hippocampal neurons and activated microglia from mice 1d after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Taking advantage of CX3CR1(GFP/+):CCR2(RFP/+) double transgenic mice, we demonstrated that CCL2-CCR2 signaling participated in resident microglial activation and blood-derived monocyte infiltration...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716282/serum-amyloid-p-component-a-novel-potential-player-in-vessel-degeneration-in-cadasil
#10
Akihito Nagatoshi, Mitsuharu Ueda, Akihiko Ueda, Masayoshi Tasaki, Yasuteru Inoue, Yihong Ma, Teruaki Masuda, Mayumi Mizukami, Sayaka Matsumoto, Takayuki Kosaka, Takayuki Kawano, Takaaki Ito, Yukio Ando
In cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), granular osmiophilic material (GOM) may play some roles in inducing cerebrovascular events. To elucidate the pathogenesis of CADASIL, we used laser microdissection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyze cerebrovascular lesions of patients with CADASIL for GOM. The analyses detected serum amyloid P component (SAP), annexin A2, and periostin as the proteins with the largest increase in the samples, which also demonstrated NOTCH3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712841/long-term-impact-of-subthalamic-stimulation-on-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#11
M Acera, A Molano, B Tijero, G Bilbao, I Lambarri, R Villoria, J Somme, E Ruiz de Gopegui, I Gabilondo, J C Gomez-Esteban
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-SN) on cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) 5 years after surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including 50 patients with PD who underwent DBS-SN (62.5% were men; mean age of 62.2±8.2 years; mean progression time of 14.1±6.3 years). All patients were assessed before the procedure and at one year after surgery; 40 patients were further followed up until the 5-year mark...
July 13, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712792/seasonal-plasticity-of-song-behavior-relies-on-motor-and-syntactic-variability-induced-by-a-basal-ganglia-forebrain-circuit
#12
Jorge Alliende, Nicolas Giret, Ludivine Pidoux, Catherine Del Negro, Arthur Leblois
The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment. In particular, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and behavior is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. Songbirds provide striking examples of seasonal changes in neural circuits and vocal behavior and have emerged as a leading model for adult brain plasticity. While seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning may share common neural mechanisms, the extent of their similarity remains unclear...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710685/pericytes-extend-survival-of-als-sod1-mice-and-induce-the-expression-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-the-murine-model-and-in-ipscs-derived-neuronal-cells-from-an-als-patient
#13
Giuliana Castello Coatti, Miriam Frangini, Marcos C Valadares, Juliana Plat Gomes, Natalia O Lima, Natale Cavaçana, Amanda F Assoni, Mayra V Pelatti, Alexander Birbrair, Antonio Carlos Pedroso de Lima, Julio M Singer, Francisco Marcelo M Rocha, Giovani Loiola Da Silva, Mario Sergio Mantovani, Lucia Inês Macedo-Souza, Merari F R Ferrari, Mayana Zatz
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease causing a progressive, rapid and irreversible degeneration of motor neurons in the cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. No effective treatment is available and cell therapy clinical trials are currently being tested in ALS affected patients. It is well known that in ALS patients, approximately 50% of pericytes from the spinal cord barrier are lost. In the central nervous system, pericytes act in the formation and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, a natural defense that slows the progression of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases...
July 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710326/cortical-influences-drive-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Andrew Eisen, Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici, Roger Lemon, Albert C Ludolph, Matthew C Kiernan
The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709891/neuroprotective-effects-of-methyl-3-4-dihydroxybenzoate-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#15
Jia Zhang, Di Xu, Huan Ouyang, Songhui Hu, Ang Li, Huanmin Luo, Ying Xu
Retinitis pigmentosa is a photoreceptor-degenerative disease that is currently untreatable and eventually causes blindness. Methyl 3,4 dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB) is a small molecule that exerts neuroprotective effect in vitro. The present study tests whether MDHB protects the retina of rd10 mice, a model of retinitis pigmentosa. MDHB or equal volume of vehicle was intraperitoneally injected in rd10 mice daily from postnatal day 12 (P12) to P26. Retinal morphology was evaluated by immunostaining, and retinal function by electroretinogram (ERG) and by visual behavior...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706504/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-and-palatal-or-oculopalatal-tremor
#16
REVIEW
Caroline Tilikete, Virginie Desestret
Hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive is mainly observed in patients developing palatal tremor (PT) or oculopalatal tremor (OPT). This syndrome manifests as a synchronous tremor of the palate (PT) and/or eyes (OPT) that may also involve other muscles from the branchial arches. It is associated with hypertrophic inferior olivary degeneration that is characterized by enlarged and vacuolated neurons, increased number and size of astrocytes, severe fibrillary gliosis, and demyelination. It appears on MRI as an increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity and enlargement of the inferior olive...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706437/comparison-of-two-neurotrophic-serpins-reveals-a-small-fragment-with-cell-survival-activity
#17
Paige N Winokur, Preeti Subramanian, Jeanee L Bullock, Veronique Arocas, S Patricia Becerra
PURPOSE: Protease nexin-1 (PN-1), a serpin encoded by the SERPINE2 gene, has serine protease inhibitory activity and neurotrophic properties in the brain. PN-1 inhibits retinal angiogenesis; however, PN-1's neurotrophic capacities in the retina have not yet been evaluated. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a serpin that exhibits neurotrophic and antiangiogenic activities but lacks protease inhibitory properties. The aim of this study is to compare PN-1 and PEDF. METHODS: Sequence comparisons were performed using computer bioinformatics programs...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703795/edaravone-suppresses-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-normal-tension-glaucoma
#18
Kei Akaiwa, Kazuhiko Namekata, Yuriko Azuchi, Xiaoli Guo, Atsuko Kimura, Chikako Harada, Yoshinori Mitamura, Takayuki Harada
Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs. Loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and exhibits glaucomatous pathology including glutamate neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In the present study, we found that edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is used for treatment of acute brain infarction and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), reduces oxidative stress and prevents RGC death and thinning of the inner retinal layer in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702933/characterization-of-simbu-serogroup-virus-infections-in-type-i-interferon-receptor-knock-out-mice
#19
Kerstin Tauscher, Kerstin Wernike, Melina Fischer, Anne Wegelt, Bernd Hoffmann, Jens Peter Teifke, Martin Beer
In late 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel, arthropod-borne, teratogenic orthobunyavirus, emerged near the German/Dutch border and thereafter spread rapidly throughout the continent thereby causing great economic losses in European livestock. SBV mainly infects ruminants and closely related viruses such as Sabo virus (SABOV), Simbu virus (SIMBUV) and Sathuperi virus (SATV) have been isolated from their insect-vectors or putative ruminant hosts. However, information about their pathogenesis and in vivo studies with SABOV, SIMBUV, and SATV are scarce...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702721/peptides-semax-and-selank-affect-the-behavior-of-rats-with-6-ohda-induced-pd-like-parkinsonism
#20
P A Slominsky, M I Shadrina, T A Kolomin, A V Stavrovskaya, E V Filatova, L A Andreeva, S N Illarioshkin, N F Myasoedov
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common severe neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the synthetic regulatory peptides Semax (analog of an ACTH 4-10 fragment (ACTH4-10)) and Selank (analog of immunomodulatory taftsin) on behavior of rats with 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD-like parkinsonism. It was showed that both peptides did not affect motor activity of rats in elevated cross shaped maze and passive defensive behavior of the animals...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
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