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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811056/measurements-of-ionic-concentrations-along-with-endocochlear-potential-in-wild-type-and-claudin-14-knockout-mice
#1
Yuka Shiraiwa, Eriko Daikoku, Masahisa Saito, Yui Yamashita, Takaya Abe, Fumihito Ono, Takahiro Kubota
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the changes in endolymphatic ion concentrations were involved in hair cells degeneration in claudin-14 knockout (KO) mice (Cldn14(-/-)), we measured the endocochlear potential (EP) along with concentrations of K(+), Na(+), H(+), or Ca(2+) ([K]e, [Na]e, pHe, [Ca]e) in Cldn14(-/-), in which hair cells were selectively damaged, and compared with measurements in wild type mice (Wt). METHODS: We used the Cldn14(-/-) from 3 weeks of age, in which the auditory brain responses (ABR) was severely diminished...
August 12, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810533/deltamethrin-induced-oxidative-stress-in-kidney-and-brain-of-rats-protective-effect-of-artemisia-campestris-essential-oil
#2
Mongi Saoudi, Riadh Badraoui, Houda Bouhajja, Marwa Ncir, Fatma Rahmouni, Malek Grati, Kamel Jamoussi, Abdelfattah El Feki
Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine in Southern Tunisia as a decoction for its antivenom, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, and antimicrobial activities. A. campestris essential oil (ACEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts, since it has beneficial and therapeutic effects. Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to deltamethrin leads to nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species including birds and fish...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807673/gpr55-a-therapeutic-target-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Marta Celorrio, Estefanía Rojo-Bustamante, Diana Fernández-Suárez, Elena Sáez, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Christa E Müller, María J Ramírez, Julen Oyarzábal, Rafael Franco, María S Aymerich
The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806929/myelination-is-delayed-during-postnatal-brain-development-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Azeez Aranmolate, Nathaniel Tse, Holly Colognato
BACKGROUND: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the loss of the dystrophin component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) compromises plasma membrane integrity in skeletal muscle, resulting in extensive muscle degeneration. In addition, many DMD patients exhibit brain deficits in which the cellular etiology remains poorly understood. We recently found that dystroglycan, a receptor component of the DGC that binds intracellularly to dystrophin, regulates the development of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the brain...
August 14, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805003/protein-astrogliopathies-in-human-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-aging
#5
Gabor G Kovacs, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons associated with depositions of pathologically altered proteins showing hierarchical involvement of brain regions. The role of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is explored as contributors to neuronal degeneration or neuroprotection pathways, and also as potential mediators of the transcellular spreading of disease-associated proteins. Protein astrogliopathy (PAG), including deposition of amyloid-β, prion protein, tau, α-synuclein, and very rarely transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is not unprecedented or unusual in neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#6
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804446/induction-of-mir-155-after-brain-injury-promotes-type-1-interferon-and-has-a-neuroprotective-effect
#7
Emily B Harrison, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda M Morsey, Min Li, Matthew L Kelso, Sowmya V Yelamanchili, Howard S Fox
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces profound and lasting neuroinflammation that has both beneficial and detrimental effects. Recent evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of inflammation both in the periphery and the CNS. We examined the expression of inflammation associated miRNAs in the context of TBI using a mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model and found increased levels of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-155 in the hippocampus after CCI. The expression of miR-155 was elevated 9-fold after CCI, an increase confirmed by in situ hybridization (ISH)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#8
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801921/autophagy-impairment-by-caspase-1-dependent-inflammation-mediates-memory-loss-in-response-to-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-accumulation
#9
Lourdes Álvarez-Arellano, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Tonali Blanco-Ayala, Nohemí Camacho-Concha, Javier Cortés-Mendoza, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
β-Amyloid peptide accumulation in the cortex and in the hippocampus results in neurodegeneration and memory loss. Recently, it became evident that the inflammatory response triggered by β-Amyloid peptides promotes neuronal cell death and degeneration. In addition to inflammation, β-Amyloid peptides also induce alterations in neuronal autophagy, eventually leading to neuronal cell death. Thus, here we evaluated whether the inflammatory response induced by the β-Amyloid peptides impairs memory via disrupting the autophagic flux...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801523/dietary-modulation-of-oxylipins-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-aging
#10
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Mihir Parikh, Aleksandra Stamenkovic, Grant N Pierce, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins are a group of fatty acid metabolites generated via oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in processes such as inflammation, immunity, pain, vascular tone and coagulation. As a result, oxylipins are implicated in many conditions characterized by these processes including cardiovascular disease and aging. The best characterized oxylipins in relation to cardiovascular disease are derived from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. These oxylipins generally increase inflammation, hypertension and platelet aggregation, although not universally...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799222/progression-retinal-ganglion-cell-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-associated-with-new-lesions-in-the-optic-radiations
#11
Alexander Klistorner, Elizabeth C Graham, Con Yiannikas, Michael Barnett, John Parratt, Ray Garrick, Chenyu Wang, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the association between temporal RNFL (tRNFL) thinning and disease activity in the brain determined by T2 lesions on MRI. METHODS: 55 consecutive relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 25 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent annual optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-resolution MRI scans for tRNFL thickness and brain lesion volume analysis, respectively...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798684/differential-roles-of-environmental-enrichment-in-alzheimer-s-type-of-neurodegeneration-and-physiological-aging
#12
Vladimir V Salmin, Yulia K Komleva, Natalia V Kuvacheva, Andrey V Morgun, Elena D Khilazheva, Olga L Lopatina, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Konstantin A Shapovalov, Yulia A Uspenskaya, Alla B Salmina
Impairment of hippocampal adult neurogenesis in aging or degenerating brain is a well-known phenomenon caused by the shortage of brain stem cell pool, alterations in the local microenvironment within the neurogenic niches, or deregulation of stem cell development. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been proposed as a potent tool to restore brain functions, to prevent aging-associated neurodegeneration, and to cure neuronal deficits seen in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report our data on the effects of environmental enrichment on hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and neurosphere-forming capacity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797983/rationalisation-of-the-irrational-neuropathological-basis-of-hypothyroidism-olfaction-disorders-paradox-experimental-study
#13
Nazan Aydin, Leyla Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Resid Onen, Ilhan Yilmaz, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Konca Altinkaynak, Muhammet Calik
OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is defined as an underactive thyroid gland and one of the reasons for inadequate stimulation of thyroid is dysfunction of the hormone regulating brain centers. Olfaction disorders have been considered as a problem in hypothyroidism. It has been hypothesised that olfaction disorders reduce olfactory stimulation and diminished olfactory stimulus may trigger hypothyroidism. In this study an examination was made of the thyroid hormone levels, histological features of thyroid glands and vagal nerve network degradation in an experimental animal model of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795301/organotypic-cultures-from-the-adult-cns-a-novel-model-to-study-demyelination-and-remyelination-ex-vivo
#14
Glaiza A Tan, Kendra L Furber, Merlin P Thangaraj, LaRhonda Sobchishin, J Ronald Doucette, Adil J Nazarali
Experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS) have significantly advanced our understanding of pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions. Although in vivo rodent models are considered to most closely represent the complex cellular and molecular disease states of the human central nervous system (CNS), these can be costly to maintain and require long timelines. Organotypic slice cultures maintain the cytotypic organization observed in the intact CNS, yet provide many of the experimental advantages of in vitro cell culture models...
August 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791574/heterotopic-purkinje-cells-a-comparative-postmortem-study-of-essential-tremor-and-spinocerebellar-ataxias-1-2-3-and-6
#15
Elan D Louis, Sheng-Han Kuo, William J Tate, Geoffrey C Kelly, Jesus Gutierrez, Etty P Cortes, Jean-Paul G Vonsattel, Phyllis L Faust
Essential tremor (ET) is among the most common neurological diseases. Postmortem studies have noted a series of pathological changes in the ET cerebellum. Heterotopic Purkinje cells (PCs) are those whose cell body is mis-localized in the molecular layer. In neurodegenerative settings, these are viewed as a marker of the progression of neuronal degeneration. We (1) quantify heterotopias in ET cases vs. controls, (2) compare ET cases to other cerebellar degenerative conditions (spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) 1, 2, 3, and 6), (3) compare these SCAs to one another, and (4) assess heterotopia within the context of associated PC loss in each disease...
August 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790895/brain-metal-distribution-and-neuro-inflammatory-profiles-after-chronic-vanadium-administration-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#16
Oluwabusayo R Folarin, Amanda M Snyder, Douglas G Peters, Funmilayo Olopade, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781202/biomarkers-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Lorraine V Kalia
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is among the most prevalent and debilitating non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuropathological correlates of cognitive dysfunction in PD are being revealed by clinicopathological correlation studies. These findings are fostering the development of candidate biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia, and to predict cognitive decline and onset of dementia in PD. METHODS: A literature review of candidate biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction in PD was performed based on a PubMed search for peer-reviewed articles published from 1997 to June 2017 using the search terms "biomarker", "parkinson", and "dementia"...
July 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780154/chemokines-as-new-inflammatory-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Chiara Cerri, Matteo Caleo, Yuri Bozzi
A large series of clinical and experimental studies supports a link between inflammation and epilepsy, indicating that inflammatory processes within the brain are important contributors to seizure recurrence and precipitation. Systemic inflammation can precipitate seizures in children suffering from epileptic encephalopathies, and hallmarks of a chronic inflammatory state have been found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Research performed on animal models of epilepsy further corroborates the idea that seizures upregulate inflammatory mediators, which in turn may enhance brain excitability and neuronal degeneration...
July 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780000/systemic-infusions-of-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-neutralizing-antibodies-reduce-short-term-brain-injury-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-the-ovine-fetus
#20
Xiaodi Chen, Virginia Hovanesian, Syed Naqvi, Yow-Pin Lim, Richard Tucker, John E Donahue, Edward G Stopa, Barbara S Stonestreet
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-related brain injury is a leading cause of neurologic morbidity and life-long disability in children. Infants exposed to I/R brain injury develop long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits, placing a large burden on parents and society. Therapeutic strategies are currently not available for infants with I/R brain damage, except for hypothermia, which can only be used in full term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Moreover, hypothermia is only partially protective...
August 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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