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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#2
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209607/parenting-for-autism-language-and-communication-evaluation-study-palaces-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Margiad Elen Williams, Richard Hastings, Joanna Mary Charles, Sue Evans, Judy Hutchings
INTRODUCTION: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208671/a-passive-learning-sensor-architecture-for-multimodal-image-labeling-an-application-for-social-robots
#4
Marco A Gutiérrez, Luis J Manso, Harit Pandya, Pedro Núñez
Object detection and classification have countless applications in human-robot interacting systems. It is a necessary skill for autonomous robots that perform tasks in household scenarios. Despite the great advances in deep learning and computer vision, social robots performing non-trivial tasks usually spend most of their time finding and modeling objects. Working in real scenarios means dealing with constant environment changes and relatively low-quality sensor data due to the distance at which objects are often found...
February 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#5
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207397/stacked-learning-to-search-for-scene-labeling
#6
Feiyang Cheng, Xuming He, Hong Zhang
Search-based structured prediction methods have shown promising successes in both computer vision and natural language processing recently. However, most existing search-based approaches lead to a complex multi-stage learning process, which is ill-suited for scene labeling problems with a high-dimensional output space. In this paper, a stacked learning to search method is proposed to address scene labeling tasks. We design a simplified search process consisting of a sequence of ranking functions, which are learned based on a stacked learning strategy to prevent over-fitting...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203531/an-fmri-study-of-implicit-language-learning-in-developmental-language-impairment
#7
Elena Plante, Dianne Patterson, Michelle Sandoval, Christopher J Vance, Arve E Asbjørnsen
Individuals with developmental language impairment can show deficits into adulthood. This suggests that neural networks related to their language do not normalize with time. We examined the ability of 16 adults with and without impaired language to learn individual words in an unfamiliar language. Adults with impaired language were able to segment individual words from running speech, but needed more time to do so than their normal-language peers. ICA analysis of fMRI data indicated that adults with language impairment activate a neural network that is comparable to that of adults with normal language...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203249/autism-spectrum-disorder-detection-from-semi-structured-and-unstructured-medical-data
#8
Jianbo Yuan, Chester Holtz, Tristram Smith, Jiebo Luo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that significantly impairs patients' ability to perform normal social interaction and communication. Moreover, the diagnosis procedure of ASD is highly time-consuming, labor-intensive, and requires extensive expertise. Although there exists no known cure for ASD, there is consensus among clinicians regarding the importance of early intervention for the recovery of ASD patients. Therefore, to benefit autism patients by enhancing their access to treatments such as early intervention, we aim to develop a robust machine learning-based system for autism detection by using Natural Language Processing techniques based on information extracted from medical forms of potential ASD patients...
December 2017: EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics & Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201837/semantic-treatments-for-word-and-sentence-production-deficits-in-aphasia
#9
Mary Boyle
The cognitive domains of language and memory are intrinsically connected and work together during language processing. This relationship is especially apparent in the area of semantics. Several disciplines have contributed to a rich store of data about semantic organization and processing, and several semantic treatments for aphasic word and sentence production impairments have been based on these data. This article reviews the relationships between semantics and memory as they relate to word and sentence production, describes the aphasic language impairments that result from deficits in these areas, and summarizes treatment approaches that capitalize on what we have learned about these domains and how they work together...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#10
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194703/the-role-of-overt-language-production-in-the-hebb-repetition-effect
#11
Marie-Claude Guerrette, Katherine Guérard, Jean Saint-Aubin
The Hebb repetition effect (Hebb, 1961) occurs when recall performance improves for a list that is repeated during a serial-recall task. This effect is considered a good experimental analogue to language learning. Our objective was to evaluate the role of overt language production in language learning by manipulating recall direction during a Hebb repetition paradigm. In each trial, seven nonsense syllables were presented auditorily. Participants had to orally recall the items either in the presentation order or in reverse order...
February 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194122/social-salience-discriminates-learnability-of-contextual-cues-in-an-artificial-language
#12
Péter Rácz, Jennifer B Hay, Janet B Pierrehumbert
We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194104/electrophysiological-correlates-of-error-monitoring-and-feedback-processing-in-second-language-learning
#13
Sybrine Bultena, Claudia Danielmeier, Harold Bekkering, Kristin Lemhöfer
Humans monitor their behavior to optimize performance, which presumably relies on stable representations of correct responses. During second language (L2) learning, however, stable representations have yet to be formed while knowledge of the first language (L1) can interfere with learning, which in some cases results in persistent errors. In order to examine how correct L2 representations are stabilized, this study examined performance monitoring in the learning process of second language learners for a feature that conflicts with their first language...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193685/neurocomputational-consequences-of-evolutionary-connectivity-changes-in-perisylvian-language-cortex
#14
Malte R Schomers, Max Garagnani, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory (VWM) - a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities - but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function is still missing...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193135/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-motivation-and-late-second-language-speech-learning-in-classroom-settings
#15
Kazuya Saito, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Keiko Hanzawa
The current study set out to examine the role of learner motivation in second language (L2) speech learning in English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. The motivational orientations of 40 first-year university Japanese students were surveyed via a tailored questionnaire and linked to their spontaneous speech development, elicited via a timed picture description task at the onset and end of one academic semester, in terms of perceived comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) and accentedness (i.e., linguistic nativelikeness)...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193066/proof-of-principle-of-rtlc-an-open-source-software-developed-for-image-evaluation-and-multivariate-analysis-of-planar-chromatograms
#16
Dimitri Fichou, Petar Ristivojević, Gertrud E Morlock
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an advantageous analytical technique for analysis of complex samples. Combined with multivariate data analysis, it turns out to be a powerful tool for profiling of many samples in parallel. So far, chromatogram analysis has been time-consuming and required the application of at least two software packages to convert HPTLC chromatograms into a numerical data matrix. Hence, this study aimed to develop a powerful, all in one open-source software for user-friendly image processing and multivariate analysis of HPTLC chromatograms...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191866/laparoscopic-liver-resection-a-review-of-current-status
#17
Yihe Yan, Xiaoyong Cai, David A Geller
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been increasing since it was first reported in 1991. Two international expert consensus conferences on LLR surgery were held in Louisville, KY, USA, in 2008 and in Morioka, Japan, in 2014, respectively. While most initial minimally invasive liver resections were typically done for benign lesions in anterior or left lateral segments, LLR is currently being applied for major anatomic resections, malignancy, cirrhosis, and live donor hepatectomy...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190914/neuroanatomy-of-handwriting-and-related-reading-and-writing-skills-in-adults-and-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-french-american-connections
#18
Marieke Longcamp, Todd L Richards, Jean-Luc Velay, Virginia W Berninger
In this article, we present recent neuroimaging studies performed to identify the neural network involved in handwriting. These studies, carried out in adults and in children, suggest that the mastery of handwriting is based on the involvement of a network of brain structures whose involvement and inter-connection are specific to writing alphabet characters. This network is built upon the joint learning of writing and reading and depends on the level of expertise of the writer. In addition, a part of this graphomotor network is also brought into play during the identification letters during visual reading...
December 2016: Pratiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188279/deaf-hard-of-hearing-and-hearing-signing-undergraduates-attitudes-toward-science-in-inquiry-based-biology-laboratory-classes
#19
Cara Gormally
For science learning to be successful, students must develop attitudes toward support future engagement with challenging social issues related to science. This is especially important for increasing participation of students from underrepresented populations. This study investigated how participation in inquiry-based biology laboratory classes affected students' attitudes toward science, focusing on deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing signing students in bilingual learning environments (i.e., taught in American Sign Language and English)...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185147/incompatible-with-care-examining-trisomy-18-medical-discourse-and-families-counter-discourse-for-recuperative-ethos
#20
Megan J Thorvilson, Adam J Copeland
Parents whose child is diagnosed with a serious disease such as trisomy 18 first rely on the medical community for an accurate description and prognosis. In the case of trisomy 18, however, many families are told the disease is "incompatible with life" even though some children with the condition live for several years. This paper considers parents' response to current medical discourse concerning trisomy 18 by examining blogs written by the parents of those diagnosed. Using interpretive humanistic reading and foregrounding Cathryn Molloy's recuperative ethos theory (2015), we find that parents demonstrate recuperative ethos in response to physicians' descriptions of trisomy 18, particularly in rhetoric addressing survival, medicalized language, and religious and/or spiritual rhetoric...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
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