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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921190/elearning-resources-to-supplement-postgraduate-neurosurgery-training
#1
Martin N Stienen, Karl Schaller, Hannah Cock, Vitalie Lisnic, Luca Regli, Simon Thomson
BACKGROUND: In an increasingly complex and competitive professional environment, improving methods to educate neurosurgical residents is key to ensure high-quality patient care. Electronic (e)Learning resources promise interactive knowledge acquisition. We set out to give a comprehensive overview on available eLearning resources that aim to improve postgraduate neurosurgical training and review the available literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE query was performed, using the search term "electronic AND learning AND neurosurgery"...
December 5, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920733/chinese-writing-of-deaf-or-hard-of-hearing-students-and-normal-hearing-peers-from-complex-network-approach
#2
Huiyuan Jin, Haitao Liu
Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920732/the-ipad-as-a-research-tool-for-the-understanding-of-english-plurals-by-english-chinese-and-other-l1-speaking-3-and-4-year-olds
#3
Nan Xu Rattanasone, Benjamin Davies, Tamara Schembri, Fabia Andronos, Katherine Demuth
Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919863/applying-multiple-data-collection-tools-to-quantify-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-communication-on-twitter
#4
Philip M Massey, Amy Leader, Elad Yom-Tov, Alexandra Budenz, Kara Fisher, Ann C Klassen
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918867/case-based-interprofessional-learning-for-undergraduate-healthcare-professionals-in-the-clinical-setting
#5
Jamal Nasir, Julie Goldie, Annabel Little, Debasish Banerjee, Scott Reeves
Interprofessional learning (IPL) within the healthcare setting has well documented positive outcomes for patients, yet it is not widely offered at the undergraduate level, particularly in a clinical setting. We set up case-based teaching scenarios involving a real patient, aimed at small groups of four students representing two or more healthcare professions. The aim of the sessions was to give students a greater awareness of the roles of all the different healthcare professions involved in patient care in a hospital setting...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918853/sustainable-interprofessional-teamwork-needs-a-team-friendly-healthcare-system-experiences-from-a-collaborative-dutch-programme
#6
Anneke van Dijk-de Vries, Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen, Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven
The significance of effective interprofessional teamwork to improve the quality of care has been widely recognised. Effective interprofessional teamwork calls on good collaboration between professionals and patients, coordination between professionals, and the development of teamwork over time. Effective development of teams also requires support from the wider organisational context. In a Dutch village, healthcare professionals work closely together, and mutual consultations as well as interprofessional meetings take place on a regular basis...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918836/evolvix-best-names-for-semantic-reproducibility-across-code2brain-interfaces
#7
Laurence Loewe, Katherine S Scheuer, Seth A Keel, Vaibhav Vyas, Ben Liblit, Bret Hanlon, Michael C Ferris, John Yin, Inês Dutra, Anthony Pietsch, Christine G Javid, Cecilia L Moog, Jocelyn Meyer, Jerdon Dresel, Brian McLoone, Sonya Loberger, Arezoo Movaghar, Morgaine Gilchrist-Scott, Yazeed Sabri, Dave Sescleifer, Ivan Pereda-Zorrilla, Andrew Zietlow, Rodrigo Smith, Samantha Pietenpol, Jacob Goldfinger, Sarah L Atzen, Erika Freiberg, Noah P Waters, Claire Nusbaum, Erik Nolan, Alyssa Hotz, Richard M Kliman, Ayalew Mentewab, Nathan Fregien, Martha Loewe
Names in programming are vital for understanding the meaning of code and big data. We define code2brain (C2B) interfaces as maps in compilers and brains between meaning and naming syntax, which help to understand executable code. While working toward an Evolvix syntax for general-purpose programming that makes accurate modeling easy for biologists, we observed how names affect C2B quality. To protect learning and coding investments, C2B interfaces require long-term backward compatibility and semantic reproducibility (accurate reproduction of computational meaning from coder-brains to reader-brains by code alone)...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918170/does-language-help-regularity-learning-the-influence-of-verbalizations-on-implicit-sequential-regularity-learning-and-the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-children-younger-and-older-adults
#8
Nicola K Ferdinand, Jutta Kray
This study aimed at investigating the ability to learn regularities across the life span and examine whether this learning process can be supported or hampered by verbalizations. For this purpose, children (aged 8-10 years) and younger (aged 19-30 years) and older (aged 70-80 years) adults took part in a sequence learning experiment. We found that verbalizing sequence-congruent information during learning is a powerful tool to generate explicit knowledge and it is especially helpful for younger adults. Although recent research suggests that implicit learning can be influenced by directing the participants' attention to relevant aspects of the task, verbalizations had a much weaker influence on implicit than explicit learning...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917704/parent-child-interaction-in-motor-speech-therapy
#9
Aravind Kumar Namasivayam, Vibhuti Jethava, Margit Pukonen, Anna Huynh, Debra Goshulak, Robert Kroll, Pascal van Lieshout
PURPOSE: This study measures the reliability and sensitivity of a modified Parent-Child Interaction Observation scale (PCIOs) used to monitor the quality of parent-child interaction. The scale is part of a home-training program employed with direct motor speech intervention for children with speech sound disorders. METHOD: Eighty-four preschool age children with speech sound disorders were provided either high- (2×/week/10 weeks) or low-intensity (1×/week/10 weeks) motor speech intervention...
December 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917146/a-unified-theoretical-framework-for-cognitive-sequencing
#10
Tejas Savalia, Anuj Shukla, Raju S Bapi
The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917003/bilingualism-and-biliteracy-in-down-syndrome-insights-from-a-case-study
#11
REVIEW
Kelly Burgoyne, Fiona J Duff, Dea Nielsen, Anastasia Ulicheva, Margaret J Snowling
We present the case study of MB-a bilingual child with Down syndrome (DS) who speaks Russian (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]) and has learned to read in two different alphabets with different symbol systems. We demonstrate that, in terms of oral language, MB is as proficient in Russian as English, with a mild advantage for reading in English, her language of formal instruction. MB's L1 abilities were compared with those of 11 Russian-speaking typically developing monolinguals and her L2 abilities to those of 15 English-speaking typically developing monolinguals and six monolingual English-speaking children with DS; each group achieving the same level of word reading ability as MB...
December 2016: Language Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914402/stimulus-directed-attention-attenuates-lexically-guided-perceptual-learning
#12
Michael McAuliffe, Molly Babel
Studies on perceptual learning are motivated by phonetic variation that listeners encounter across speakers, items, and context. In this study, the authors investigate what control the listener has over the perceptual learning of ambiguous /s/ pronunciations through inducing changes in their attentional set. Listeners' attention is manipulated during a lexical decision exposure task such that their attention is directed at the word-level for comprehension-oriented listening or toward the signal for perception-oriented listening...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914374/the-effects-of-exposure-and-training-on-the-perception-of-time-compressed-speech-in-native-versus-nonnative-listeners
#13
Karen Banai, Yizhar Lavner
The present study investigated the effects of language experience on the perceptual learning induced by either brief exposure to or more intensive training with time-compressed speech. Native (n = 30) and nonnative (n = 30) listeners were each divided to three groups with different experiences with time-compressed speech: A trained group who trained on the semantic verification of time-compressed sentences for three sessions, an exposure group briefly exposed to 20 time-compressed sentences, and a group of naive listeners...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#14
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911490/what-does-it-take-to-learn-a-word
#15
REVIEW
Larissa K Samuelson, Bob McMurray
Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910723/powered-mobility-intervention-understanding-the-position-of-tool-use-learning-as-part-of-implementing-the-alp-tool
#16
Lisbeth Nilsson, Josephine Durkin
PURPOSE: To explore the knowledge necessary for adoption and implementation of the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use (ALP) tool in different practice settings for both adults and children. To consult with a diverse population of professionals working with adults and children, in different countries and various settings; who were learning about or using the ALP tool, as part of exploring and implementing research findings. METHOD: Classical grounded theory with a rigorous comparative analysis of data from informants together with reflections on our own rich experiences of powered mobility practice and comparisons with the literature...
December 2, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#17
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907879/language-production-in-a-shared-task-cumulative-semantic-interference-from-self-and-other-produced-context-words
#18
Renske S Hoedemaker, Jessica Ernst, Antje S Meyer, Eva Belke
This study assessed the effects of semantic context in the form of self-produced and other-produced words on subsequent language production. Pairs of participants performed a joint picture naming task, taking turns while naming a continuous series of pictures. In the single-speaker version of this paradigm, naming latencies have been found to increase for successive presentations of exemplars from the same category, a phenomenon known as Cumulative Semantic Interference (CSI). As expected, the joint-naming task showed a within-speaker CSI effect, such that naming latencies increased as a function of the number of category exemplars named previously by the participant (self-produced items)...
November 28, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#19
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906515/development-evolving-the-origins-and-meanings-of-instinct
#20
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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