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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329896/characterizing-literacy-and-cognitive-function-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#1
Lynn M Yee, Leslie A Kamel, Zara Quader, Priya V Rajan, Shaneah M Taylor, Rachel O'Conor, Michael S Wolf, Melissa A Simon
Objective The objective of this study was to characterize health literacy and cognitive function in a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women underwent in-depth assessments of health literacy/numeracy and the cognitive domains of verbal ability, working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, and inductive reasoning. Differences by demographic characteristics and gestational age were assessed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results In this cohort of pregnant (N = 77) or postpartum (N = 24) women, 41...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329864/age-differences-in-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-concurrent-contributions-of-neurocognitive-performance-sex-and-pulse-pressure
#2
Ashley L Fischer, Norm O'Rourke, Wendy Loken Thornton
Objectives: Theory of mind (ToM) allows us to detect and make inferences about cognitive and affective mental states. Mixed findings exist regarding (a) age differences in cognitive and affective ToM and (b) what mechanisms may underlie changes in the two components. We addressed these questions by examining the unique and joint contributions of neurocognitive performance, pulse pressure (PP), and biological sex to age differences in cognitive and affective ToM. Method: We tested 86 young and 85 older adults on standardized measures of neurocognitive performance and ToM...
August 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329861/varying-appraisals-of-elder-mistreatment-among-victims-findings-from-a-population-based-study
#3
David Burnes, Mark S Lachs, Denise Burnette, Karl Pillemer
Objectives: Prior elder mistreatment (EM) research has not examined subjective assessments of problem seriousness from the perspective of victims. This study sought to describe the variation in appraisals of perceived EM seriousness among victims of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect and to examine factors that influence varying appraisals using neutralization theory. Methods: Data came from a subsample of EM victims (n = 191) drawn from a representative, population-based study (n = 4,156) of community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults in New York State...
March 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329859/the-impact-of-three-cognitive-training-programs-on-driving-cessation-across-10-years-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Lesley A Ross, Sara A Freed, Jerri D Edwards, Christine B Phillips, Karlene Ball
Purpose of the Study: Driving is important for older adults' health and well-being, yet little research has examined interventions to maintain driving mobility. As fluid cognitive abilities are strongly linked to driving, targeted cognitive training interventions may impact driving mobility longitudinally. This study assessed the effects of three different cognitive training programs (reasoning, speed of processing, and memory) on driving cessation in older adults across 10 years (n = 2,390)...
October 10, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329818/elder-fraud-and-financial-exploitation-application-of-routine-activity-theory
#5
Marguerite DeLiema
Background and Objectives: Elder financial exploitation, committed by individuals in positions of trust, and elder fraud, committed by predatory strangers, are two forms of financial victimization that target vulnerable older adults. This study analyzes differences between fraud and financial exploitation victims and tests routine activity theory as a contextual model for victimization. Routine activity theory predicts that criminal opportunities arise when a motivated offender and suitable target meet in the absence of capable guardians...
March 10, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329814/increased-engagement-with-life-differences-in-the-cognitive-physical-social-and-spiritual-activities-of-older-adult-music-listeners
#6
Christopher N Kaufmann, Lori P Montross-Thomas, Sean Griser
Purpose of the Study: Clinical studies have demonstrated the health benefits of music listening, especially among older adults; however, this connection has not yet been examined in a nationally representative population based sample. The purpose of this study was to measure the connections between health, listening to music, and engagement with life activities among older Americans. Design and Methods: We used data on 5,797 participants in both the 2012 Health and Retirement Study and 2013 Consumption and Activities Mail Survey...
January 21, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329808/lifecourse-activity-participation-from-early-mid-and-later-adulthood-as-determinants-of-cognitive-aging-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1921
#7
Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Ian J Deary
Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129)...
October 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329805/cognitive-function-in-low-income-and-low-literacy-settings-validation-of-the-tablet-based-oxford-cognitive-screen-in-the-health-and-aging-in-africa-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-indepth-community-in-south-africa-haalsi
#8
Glyn W Humphreys, Mihaela D Duta, Livia Montana, Nele Demeyere, Cathal McCrory, Julia Rohr, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Lisa Berkman
Objectives: 1. Assess validity of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS-Plus), a domain-specific cognitive assessment designed for low-literacy settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); 2. Advance theoretical contributions in cognitive neuroscience in domain-specific cognitive function and cognitive reserve, especially related to dementia. Method: In a cross-sectional study of a sample of 1,402 men and women aged 40-79 in the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI), we administered OCS-Plus along with health and sociodemographic assessments...
October 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329788/defining-health-trajectories-in-older-adults-with-five-clinical-indicators
#9
Giola Santoni, Alessandra Marengoni, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Sara Angleman, Debora Rizzuto, Anna-Karin Welmer, Francesca Mangialasche, Nicola Orsini, Laura Fratiglioni
Background: People age differently, challenging the identification of those more at risk of rapid health deterioration. This study aimed to explore the heterogeneity in the health of older adults by using five clinical indicators to detect age-related variation and individual health trajectories over time. Methods: Health of 3,363 people aged 60+ from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) assessed at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups...
October 19, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329718/a-pilot-investigation-of-acute-inhibitory-control-training-in-cocaine-users
#10
Joseph L Alcorn, Erika Pike, William S Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Disrupted response inhibition and presence of drug-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals have predicted poor treatment outcomes. Inhibitory control training could help improve treatment outcomes by strengthening cognitive control. This pilot study assessed the effects of acute inhibitory control training to drug- and non-drug-related cues on response inhibition performance and cocaine-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals. METHODS: Participants who met criteria for a cocaine-use disorder underwent five sessions of inhibitory control training to either non-drug-related cues (i...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329716/-i-ll-do-anything-to-maintain-my-health-how-women-aged-65-94-perceive-experience-and-cope-with-their-aging-bodies
#11
Erica V Bennett, Laura Hurd Clarke, Kent C Kowalski, Peter R E Crocker
We explored how physically active women perceived, experienced, and coped with their aging bodies, and examined their perceptions of the utility of self-compassion to manage aging body-related changes. Findings from a thematic analysis of interviews with 21 women aged 65-94 revealed that they were appreciative of how their bodies worked and accepting of their physical limitations, yet concurrently critical of their body's functionality and appearance. Participants engaged in physical activity and healthy eating to maintain their health and body functionality, yet also used diet, hair styling, anti-aging creams, makeup, physical activity, and clothing to manage their appearances...
March 19, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329417/nursing-judgement-and-decision-making-using-the-sedation-withdrawal-score-sws-in-children
#12
Jennie Craske, Bernie Carter, Ian H Jarman, Lyvonne N Tume
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate registered children's nurses' approaches to the assessment and management of withdrawal syndrome in children. BACKGROUND: Assessment of withdrawal syndrome is undertaken following critical illness when the child's condition may be unstable with competing differential diagnoses. Assessment tools aim to standardise and improve recognition of withdrawal syndrome. Making the right decisions in complex clinical situations requires a degree of mental effort and it is not known how nurses make decisions when undertaking withdrawal assessments...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329377/time-to-refocus-assessment-of-vision-in-older-adults-contrast-sensitivity-but-not-visual-acuity-is-associated-with-gait-in-older-adults
#13
Eoin Duggan, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Hilary Cronin, James Loughman, Ciarán Finucane
Background: The relationship between measures of visual function and gait related risk factors for falls is unclear. In this study, we examine the relationship between visual function (visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS] at multiple spatial frequencies) and quantitative spatiotemporal gait, using a large, nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods: Participants aged 50 and over were recruited as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329340/baseline-characteristics-of-participants-in-the-aspree-aspirin-in-reducing-events-in-the-elderly-study
#14
John J McNeil, Robyn L Woods, Mark R Nelson, Anne M Murray, Christopher M Reid, Brenda Kirpach, Elsdon Storey, Raj C Shah, Rory S Wolfe, Andrew M Tonkin, Anne B Newman, Jeff D Williamson, Jessica E Lockery, Karen L Margolis, Michael E Ernst, Walter P Abhayaratna, Nigel Stocks, Sharyn M Fitzgerald, Ruth E Trevaks, Suzanne G Orchard, Lawrence J Beilin, Geoffrey A Donnan, Peter Gibbs, Colin I Johnston, Richard H Grimm
Background: There are no primary prevention trials of aspirin with relevant geriatric outcomes in elderly people. ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) is a placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin that will determine whether 5 years of daily 100-mg enteric-coated aspirin extends disability-free and dementia-free life in a healthy elderly population and whether these benefits outweigh the risks. Methods: Set in primary care, this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial has a composite primary endpoint of death, incident dementia or persistent physical disability...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329149/prediction-of-long-term-cognitive-decline-following-postoperative-delirium-in-older-adults
#15
Elizabeth E Devore, Tamara G Fong, Edward R Marcantonio, Eva M Schmitt, Thomas G Travison, Richard N Jones, Sharon K Inouye
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that postoperative delirium may result in long-term cognitive decline among older adults. Risk factors for such cognitive decline are unknown. Methods: We studied 126 older participants without delirium or dementia upon entering the Successful AGing After Elective Surgery (SAGES) study, who developed postoperative delirium and completed repeated cognitive assessments (up to 36 months of follow-up). Pre-surgical factors were assessed preoperatively and divided into nine groupings of related factors ("domains")...
March 15, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329131/effectiveness-of-long-term-doxycycline-treatment-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-fatigue-severity-in-patients-with-q-fever-fatigue-syndrome-qure-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Stephan P Keijmel, Corine E Delsing, Gijs Bleijenberg, Jos W M van der Meer, Rogier T Donders, Monique Leclercq, Linda M Kampschreur, Michel van den Berg, Tom Sprong, Marrigje H Nabuurs-Franssen, Hans Knoop, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers
Background.: Approximately 20% of patients with acute Q fever will develop chronic fatigue, referred to as Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS). The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of either long-term treatment with doxycycline or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing fatigue severity in patients with QFS. Methods.: Adult patients were included who met the QFS criteria according to the Dutch guideline: a new onset of severe fatigue lasting ≥6 months with significant disabilities, related to an acute Q fever infection, without other somatic or psychiatric comorbidity explaining the fatigue...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329104/vascular-cerebral-damage-in-frail-older-adults-the-amimage-study
#17
José Alberto Avila-Funes, Amandine Pelletier, Céline Meillon, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Olivier Periot, Irene Trevin O-Frenk, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Pérès, Michèle Allard, Bixente Dilharreguy, Hélène Amieva
Background: Frailty has been associated with increased risk of adverse-health related outcomes including cognitive impairment. However, little is know about the pathogenesis relating frailty to cognitive decline. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between vascular cerebral damage and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 176 community-dwelling participants aged 67-86 years, participating in the AMImage Study, an ancillary neuro-imaging project of the AMI cohort, a French prospective cohort including older farmers living in rural areas...
January 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329074/task-modifications-in-walking-postpone-decline-in-life-space-mobility-among-community-dwelling-older-people-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#18
Merja Rantakokko, Erja Portegijs, Anne Viljanen, Susanne Iwarsson, Taina Rantanen
Background: Task modification refers to performing a task differently than before. While task modification in walking may be a sign of looming walking difficulty, it may also be adaptive in and postpone the decline in life-space mobility. However, this has not been studied. This study examined whether changes in life-space mobility over a 2-year period differ between people who at baseline report no walking difficulty and no task modification, those who report no walking difficulty but task modification, and those who report walking difficulty...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328855/head-to-head-comparison-of-11c-pib-and-18f-fc119s-for-a%C3%AE-imaging-in-healthy-subjects-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-and-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#19
Byung Hyun Byun, Byung Il Kim, Su Yeon Park, In Ok Ko, Kyo Chul Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Jun-Young Lee, Seon Hee Bu, Jung Hwa Kim, Dae Yoon Chi, Jeong Ho Ha, Sang Moo Lim
As a new beta amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, F-FC119S has shown higher cortical uptake in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than that in healthy control subjects without adverse effects in a previous preliminary study. The aim of this study was to compare F-FC119S PET and C-PiB PET in healthy control (HC) subjects, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and AD patients.A total of 48 subjects, including 28 HC subjects, 10 MCI patients, and 10 AD patients, underwent static F-FC119S PET (30 minutes after intravenous [i...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328575/predictors-and-social-consequences-of-daily-pain-expectancy-among-adults-with-chronic-pain
#20
Chung Jung Mun, Kirti Thummala, Mary C Davis, Paul Karoly, Howard Tennen, Alex J Zautra
Previous research suggests that for people living with chronic pain, pain expectancy can undermine access to adaptive resources and functioning. We tested and replicated the unique effect of pain expectancy on subsequent pain through two daily diary studies. We also extended previous findings by examining cognitive and affective antecedents of pain expectancy and the consequences of pain expectancy for daily social enjoyment and stress. In Study 1, 231 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis completed 30-end of day diaries...
March 21, 2017: Pain
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