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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679913/the-relation-between-gray-matter-volume-and-the-use-of-alcohol-tobacco-cocaine-and-cannabis-in-male-polysubstance-users
#1
A M Kaag, M H J Schulte, J M Jansen, G van Wingen, J Homberg, W van den Brink, R W Wiers, L Schmaal, A E Goudriaan, L Reneman
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated gray matter (GM) volume abnormalities in substance users. While the majority of substance users are polysubstance users, very little is known about the relation between GM volume abnormalities and polysubstance use. METHODS: In this study we assessed the relation between GM volume, and the use of alcohol, tobacco, cocaine and cannabis as well as the total number of substances used, in a sample of 169 males: 15 non-substance users, 89 moderate drinkers, 27 moderate drinkers who also smoke tobacco, 13 moderate drinkers who also smoke tobacco and use cocaine, 10 heavy drinkers who smoke tobacco and use cocaine and 15 heavy drinkers who smoke tobacco, cannabis and use cocaine...
April 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679842/context-matters-social-cognition-task-performance-in-psychometric-schizotypes
#2
Madeline J Pflum, Diane C Gooding
Patients with schizophrenia show performance deficits on tasks requiring empathy-related social cognition. The extent to which empathy impairments are observed in psychometric schizotypy is unclear. We compared accuracy and reaction time in three groups of individuals characterized by positive schizotypy (n = 79), negative schizotypy (n = 123), or low schizotypy group (n = 137). On a social cognition task that provided context, namely, the Emotion Perspective Taking Task, the positive schizotypes showed poorer performance than the negative schizotypy and control groups...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679670/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-combined-with-virtual-reality-cue-exposure-for-methamphetamine-addiction-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
XiJing Chen, Dongmei Wang, Lidan Zhou, Markus Winkler, Paul Pauli, Nan Sui, Yonghui Li
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues...
April 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678977/minimizing-icu-neurological-dysfunction-with-dexmedetomidine-induced-sleep-mindds-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blind-parallel-arm-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Kenneth T Shelton, Jason Qu, Federico Bilotta, Emery N Brown, Gaston Cudemus, David A D'Alessandro, Hao Deng, Alan DiBiasio, Jacob A Gitlin, Eunice Y Hahm, Lauren E Hobbs, Timothy T Houle, Reine Ibala, Marco Loggia, Kara J Pavone, Shahzad Shaefi, George Tolis, M Brandon Westover, Oluwaseun Akeju
INTRODUCTION: Delirium, which is prevalent in postcardiac surgical patients, is an acute brain dysfunction characterised by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. However, basic science and clinical studies suggest that sleep disturbance may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of delirium. Dexmedetomidine is a α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist medication that patterns the activity of various arousal nuclei similar to sleep...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678937/identification-of-a-specific-functional-network-altered-in-poststroke-cognitive-impairment
#5
Clément Bournonville, Hilde Hénon, Thibaut Dondaine, Christine Delmaire, Stephanie Bombois, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Charlotte Cordonnier, Solène Moulin, Xavier Leclerc, Régis Bordet, Renaud Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and defining a specific resting functional marker. METHODS: The resting-state functional connectivity 6 months after an ischemic stroke in 56 patients was investigated. Twenty-nine of the patients who had an impairment of one or several cognitive domains were compared to 27 without any cognitive deficit. We studied the whole-brain connectivity using 2 complementary approaches: graph theory to study the functional network organization and network-based statistics to explore connectivity between brain regions...
April 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678927/digital-technologies-for-the-assessment-of-cognition-a-clinical-review
#6
REVIEW
Amy Chinner, Jasmine Blane, Claire Lancaster, Chris Hinds, Ivan Koychev
Dementia is the most widespread form of neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with an immense societal and personal cost. Prevalence of this disorder is projected to triple worldwide by 2050 leading to an urgent need to make advances in the efficiency of both its care and therapy research. Digital technologies are a rapidly advancing field that provide a previously unavailable opportunity to alleviate challenges faced by clinicians and researchers working in this area. This clinical review aimed to summarise currently available evidence on digital technologies that can be used to monitor cognition...
April 20, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678804/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-web-based-treatment-with-telephone-support-for-postpartum-women-with-anxiety-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Miriam T Ashford, Ellinor K Olander, Heather Rowe, Jane Rw Fisher, Susan Ayers
BACKGROUND: Postpartum anxiety can have adverse effects on the mother and child if left untreated. Time constraints and stigma are common barriers to postpartum treatment. Web-based treatments offer potential flexibility and anonymity. What Am I Worried About (WaWa) is a self-guided treatment based on cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness principles for women experiencing postpartum anxiety. WaWa was developed in Australia and consists of 9 modules with optional weekly telephone support...
April 20, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678668/the-effect-of-music-on-postoperative-recovery-in-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#8
Hanneke van der Wal-Huisman, Karolien S K Dons, Rineke Smilde, Erik Heineman, Barbara L van Leeuwen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is an important part of the treatment modalities offered to older patients with cancer. Natural ageing processes lead to deterioration of organ function, making older patients more vulnerable and at risk for experiencing less-favourable outcomes and complications after surgery. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as music, may be preferable to medical interventions in older people, who are at risk for adverse effects and drug interactions due to altered physiology and drug metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678643/a-systematic-review-of-neuropsychological-studies-involving-young-binge-drinkers
#9
REVIEW
Carina Carbia, Eduardo López-Caneda, Montserrat Corral, Fernando Cadaveira
Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678619/effect-of-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-on-early-cognitive-function-in-elderly-patients-with-spinal-stenosis
#10
Na Zhang, Min Liang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Yi-Rong Xiao, Yan-Zhen Li, You-Guang Gao, Hong-da Cai, Xian-Zhong Lin, Cai-Zhu Lin, Kai Zeng, Xiao-Dan Wu
PURPOSE: To explore effect of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on early cognitive function in elderly patients with spinal stenosis. METHODS: 83 elderly patients with spinal stenosis were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 40) and GDFT group (n = 43). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, IL-6 and S100β levels, hemodynamic parameters, cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ), arterial lactic acid values, output of surgery, operation time and cases of hypotension, intraoperative complications within 7 days were recorded for all patients...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#11
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678563/pilot-randomized-trial-of-integrated-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-neuromuscular-training-for-juvenile-fibromyalgia-the-fit-teens-program
#12
Susmita Kashikar-Zuck, William R Black, Megan Pfeiffer, James Peugh, Sara E Williams, Tracy V Ting, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Gregory D Myer
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) improves coping and daily functioning in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), but is less effective in reducing pain. This pilot trial evaluated the efficacy of a novel intervention (Fibromyalgia Integrative Training for Teens; FIT Teens) which integrates CBT with specialized neuromuscular exercise training to enhance the impact of treatment on reducing pain and disability. Forty adolescents with JFM (12-18 years) were randomized to CBT-only or FIT Teens. Treatment was conducted in group-based sessions over 8 weeks with assessments at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up (primary endpoint)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678514/effect-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-and-rectal-surgery-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-during-the-first-2-years-after-diagnosis
#13
Alice M Couwenberg, Johannes P M Burbach, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Anke B Smits, Esther C J Consten, Anandi H W Schiphorst, Niels A T Wijffels, Joost T Heikens, Martijn P W Intven, Helena M Verkooijen
INTRODUCTION: Rectal cancer surgery with neoadjuvant therapy is associated with substantial morbidity. The present study describes the course of quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients in the first 2 years after the start of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study within a colorectal cancer cohort including rectal cancer patients who were referred for neoadjuvant chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy and underwent rectal surgery...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678195/does-sensorimotor-upper-limb-therapy-post-stroke-alter-behavior-and-brain-connectivity-differently-compared-to-motor-therapy-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Nele De Bruyn, Bea Essers, Liselot Thijs, Annick Van Gils, Lisa Tedesco Triccas, Sarah Meyer, Kaat Alaerts, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: The role of somatosensory feedback in motor performance has been warranted in the literature. Although sensorimotor deficits are common after stroke, current rehabilitation approaches primarily focus on restoring upper limb motor ability. Evidence for integrative sensorimotor rehabilitation approaches is scarce, as is knowledge about neural correlates of somatosensory impairments after stroke and the effect of rehabilitation on brain connectivity level. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in sensorimotor function and brain connectivity following a sensorimotor therapy program compared to an attention-matched motor therapy program for the upper limb after stroke...
April 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678193/treating-prolonged-grief-disorder-with-prolonged-grief-specific-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Rita Rosner, Eline Rimane, Anna Vogel, Jörn Rau, Maria Hagl
BACKGROUND: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) has emerged as a well-defined and relatively common mental disorder that will be included in the upcoming revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Recent trials with grief-specific, mostly cognitive behavioral interventions for patients with a clinically relevant diagnosis of PGD showed large effect sizes. However, a small trial suggested that non-specific behavioral activation might suffice to improve PGD. So, more evidence for the relative efficacy of grief-specific treatments is needed, as is more research on the predictors of treatment success...
April 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677689/neural-and-behavioral-changes-after-the-use-of-hearing-aids
#16
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly A Jenkins, Samira Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) can restore some loss of the auditory function with the use of hearing aids (HAs). However, what remains unknown are the physiological mechanisms that underlie how the brain changes with exposure to amplified sounds though the use of HAs. We aimed to examine behavioral and physiological changes induced by HAs. METHODS: Thirty-five older-adults with moderate ARHL with no history of hearing aid use were fit with HAs tested in aided and unaided conditions, and divided into experimental and control groups...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677619/associations-of-early-childhood-adversities-with-mental-disorders-psychological-functioning-and-suitability-for-psychotherapy-in-adulthood
#17
Erkki Heinonen, Paul Knekt, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, Olavi Lindfors
Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ)...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677548/combination-of-curcumin-and-vagus-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-behavioral-deficits
#18
Jian Xu, Xinjuan Kong, Hong Xiu, Yihe Dou, Zeyu Wu, Peng Sun
AIM: Previous studies indicated that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) could induce behavioral deficits. Single treatment of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or curcumin is reported to restore CI/RI-induced behavioral deficits. However, the synergic effect remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups: sham, CI/RI, VNS, CI/RI + VNS, VNS + curcumin and CI/RI + VNS + curcumin groups. Each group was further divided into three or four subgroups for further assessments...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677451/treatment-features-associated-with-youth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-follow-up-effects-for-internalizing-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#19
Michael Sun, Leslie R Rith-Najarian, Timothy J Williamson, Bruce F Chorpita
Our aim was to investigate whether four treatment features (i.e., the inclusion of parental involvement, goal-setting strategies, maintenance/relapse prevention sessions, the addition of booster sessions) were associated with posttreatment and follow-up effect size of youth cognitive behavioral therapies (yCBTs) for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder in age groups spanning young children to adolescents. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of 106 yCBTs tested in 76 randomized clinical trials from the PracticeWise Database to examine average effects of yCBTs posttreatment and at a later follow-up assessment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677324/endogenous-attention-improves-perception-in-amblyopic-macaques
#20
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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