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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441649/home-based-physical-behavior-in-late-stage-parkinson-disease-dementia-differences-between-cognitive-subtypes
#1
Bernhard Cerff, Walter Maetzler, Patricia Sulzer, Malte Kampmeyer, Jos Prinzen, Markus A Hobert, Dominik Blum, Rob van Lummel, Silvia Del Din, Susanne Gräber, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: For the early diagnosis of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), objective home-based tools are needed to quantify even mild stages of dysfunction of the activities of daily living (ADL). OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, home-based physical behavior was assessed to examine whether it is possible to distinguish mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) from PDD. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with mild to severe Parkinson disease (PD) participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 26, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441519/grounding-principles-for-inferring-agency-two-cultural-perspectives
#2
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research investigates cultural variation in grounding principles for inferring agency in order to address an important theoretical debate: does cultural diversity in agency concepts reflect an animistic overextension of (universal) folkpsychology, as many have argued, or an alternative theory of folkcommunication based on relational principles? In two experiments, mind perception measures were adapted to assess beliefs concerning the agency of non-animal kinds (plants, abiotic kinds, complex artifacts) among Indigenous Ngöbe adults in Panama and US college students...
April 22, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441517/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-driving-does-in-vehicle-distraction-affect-driving-performance
#3
Ion N Beratis, Dimosthenis Pavlou, Eleonora Papadimitriou, Nikolaos Andronas, Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Stella Fragkiadaki, George Yannis, Sokratis G Papageorgiou
OBJECTIVES: In-vehicle distraction is considered to be an important cause of road accidents. Drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), because of their attenuated cognitive resources, may be vulnerable to the effects of distraction; however, previous relevant research is lacking. The main objective of the current study was to explore the effect of in-vehicle distraction on the driving performance of MCI patients, by assessing their reaction time at unexpected incidents and accident probability...
April 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441442/the-effects-of-a-resistance-vs-an-aerobic-single-session-on-attention-and-executive-functioning-in-adults
#4
Ayelet Dunsky, Mona Abu-Rukun, Sharon Tsuk, Tzvi Dwolatzky, Rafi Carasso, Yael Netz
Evidence from recent studies showed that acute aerobic exercise results in improvements in different cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on attention and executive function in adults. Thirty-nine physically active adults (age = 52±8 yr) served as participants. Each participant visited the laboratory four times: on the first visit participants performed a cognitive test (NeuroTrax) followed by an aerobic fitness assessment, as well as maximal strength test composed of six exercises...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441335/systematic-review-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-in-psychosis
#5
REVIEW
Maria Michail, Max Birchwood, Lynda Tait
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety is highly prevalent among people with psychosis and linked with significant social disability and poorer prognosis. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has shown to be effective for the treatment of social anxiety in non-psychotic populations, there is a lack of evidence on the clinical effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of social anxiety when this is co-morbid in psychosis. METHODS: A systematic review to summarise and critically appraise the literature on the effectiveness of CBT interventions for the treatment of social anxiety in psychosis...
April 25, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441325/the-effects-of-taekwondo-training-on-peripheral-neuroplasticity-related-growth-factors-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-and-cognitive-functions-in-healthy-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So, Hee-Tae Roh
Although regular Taekwondo (TKD) training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral blood flow velocity, and verify the resulting changes in children's cognitive function after TKD training. Thirty healthy elementary school students were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and TKD (n = 15) groups...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441118/mechanisms-of-hippocampal-aging-and-the-potential-for-rejuvenation
#7
Xuelai Fan, Elizabeth G Wheatley, Saul A Villeda
The past two decades have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the multifactorial drivers of hippocampal aging and cognitive decline. Recent findings have also raised the possibility of functional rejuvenation in the aged hippocampus. In this review, we aim to synthesize the mechanisms that drive hippocampal aging and evaluate critically the potential for rejuvenation. We discuss the functional changes in synaptic plasticity and regenerative potential of the aged hippocampus, followed by mechanisms of microglia aging, and assess the cross talk between these proaging processes...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440901/examining-student-heuristic-usage-in-a-hydrogen-bonding-assessment
#8
Kathryn Miller, Thomas Kim
This study investigates the role of representational competence in student responses to an assessment of hydrogen bonding. The assessment couples the use of a multiple-select item ("Choose all that apply") with an open-ended item to allow for an examination of students' cognitive processes as they relate to the assignment of hydrogen bonding within a structural representation. Response patterns from the multiple-select item implicate heuristic usage as a contributing factor to students' incorrect responses...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440888/training-dual-tasks-together-or-apart-in-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-the-duality-trial
#9
Carolien Strouwen, Esther A L M Molenaar, Liesbeth Münks, Samyra H J Keus, Jan C M Zijlmans, Wim Vandenberghe, Bastiaan R Bloem, Alice Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many controversies surround the usefulness of dual-task training in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study (1) compared the efficacy of two different dual-task training programs for improving dual-task gait and (2) assessed the possible fall risk of such training. METHODS: Patients (N = 121) with a diagnosis of PD (aged 65.93 [±9.22] years, Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III on-medication) were randomized to (1) a consecutive group in which gait and cognitive tasks were trained separately or (2) an integrated group in which gait and cognitive tasks were trained simultaneously...
April 25, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440813/instability-of-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-major-depression-a-two-sample-confirmation-study
#10
T Wise, L Marwood, A M Perkins, A Herane-Vives, R Joules, D J Lythgoe, W-M Luh, S C R Williams, A H Young, A J Cleare, D Arnone
Major depression is associated with altered static functional connectivity in various brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN). Dynamic functional connectivity is a novel tool with little application in affective disorders to date, and holds the potential to unravel fluctuations in connectivity strength over time in major depression. We assessed stability of connectivity in major depression between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), key nodes in the DMN that are implicated in ruminative cognitions...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440532/the-assessment-of-cancer-related-fatigue-syndrome-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-during-palliative-chemotherapy
#11
Andrzej Nowicki, Joanna Piekarska, Ewa Farbicka
INTRODUCTION: Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most common problems of patients with lung cancer. The assessment of cancer- -related fatigue is therefore a significant medical problem in patients during treatment with palliative chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 patients during palliative chemotherapy because of lung cancer. The study was conducted in the Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Treatment of Lung Cancer in the Kuyavian and Pomeranian Centre of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz, in the period from February to June 2016...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439876/functional-vision-and-cognition-in-infants-with-congenital-disorders-of-the-peripheral-visual-system
#12
Naomi Dale, Elena Sakkalou, Michelle O'Reilly, Clare Springall, Michelle De Haan, Alison Salt
AIM: To investigate how vision relates to early development by studying vision and cognition in a national cohort of 1-year-old infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and visual impairment. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional observational investigation of a nationally recruited cohort of infants with 'simple' and 'complex' congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system. Entry age was 8 to 16 months. Vision level (Near Detection Scale) and non-verbal cognition (sensorimotor understanding, Reynell Zinkin Scales) were assessed...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439757/when-is-higher-level-cognitive-control-needed-for-locomotor-tasks-among-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Inbal Maidan, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
Turning has been implicated as a complex task that requires both motor and cognitive resources. Accumulating evidence shows that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) require more steps and more time to complete a turn, however, the role of the prefrontal cortex during turning is not clear. Forty nine patients with PD without freezing of gait (mean age 71.7 ± 1.0 years; 67% men, disease duration 9.7 ± 1.3 years) performed motor and cognitive tests. Prefrontal activation, specifically in Brodmann area 10 (BA10), during turning and usual walking was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
April 24, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439728/is-color-an-integral-part-of-a-rich-mental-simulation
#14
Lara N Hoeben Mannaert, Katinka Dijkstra, Rolf A Zwaan
Research suggests that language comprehenders simulate visual features such as shape during language comprehension. In sentence-picture verification tasks, whenever pictures match the shape or orientation implied by the previous sentence, responses are faster than when the pictures mismatch implied visual aspects. However, mixed results have been demonstrated when the sentence-picture paradigm was applied to color (Connell, Cognition, 102(3), 476-485, 2007; Zwaan & Pecher, PLOS ONE, 7(12), e51382, 2012). One of the aims of the current investigation was to resolve this issue...
April 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439566/inflammatory-markers-and-risk-for-cognitive-decline-in-chronic-kidney-disease-the-cric-study
#15
Manjula Kurella Tamura, Karman Tam, Eric Vittinghoff, Dominic Raj, Stephen M Sozio, Sylvia E Rosas, Gail Makos, Claudia Lora, Jiang He, Alan S Go, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Kristine Yaffe
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. We sought to determine the relation between serum inflammatory markers and risk of cognitive decline among adults with CKD. METHODS: We studied 757 adults aged ≥55 years with CKD participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Cognitive study. We measured interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and fibrinogen in baseline plasma samples...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438907/-good-outcome-isn-t-good-enough-cognitive-impairment-depressive-symptoms-and-social-restrictions-in-physically-recovered-stroke-patients
#16
Arunima Kapoor, Krista L Lanctôt, Mark Bayley, Alex Kiss, Nathan Herrmann, Brian J Murray, Richard H Swartz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional outcome after stroke is often only evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale, which primarily assesses activities of daily living. Stroke patients may experience difficulties with social reintegration and mental functions, feel isolated, and experience poor quality of life, even after physical recovery is complete. Functional assessments based solely on activity limitations may not be able to capture the full range of problems experienced by stroke survivors...
April 24, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438714/the-effect-of-morphological-and-microstructural-integrity-of-the-corpus-callosum-on-cognition-fatigue-and-depression-in-mildly-disabled-ms-patients
#17
Jeroen Van Schependom, Jeroen Gielen, Jorne Laton, Georgios Sotiropoulos, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Johan De Mey, Dirk Smeets, Guy Nagels
Aim To assess the value of callosal morphological and microstructural integrity in assessing different cognitive domains, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 29 mildly disabled MS patients and 15 healthy controls using 3T magnetic resonance images (T1-weighted, FLAIR and DTI) and neuropsychological tests assessing different cognitive functions, depression and fatigue. We compared the added value of morphological measures (corpus callosum area corrected for total intracranial volume, index, circularity and the more detailed thickness profile) and diffusion features (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in multilinear models including standard clinical and whole-brain parameters in assessing neuropsychological scores...
April 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438578/global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-leads-to-amnesiadue-to-selective-neuronal-death-followed-by-astroglial-scar-formationin-the-ca1-layer
#18
Kevin Sadelli, Jean-Claude Stamegna, Stéphane D Girard, Nathalie Baril, Guy Escoffier, Maïna Brus, Antoine D Véron, Michel Khrestchatisky, François S Roman
Global Cerebral Ischemia (GCI) occurs following cardiac arrest or neonatal asphyxia and leads to harmful neurological consequences. In most cases, patients who survive cardiac arrest develop severe cognitive and motor impairments. This study focused on learning and memory deficits associated with brain neuroanatomical reorganization that appears after GCI. The four-vessel occlusion (4VO) model was performed to produce a transient GCI. Hippocampal lesions in ischemic rats were visualized using anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (aMRI)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438556/the-brain-and-the-subjective-experience-of-time-a-voxel-based-symptom-lesion-mapping-study
#19
Luigi Trojano, Michelina Caccavale, Francesco De Bellis, Claudio Crisci
The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals...
April 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438514/components-of-standing-postural-control-evaluated-in-pediatric-balance-measures-a-scoping-review
#20
REVIEW
Kathryn M Sibley, Marla K Beauchamp, Karen Van Ooteghem, Marie Paterson, Kristy Dm Wittmeier
OBJECTIVE: To identify measures of standing balance validated in pediatric populations and determine the components of postural control captured in each tool. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases using key word combinations of postural balance/ equilibrium, psychometrics/ reproducibility of results/ predictive value of tests, child/ pediatrics; grey literature; and hand searches. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were measures with a stated objective to assess balance, pediatric (<=18 years) populations, at least one psychometric evaluation, one standing task, standardized protocol and evaluation criteria, and published in English...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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