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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040946/neuropsychological-predictors-of-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-persons-with-severe-mental-illness
#1
Kim T Mueser, Susan R McGurk, Haiyi Xie, Elisa E Bolton, M Kay Jankowski, Weili Lu, Stanley D Rosenberg, Rosemarie Wolfe
This study examined whether cognitive functioning was related to treatment outcomes in persons with severe mental illness who received a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study sample was drawn from a larger controlled trial of 108 persons with severe mental illness and PTSD comparing the effects of CBT with treatment as usual on PTSD and related outcomes, with assessments conducted at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-ups...
October 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040923/six-factors-of-adult-dyslexia-assessed-by-cognitive-tests-and-self-report-questions-very-high-predictive-validity
#2
Peter Tamboer, Harrie C M Vorst, Peter F de Jong
The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of 154 students. There are three main results. First, various analyses of principal components showed that six or more factors of dyslexia can be distinguished (rapid naming, spelling, reading, short-term memory, confusion, phonology, attention, complexity)...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040798/assessment-of-cognition-and-personality-as-potential-endophenotypes-in-the-western-australian-family-study-of-schizophrenia
#3
Nina S McCarthy, Johanna C Badcock, Melanie L Clark, Emma E M Knowles, Gemma Cadby, Phillip E Melton, Vera A Morgan, John Blangero, Eric K Moses, David C Glahn, Assen Jablensky
Phenotypic heterogeneity is a major barrier to understanding the genetic architecture underlying schizophrenia. Incorporating endophenotypes is one way to reduce heterogeneity and facilitate more powerful genetic analysis. Candidate endophenotypes require systematic assessment against endophenotype criteria, and a ranking of their potential utility for genetic analysis. In this study we assess 20 cognitive and personality measures in a sample of 127 families with at least 2 cases of schizophrenia per family (n = 535) plus a set of 30 control families (n = 121) against 4 endophenotype criteria: (a) be associated with the illness but not be a part of its diagnosis, (b) be heritable, (c) co-segregate with the illness in families, and (d) be found in unaffected relatives at a higher rate than in the general population...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040797/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#4
Maria Niarchou, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Sunny X Tang, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in adulthood while Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent diagnosis in childhood. Inattention symptoms are pronounced in 22q11.2DS and given that attentional impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, inattention symptoms may reflect underlying ADHD, psychosis, or both. We investigate whether inattention is associated with psychosis in 22q11.2DS and in other groups at risk for psychosis but without the deletion (ND) (idiopathic clinical risk and first degree family members of individuals with schizophrenia)...
October 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040776/self-reported-cognitive-biases-moderate-the-associations-between-social-stress-and-paranoid-ideation-in-a-virtual-reality-experimental-study
#5
Roos Pot-Kolder, Wim Veling, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag
Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual reality environment. Methods: This study included 170 participants with different levels of psychosis liability (55 recent onset psychosis, 20 ultrahigh risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of psychotic patients, and 53 controls)...
October 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040611/association-between-pre-pregnancy-overweight-and-obesity-and-children-s-neurocognitive-development-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#6
Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Ivan Cavero-Redondo, Lidia Lucas-de la Cruz, Blanca Notario-Pacheco, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
Background: Obesity and overweight during pregnancy have been negatively associated with fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of the relationship between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with children's neurocognitive development. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science databases from their inception through February 2017 for follow-up studies comparing the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and children's cognition...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040554/frailty-syndrome-an-emerging-clinical-problem-in-the-everyday-management-of-clinical-arrhythmias-the-results-of-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-survey
#7
Stefano Fumagalli, Tatjana S Potpara, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen, Kristina H Haugaa, Dan Dobreanu, Alessandro Proclemer, Nikolaos Dagres
The age of patients presenting with complex arrhythmias is increasing. Frailty is a multifaceted syndrome characterized by an increased vulnerability to stressors and a decreased ability to maintain homeostasis. The prevalence of frailty is associated with age. The aims of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) EP Wire survey were to evaluate the proportion of patients with frailty and its influence on the clinical management of arrhythmias. A total of 41 centres-members of the EHRA Electrophysiology Research Network-in 14 European countries completed the web-based questionnaire in June 2017...
October 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040533/hippocampal-phosphorylated-tau-induced-cognitive-decline-dendritic-spine-loss-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Rui Wang, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the toxic effects of hippocampal phosphorylated tau in tau mice. Using rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, measured protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, MAP2, total & phosphorylated tau, and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old tau mice with P301L mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040147/longitudinal-assessment-of-developmental-outcomes-in-infants-undergoing-late-craniosynostosis-repair
#9
Stefani C Fontana, Skylar Belinger, Debby Daniels, Margaret Tuttle, Paul J Camarata, Brian T Andrews
Evaluation of infants with craniosynostosis for surgical intervention, as opposed to conservative management, remains a challenge within the field of craniofacial surgery. Studies have consistently demonstrated that surgical repair of craniosynostosis is ideally performed between 3 and 12 months of age. As such, there is limited data regarding neurocognitive development in infants who initially present with uncorrected craniosynostosis after 12 months of age. Moreover, the impact of cranial vault surgery on neurocognitive development at all ages remains under investigation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039993/physical-activity-pre-and-post-dementia-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#10
Mira Soni, Martin Orrell, Stephan Bandelow, Andrew Steptoe, Snorri Rafnsson, Eleonora d'Orsi, Andre Xavier, Eef Hogervorst
BACKGROUND: To inform public health interventions, further investigation is needed to identify: (1) frequency/intensity of everyday physical activity (PA) needed to reduce dementia risk; (2) whether post-diagnosis reduction in PA is associated with cognitive outcomes in people with dementia. METHODS: Data from 11,391 men and women (aged ≥50) were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort. Assessments were carried out at baseline (2002-2003) and at biannual follow-ups (2004-2013)...
October 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036842/investigating-the-discrepancy-between-subjective-and-objective-cognitive-impairment-following-acquired-brain-injury-the-role-of-psychological-affect
#11
Christopher Byrne, Rudi Coetzer, Karen Addy
BACKGROUND: Previous research examining the use of self-reported cognitive impairment as a reliable predictor of actual objective cognitive impairment (OCI) has provided mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the potential discrepancy between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in a sample of individuals with an acquired brain injury (ABI). METHOD: Twenty-four participants, recruited from a community brain injury service, completed an objective neuropsychological assessment and a series of self-report questionnaires assessing psychological affect and perceived cognitive difficulties...
October 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036824/alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-and-future-decline-in-cognitive-normal-older-adults
#12
Julien Dumurgier, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Frances B Hatling, Kelly A Judge, Aaron P Schultz, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Deborah Blacker, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Bradley T Hyman, Teresa Gómez-Isla
BACKGROUND: Identifying older adults at risk of cognitive decline represents a challenge as Alzheimer's disease (AD) modifying therapies move toward preclinical stages. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between AD biomarkers and subsequent change in cognition in a cohort of cognitively intact older adults. METHODS: 84 cognitively normal subjects (mean age 72.0 years, 59% women) were recruited through the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the Harvard Aging Brain Study and followed over 3 years...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036822/cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-on-3-tesla-mri-in-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Doeschka A Ferro, Susanne J van Veluw, Huiberdina L Koek, Lieza G Exalto, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). METHOD: 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036813/association-between-later-life-lifestyle-factors-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-in-non-demented-individuals-a-longitudinal-descriptive-cohort-study
#15
Babette L R Reijs, Stephanie J B Vos, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lötjonen, Juha Koikkalainen, Maria Pikkarainen, Anette Hall, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Giovanni B Frisoni, Lutz Frölich, Flavio Nobili, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Luiza Spiru, Magda Tsolaki, Åsa K Wallin, Philip Scheltens, Frans Verhey, Pieter Jelle Visser
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors have been associated with the risk of dementia, but the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between later life lifestyle factors and AD biomarkers (i.e., amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal volume) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, to examine the effect of later life lifestyle factors on developing AD-type dementia in individuals with MCI...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036811/sildenafil-improves-vascular-and-metabolic-function-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Yang Li, Harshan Ravi, Shin-Lei Peng, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Michael D Devous, Kyle B Womack
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of degenerative dementia in the aging population. Patients with AD have alterations in cerebral hemodynamic function including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate. Therefore, improved cerebrovascular function may be an attractive goal for pharmaceutical intervention in AD. OBJECTIVE: We wished to observe the acute effects of sildenafil on cerebrovascular function and brain metabolism in patients with AD...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036701/mismatch-negativity-but-not-p300-is-associated-with-functional-disability-in-schizophrenia
#17
Holly K Hamilton, Veronica B Perez, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Judith Jaeger, Daniel H Mathalon
Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 event-related potential (ERP) reductions in schizophrenia (SZ) reflect preattentive and attention-mediated auditory processing deficits, respectively. Although both have been linked to cognitive deficits in SZ, their relative contributions to real-world functioning are unclear. We sought to determine the functional significance of disrupted auditory processing in SZ by examining MMN and P300 in typically disabled low-functioning patients and in patients with high levels of independent role functioning...
August 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036699/pain-related-acceptance-as-a-mediator-in-the-fear-avoidance-model-of-chronic-pain-a-preliminary-study
#18
Sophie Lykkegaard Ravn, Maria Louison Vang, Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Tonny Elmose Andersen
Objective: The fear avoidance model has served as a popular, heuristic model in explaining the transition from acute to chronic pain. In addition, the significance of pain-related acceptance in chronic pain development and adjustment is underlined in a vast number of empirical studies. The objective of the current preliminary study was to investigate pain-related acceptance as a mediator within the key cognitive relationships proposed by the fear avoidance model of chronic pain. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional design, bodily pain, pain catastrophizing, fear avoidance beliefs, and pain-related acceptance were assessed by questionnaires in 125 chronic pain patients in a Danish multidisciplinary pain center...
September 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036587/latent-profile-analysis-and-conversion-to-psychosis-characterizing-subgroups-to-enhance-risk-prediction
#19
Kristin M Healey, David L Penn, Diana Perkins, Scott W Woods, Richard S E Keefe, Jean Addington
BACKGROUND: Groups at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are heterogeneous, composed of individuals with different clusters of symptoms. It is likely that there exist subgroups, each associated with different symptom constellations and probabilities of conversion. METHOD: Present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to ascertain subgroups in a combined sample of CHR (n = 171) and help-seeking controls (HSCs; n = 100; PREDICT study). Indicators in the LPA model included baseline Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and neurocognitive performance as measured by multiple instruments, including category instances (CAT)...
July 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036509/medication-usage-change-in-older-people-65-in-england-over-20-years-findings-from-cfas-i-and-cfas-ii
#20
L Gao, Ian Maidment, Fiona E Matthews, Louise Robinson, Carol Brayne
Background: medical practice has changed over the last decades reflecting the ageing population, when multi-morbidity requiring multiple medications is more common. Objective: describe and quantify self-reported medicine use including both prescription and over the counter medicines in two comparable population-based studies of older people (65+) in England and to assess the nature and scale of polypharmacy. Methods: data used were from two separate population-based studies; the Cognitive Function Ageing Study I and II...
September 26, 2017: Age and Ageing
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