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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655206/deficient-emotion-processing-is-associated-with-everyday-functioning-capacity-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#1
Jonathan M Grabyan, Erin E Morgan, Marizela V Cameron, Javier Villalobos, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Objective: Emotion processing has received little research focus in HIV, but emerging evidence suggests that abilities such as facial affect discrimination may be features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The present study hypothesized that individuals with HAND would evidence an emotion processing deficit relative to cognitively unimpaired individuals with HIV and seronegative comparison participants on a task assessing these abilities. Moreover, it was expected that this deficit would be significantly associated with social aspects of everyday functioning...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655166/communication-in-multiple-sclerosis-pragmatic-deficit-and-its-relation-with-cognition-and-social-cognition
#2
Antonio Carotenuto, Giorgio Arcara, Giuseppe Orefice, Ilaria Cerillo, Valentina Giannino, Mario Rasulo, Rosa Iodice, Valentina Bambini
Objective: Cognitive functions have been largely investigated in multiple sclerosis. Less attention has been paid to social communication abilities, despite their presumptive affect on quality of life. We run the first comprehensive assessment of pragmatic skills in multiple sclerosis, evaluating also the relationship between pragmatics and other cognitive domains. Methods: Forty-two multiple sclerosis patients and 42 controls were tested for pragmatic abilities, neuro-cognition, social cognition, depression, and fatigue...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654855/clinical-profile-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-new-onset-acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-children
#3
Vimlesh Soni, Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Prabhjot Malhi, Radha K Ratho, Baijayantimala Mishra, Sunit C Singhi
PURPOSE: To study clinical profile, neurodevelopmental outcome and its predictors in children with acute symptomatic seizures (ASS). METHODS: Short-term neurodevelopmental outcome and predictors of poor outcomes were prospectively assessed in 105 consecutive children with ASS aged 3 months-12 years RESULTS: Mean age was 51.2+42.2months (3-144 months); 67.2% were males. Central nervous system (CNS) infection in 82%, status epilepticus in 15.2%, abnormal neuroimaging in 62...
June 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654848/gender-differences-in-the-association-between-physical-activity-and-cognitive-function-in-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder
#4
F T Fellendorf, N Kainzbauer, M Platzer, N Dalkner, S A Bengesser, A Birner, R Queissner, P Rauch, C Hamm, R Pilz, E Z Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by a high number of comorbidities and associated with an overall increased mortality. Especially obesity, systemic inflammatory processes and cognitive deficits are highly prevalent and increase with the course of illness. Physical activity (PA) is associated with beneficial effects on somatic comorbidities such as obesity or cardiovascular disease in individuals without psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, PA might increase neurocognitive performance and reduce systemic inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654838/callous-unemotional-traits-moderate-executive-function-in-children-with-asd-and-adhd-a-pilot-event-related-potential-study
#5
C Tye, R Bedford, P Asherson, K L Ashwood, B Azadi, P Bolton, G McLoughlin
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with varied executive function (EF) difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs) that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX) in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD+ADHD and typical controls...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654799/neurobehavioral-consequences-of-continuous-spike-and-waves-during-slow-sleep-csws-in-a-pediatric-population-a-pattern-of-developmental-hindrance
#6
Valentina De Giorgis, Melissa Filippini, Joyce Ann Macasaet, Silvia Masnada, Pierangelo Veggiotti
INTRODUCTION: Continuous spike and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) is a typical EEG pattern defined as diffuse, bilateral and recently also unilateral or focal localization spike-wave occurring in slow sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep. Literature results so far point out a progressive deterioration and decline of intellectual functioning in CSWS patients, i.e. a loss of previously normally acquired skills, as well as persistent neurobehavioral disorders, beyond seizure and EEG control...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654682/low-intensity-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-interventions-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-compared-to-waiting-list-for-therapist-led-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-3-arm-randomised-controlled-trial-of-clinical-effectiveness
#7
Karina Lovell, Peter Bower, Judith Gellatly, Sarah Byford, Penny Bee, Dean McMillan, Catherine Arundel, Simon Gilbody, Lina Gega, Gillian Hardy, Shirley Reynolds, Michael Barkham, Patricia Mottram, Nicola Lidbetter, Rebecca Pedley, Jo Molle, Emily Peckham, Jasmin Knopp-Hoffer, Owen Price, Janice Connell, Margaret Heslin, Christopher Foley, Faye Plummer, Christopher Roberts
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent and without adequate treatment usually follows a chronic course. "High-intensity" cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) from a specialist therapist is current "best practice." However, access is difficult because of limited numbers of therapists and because of the disabling effects of OCD symptoms. There is a potential role for "low-intensity" interventions as part of a stepped care model. Low-intensity interventions (written or web-based materials with limited therapist support) can be provided remotely, which has the potential to increase access...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654667/development-and-initial-implementation-of-the-dynamic-assessment-treatment-algorithm-data
#8
Katya C Fernandez, Aaron J Fisher, Cyrus Chi
Given the recent increase in transdiagnostic research, it is important to discern how dimensional models of psychopathology could be used to guide personalized, dynamic assessment and treatment of symptoms. Using the person-specific approach described by Fisher (2015), we devised an initial 4-step algorithm for devising a treatment plan based on modular cognitive behavioral therapy using results obtained from within-person factor analyses and dynamic factor models. Then, we describe the improvement and digitization of the algorithm, termed Dynamic Assessment Treatment Algorithm (DATA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654646/developing-and-validating-a-scale-to-measure-food-and-nutrition-literacy-fnlit-in-elementary-school-children-in-iran
#9
Aazam Doustmohammadian, Nasrin Omidvar, Nastaran Keshavarz-Mohammadi, Morteza Abdollahi, Maryam Amini, Hassan Eini-Zinab
BACKGROUND: Food and nutrition literacy is an emerging term which is increasingly used in policy and research. Though research in this area is growing, progression is limited by the lack of an accepted method to measure food and nutrition literacy. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess food and nutrition literacy in elementary school children in the city of Tehran. METHODS: The study was conducted in three phases. To develop Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) questionnaire, a comprehensive literature review and a qualitative study were initially performed to identify food and nutrition literacy dimensions and its components...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654411/a-multi-method-investigation-of-pragmatic-development-in-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#10
Michelle Lee, Lauren Bush, Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Nell Maltman, Jessica Klusek, Molly Losh
This longitudinal study examined pragmatic language in boys and girls with Down syndrome (DS) at up to three time points, using parent report, standardized and direct assessments. We also explored relationships among theory of mind, executive function, nonverbal mental age, receptive and expressive vocabulary, grammatical complexity, and pragmatic competence. Controlling for cognitive and language abilities, children with DS demonstrated greater difficulty than younger typically developing controls on parent report and standardized assessments, but only girls with DS differed on direct assessments...
July 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654361/enhancing-spatial-attention-and-working-memory-in-younger-and-older-adults
#11
Camarin E Rolle, Joaquin A Anguera, Sasha N Skinner, Bradley Voytek, Adam Gazzaley
Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654357/patients-with-paediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis-are-at-higher-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-in-adulthood-an-italian-collaborative-study
#12
Luis Ruano, Mariana Branco, Emilio Portaccio, Benedetta Goretti, Claudia Niccolai, Francesco Patti, Clara Chisari, Paolo Gallo, Paola Grossi, Angelo Ghezzi, Marco Roscio, Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Stampatori, Marta Simone, Rosa Gemma Viterbo, Maria Pia Amato
BACKGROUND: Patients with paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) could be at an increased risk for cognitive impairment (CI), given the potential harmful effects of disease activity in neurodevelopment. However, there is scarce information on their long-term cognitive outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and profile of CI between adults with a history of POMS and those with classic, adult-onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS). METHODS: Cognitive performance was assessed through the Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB) and the Stroop Test in consecutive patients referred to six Italian MS centres...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654095/polygenic-risk-has-an-impact-on-the-structural-plasticity-of-hippocampal-subfields-during-aerobic-exercise-combined-with-cognitive-remediation-in-multi-episode-schizophrenia
#13
S Papiol, D Popovic, D Keeser, A Hasan, T Schneider-Axmann, F Degenhardt, M J Rossner, H Bickeböller, A Schmitt, P Falkai, B Malchow
Preliminary studies suggest that, besides improving cognition, aerobic exercise might increase hippocampal volume in schizophrenia patients; however, results are not consistent. Individual mechanisms of volume changes are unknown but might be connected to the load of risk genes. Genome-wide association studies have uncovered the polygenic architecture of schizophrenia. The secondary analysis presented here aimed to determine the modulatory role of schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) on volume changes in the total hippocampus and cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2/3, CA4/dentate gyrus (DG) and subiculum over time...
June 27, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653799/longitudinal-cognitive-trajectories-and-associated-clinical-variables-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#14
Álvaro Frías, Daniel P Dickstein, John Merranko, Mary Kay Gill, Tina R Goldstein, Benjamin I Goldstein, Heather Hower, Shirley Yen, Danella M Hafeman, Fangzi Liao, Rasim Diler, David Axelson, Michael Strober, Jeffrey I Hunt, Neal D Ryan, Martin B Keller, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial interest in delineating the course of cognitive functioning in bipolar (BP) youth. However, there are no longitudinal studies aimed at defining subgroups of BP youth based on their distinctive cognitive trajectories and their associated clinical variables. METHOD: Cognitive functioning was measured in 135 participants from the Course and Outcome of BP Youth (COBY) study using several subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
June 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653428/effects-of-dextroamphetamine-in-subacute-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#15
Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Thomas Watanabe, Inna Chervoneva
Psychostimulants that affect neurotransmitters implicated in cognitive function and neural plasticity have potential to enhance the rate and extent of recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten milligrams dextroamphetamine (DEX) or an identical placebo was administered daily for 3 weeks to 32 participants with moderate to severe TBI, engaged in inpatient rehabilitation, at a mean of 2 months post injury. A variety of outcome measures assessing cognitive function and overall functional status was administered at weekly intervals, to examine effect sizes that may inform a larger trial, and to evaluate safety...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653212/higher-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-associated-with-higher-white-matter-hyperintensities-burden
#16
Yue Li, Man Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qinglei Shi, Shuna Yang, Huimin Fan, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Junliang Yuan, Tao Jiang, Wenli Hu
The pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is incompletely understood but blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may play a key role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and the severity of WMH burden. Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were recruited in this cross-sectional study and divided into three WMH burden groups according to total Fazekas scores. They received dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging to measure BBB permeability, and received Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653040/prospective-thinking-and-decision-making-in-primary-school-age-children
#17
Elisabetta Lombardi, Cinzia Di Dio, Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Antonella Marchetti
In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653034/nutrients-required-for-phospholipid-synthesis-are-lower-in-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#18
Nick van Wijk, Rosalinde E R Slot, Flora H Duits, Marieke Strik, Egbert Biesheuvel, John W C Sijben, Marinus A Blankenstein, Jörgen Bierau, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen
INTRODUCTION: Synaptic membrane formation depends on nutrients that fuel metabolic pathways for the synthesis of constituent phospholipids. Consequently, insufficient availability of such nutrients may restrict membrane formation and contribute to synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed whether blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of nutrients related to phospholipid synthesis differ among patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and control subjects...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652971/loss-of-integrity-and-atrophy-in-cingulate-structural-covariance-networks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Laura J de Schipper, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the relation between cortical brain atrophy on MRI and clinical progression is not straightforward. Determination of changes in structural covariance networks - patterns of covariance in grey matter density - has shown to be a valuable technique to detect subtle grey matter variations. We evaluated how structural network integrity in PD is related to clinical data. METHODS: 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 159 PD patients. We used nine standardized structural covariance networks identified in 370 healthy subjects as a template in the analysis of the PD data...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652862/dysfunctional-maltreatment-related-cognitions-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
Anke de Haan, Helene G Ganser, Annika Münzer, Andreas Witt, Lutz Goldbeck
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions correlate highly with chronic stress. Studies on maltreatment-related cognitions and their predictors in children and adolescents are rare. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 231 children aged 8-17 years who had experienced maltreatment including domestic violence, emotional abuse, neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Using multiple linear regression analysis, gender, age, index-event, multi-type maltreatment, out-of-home-care, and migration background were investigated as possible predictors of dysfunctional maltreatment-related cognitions...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
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