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Dual energy bone marrow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486441/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#1
Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, Neelam Giri, Maya B Lodish, Ninet Sinaii, James C Reynolds, Sharon A Savage, Constantine A Stratakis, Blanche P Alter
BACKGROUNDPatients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) may have several risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in IBMFS and determine associated risk factors.METHODSPatients with IBMFS with at least one Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan were evaluated. Diagnosis of each IBMFS, Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, was confirmed by syndrome-specific tests. Data were gathered on age, height and clinical history...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439052/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-pathophysiology-adiagnosis-and-treatment-of-post-pregnancy-osteoporosis
#2
Takumi Kurabayashi
Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435761/dual-energy-ct-in-head-and-neck-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Elise D Roele, Veronique C M L Timmer, Lauretta A A Vaassen, Anna M J L van Kroonenburgh, A A Postma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explain the technique of Dual-energy CT (DECT) and highlight its applications and advantages in head and neck radiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Using DECT, additional datasets can be created next to conventional images. In head and neck radiology, three material decomposition algorithms can be used for improved lesion detection and delineation of the tumor. Iodine concentration measurements can aid in differentiating malignant from nonmalignant lymph nodes and benign posttreatment changes from tumor recurrence...
2017: Current Radiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405731/reduced-bone-mass-and-preserved-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-long-term-remission
#4
C M Bastos, I M Araújo, M H Nogueira-Barbosa, C E G Salmon, F J A de Paula, L E A Troncon
Bone marrow adipose tissue has not been studied in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease. We found that these patients have preserved marrow adiposity even with low bone mass. Factors involved in bone loss in active disease may have long-lasting effects but do not seem to affect bone marrow adiposity. INTRODUCTION: Reduced bone mass is known to occur at varying prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) because of inflammation, malnutrition, and steroid therapy...
April 12, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384008/high-dietary-alpha-tocopherol-or-mixed-tocotrienols-have-no-effect-on-bone-mass-density-or-turnover-in-male-rats-during-skeletal-maturation
#5
Katherine G Tennant, Scott W Leonard, Carmen P Wong, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Maret G Traber
High levels of alpha-tocopherol, the usual vitamin E supplement, are reported to decrease bone mass in rodents; however, the effects of other vitamin E forms on the skeleton are unknown. To test the hypothesis that high intakes of various vitamin E forms or the vitamin E metabolite, carboxyethyl hydroxy chromanol, were detrimental to bone status, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group, 11-week males) for 18 weeks consumed semipurified diets that contained adequate alpha-tocopherol, high alpha-tocopherol (500 mg/kg diet), or 50% Tocomin (250 mg mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols/kg diet)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369941/a-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-dira-using-patient-specific-tissue-classification-via-dect-for-improved-quantitative-ct-in-dose-planning
#6
Alexandr Malusek, Maria Magnusson, Michael Sandborg, Gudrun Alm Carlsson
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate-in a proof-of-concept configuration-a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm (DIRA) for quantitative determination of elemental composition of patient tissues for application to brachytherapy with low energy (< 50 keV) photons and proton therapy. METHODS: DIRA was designed as a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm, which uses filtered backprojection, automatic segmentation and multimaterial tissue decomposition. The evaluation was done for a phantom derived from the voxelized ICRP 110 male phantom...
March 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301779/detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-in-nondisplaced-hip-fractures-utility-of-a-virtual-unenhanced-dual-energy-ct-application
#7
Trenton T Kellock, Savvas Nicolaou, Sandra S Y Kim, Sultan Al-Busaidi, Luck J Louis, Tim W O'Connell, Hugue A Ouellette, Patrick D McLaughlin
Purpose To quantify the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium images in the detection of nondisplaced hip fractures and to assess whether obtaining these images as a complement to bone reconstructions alters sensitivity, specificity, or diagnostic confidence. Materials and Methods The clinical research ethics board approved chart review, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively identified 118 patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center emergency department and who underwent dual-energy CT for suspicion of a nondisplaced traumatic hip fracture...
March 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270293/bone-marrow-imaging-by-third-generation-dual-source-dual-energy-ct-using-virtual-noncalcium-technique-for-assessment-of-diffuse-infiltrative-lesions-of-multiple-myeloma
#8
Qin Wang, Zhaoyong Sun, Shuo Li, Haibo Zhang, Jian Li, L U Zhang, Huadan Xue, Zhengyu Jin
Objective To evaluate the value of bone marrow imaging by third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT(DSDECT) using virtual noncalcium(VNCa) technique for the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lesions of multiple myeloma(MM). Methods From December 2015 to June 2016,31 patients with plasma disorders at our center were prospectively recruited and received whole-body imaging with third-generation DSDECT and MRI. CT numbers of vertebrae were measured on VNCa images as well as regular CT images. Correlation between VNCa CT numbers and MRI signal intensities of the vertebrae was evaluated...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242067/denosumab-is-effective-in-the-treatment-of-bone-marrow-oedema-syndrome
#9
Tim Rolvien, Tobias Schmidt, Sebastian Butscheidt, Michael Amling, Florian Barvencik
Bone marrow oedema (BMO) syndrome describes a painful condition with increase of interstitial fluid within bone and is often lately diagnosed due to unspecific symptoms. The underlying causes are diverse while it is widely assumed that in cases of BMO local bone resorption is increased. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and is commonly administered in the treatment of osteoporosis. Besides one previous case report, its clinical effectiveness in the treatment of bone marrow oedema has not been elucidated...
April 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240561/vertebral-compression-fractures-third-generation-dual-energy-ct-for-detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-at-visual-and-quantitative-analyses
#10
Bernhard Petritsch, Aleksander Kosmala, Andreas M Weng, Bernhard Krauss, Anke Heidemeier, Richard Wagner, Timo M Heintel, Tobias Gassenmaier, Thorsten A Bley
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of a third-generation dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium (VNCa) technique for detection of traumatic bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral compression fractures. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Twenty-two consecutive patients with 37 morphologic vertebral fractures were studied between October 2015 and May 2016. All patients underwent dual-energy CT (90 kV and 150 kV with a tin filter) and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
February 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#11
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179169/vertebral-bone-marrow-fat-bone-mineral-density-and-diabetes-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#12
Yahtyng Sheu, Francesca Amati, Ann V Schwartz, Michelle E Danielson, Xiaojuan Li, Robert Boudreau, Jane A Cauley
Elevated vertebral bone marrow fat (BMF) among individuals with osteoporosis has been established in histomorphometric studies. Several studies have found a negative correlation between BMF and bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine in men and women across different age groups. Animal studies have also observed bone loss with increased BMF in mice with induced diabetes. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the association between BMF and BMD varies by diabetic status. We performed a cross-sectional study of 156 men aged 74-96years from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study at the Pittsburgh clinical site...
April 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132908/administration-of-an-activin-receptor-iib-ligand-trap-protects-male-juvenile-rhesus-macaques-from-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-bone-loss
#13
Wen Guo, Karol M Pencina, Karyn O'Connell, Monty Montano, Liming Peng, Susan Westmoreland, Julie Glowacki, Shalender Bhasin
HIV-infected individuals are at an increased risk of osteoporosis despite effective viral suppression. Observations that myostatin null mice have increased bone mass led us to hypothesize that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-associated bone loss may be attenuated by blocking myostatin/TGFβ signaling. In this proof-of-concept study, pair-housed juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239. Four weeks later, animals were treated with vehicle or Fc-conjugated soluble activin receptor IIB (ActR2B·Fc, iv...
January 26, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067882/skeletal-outcome-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-high-risk-neuroblastoma-treated-with-high-dose-therapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-rescue
#14
P Utriainen, A Vatanen, S Toiviainen-Salo, U Saarinen-Pihkala, O Mäkitie, K Jahnukainen
High-dose therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been shown to improve survival rates in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL), but may cause adverse effects on the growing skeleton. We studied skeletal health in a national cohort of long-term survivors of HR-NBL (n=21; age 16-30 years, median 22 years) and in 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. In addition to clinical evaluation and measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we performed spinal magnetic resonance imaging...
January 9, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065376/dual-energy-ct-virtual-non-calcium-technique-for-detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-in-patients-with-vertebral-fractures-a-prospective-feasibility-study-on-a-single-source-volume-ct-scanner
#15
T Diekhoff, K G Hermann, M Pumberger, B Hamm, M Putzier, M Fuchs
OBJECTIVES: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1...
February 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046752/su-f-i-24-feasibility-of-magnetic-susceptibility-to-relative-electron-density-conversion-method-for-radiation-therapy
#16
K Ito, N Kadoya, M Chiba, K Sato, T Nagasaka, K Yamanaka, S Dobashi, K Takeda, H Matsushita, K Jingu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to develop radiation treatment planning using magnetic susceptibility obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) via MR imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method for generating a substitute for a CT image from an MRI. METHODS: The head of a healthy volunteer was scanned using a CT scanner and a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The CT imaging was performed with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm at 80 and 120 kV (dual-energy scan)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043896/marrow-adipose-tissue-composition-in-adults-with-morbid-obesity
#17
Elaine W Yu, Logan Greenblatt, Alireza Eajazi, Martin Torriani, Miriam A Bredella
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have increased fracture risk despite normal or increased bone mineral density (BMD). Elevations in marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and declines in MAT unsaturation are both associated with increased skeletal fragility. The objective of our study was to characterize the quantity and composition of MAT in adults with morbid obesity and T2DM, and to evaluate determinants of MAT. We studied 21 adults with morbid obesity prior to bariatric surgery, 8 of whom had T2DM. All subjects underwent 1H-MR spectroscopy of the lumbar spine and femur for assessment of MAT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lumbar spine and hip for assessment of areal BMD (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD)...
April 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992684/hip-shape-as-a-predictor-of-osteoarthritis-progression-in-a-prospective-population-cohort
#18
Harbeer G Ahedi, Richard M Aspden, Leigh C Blizzard, Fiona R Saunders, Flavia M Cicuttini, Dawn A Aitken, Graeme Jones, Jennifer S Gregory
OBJECTIVE: Hip morphology plays a significant role in the incidence and progression of hip osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that hip shape would also associate with other key factors and tested this in a longitudinal community-based cohort combining radiographic, MRI, DXA, and clinical data. METHODS: Baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images of the left hip of 831 subjects from the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC) were analyzed using an 85-point statistical shape model...
December 19, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942979/use-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-to-measure-skeletal-wide-marrow-composition-and-cancellous-bone-mineral-density
#19
Luke Arentsen, Karen E Hansen, Masashi Yagi, Yutaka Takahashi, Ryan Shanley, Angela McArthur, Patrick Bolan, Taiki Magome, Douglas Yee, Jerry Froelich, Susanta K Hui
Temporal and spatial variations in bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) can be indicative of several pathologies and confound current methods of assessing immediate changes in bone mineral remodeling. We present a novel dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) method to monitor MAT and marrow-corrected volumetric BMD (mcvBMD) throughout the body. Twenty-three cancellous skeletal sites in 20 adult female cadavers aged 40-80 years old were measured using DECT (80 and 140 kVp). vBMD was simultaneous recorded using QCT...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933815/gold-nanoparticles-as-a-potential-cellular-probe-for-tracking-of-stem-cells-in-bone-regeneration-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#20
Daqian Wan, Dexin Chen, Kaicheng Li, Yang Qu, Kang Sun, Ke Tao, Kerong Dai, Songtao Ai
Transplant of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has attracted considerable interest for bone regeneration. However, noninvasive and real-time tracking of location and concentration of the implanted BMSCs remains a big challenge. Herein we designed a novel approach involving the surface modification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with silica layers and DNA Transfectin 3000 (TS) to improve biocompatibility and to enhance the uptake by BMSCs, hence rendering the ability of tracking BMSCs with dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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