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Dual energy bone marrow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900555/the-utility-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-musculoskeletal-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Sachin Khanduri, Aakshit Goyal, Bhumika Singh, Mriganki Chaudhary, Tushar Sabharwal, Shreshtha Jain, Hritik Sharma
The objective of this article is to review the mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) over conventional tomography (CT) in musculoskeletal imaging as DECT provides additional information about tissue composition and artifact reduction. This provides clinical utility in detection of urate crystals, bone marrow edema, reduction of beam hardening metallic artifact, and ligament and tendon analysis.
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860687/bone-remodelling-around-the-metha-%C3%A2-short-stem-implant-clinical-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-dxa-results
#2
Markus Fischer, Nicholas A Beckmann, Hans-Georg Simank
OBJECTIVE: Bony ingrowth of short stems is under investigation. METHOD: Over one year bony reactions around the Metha(®) stem were investigated using the DXA method in a standardized zonal system (19 ROIs). Clinical results were documented using the HHS. RESULTS: HHS significantly improved from 46 points to 97 points. After one year bone marrow density (BMD) increased in the lateral distal and lateral proximal areas as well as in the mid medial area...
December 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825880/detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-in-nondisplaced-hip-fractures-utility-of-a-virtual-noncalcium-dual-energy-ct-application
#3
Trenton T Kellock, Savvas Nicolaou, Sandra S Y Kim, Sultan Al-Busaidi, Luck J Louis, Tim W O'Connell, Hugue A Ouellette, Patrick D McLaughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799843/multiple-myeloma-and-dual-energy-ct-diagnostic-accuracy-of-virtual-noncalcium-technique-for-detection-of-bone-marrow-infiltration-of-the-spine-and-pelvis
#4
Aleksander Kosmala, Andreas Max Weng, Anke Heidemeier, Bernhard Krauss, Stefan Knop, Thorsten Alexander Bley, Bernhard Petritsch
Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (CT) for detection of bone marrow (BM) infiltration in patients with multiple myeloma by using a virtual noncalcium (VNCa) technique. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 34 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance sequentially underwent dual-energy CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the axial skeleton. Two independent readers visually evaluated standard CT and color-coded VNCa images for the presence of BM involvement...
August 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791737/bone-marrow-fat-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-are-associated-with-loss-of-bone-mass
#5
Tiffany Y Kim, Ann V Schwartz, Xiaojuan Li, Kaipin Xu, Dennis M Black, Dimitry M Petrenko, Lygia Stewart, Stanley J Rogers, Andrew M Posselt, Jonathan T Carter, Dolores M Shoback, Anne L Schafer
Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791436/musculoskeletal-health-in-newly-diagnosed-children-with-crohn-s-disease
#6
L M Ward, J Ma, F Rauch, E I Benchimol, J Hay, M B Leonard, M A Matzinger, N Shenouda, B Lentle, H Cosgrove, M Scharke, V N Konji, D R Mack
We evaluated the impact of Crohn's disease on muscle and bone strength, mass, density, and geometry in children with newly diagnosed CD and found profound muscle and bone deficits; nevertheless, the prevalence of vertebral fractures at this time point was low. INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract that can affect the musculoskeletal system. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures and the impact of CD on muscle and bone mass, strength, density, and geometry in children with newly diagnosed CD...
August 8, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762649/associations-between-systemic-bone-mineral-density-knee-cartilage-defects-and-bone-marrow-lesions-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#7
Qicui Zhu, Jianhua Xu, Kang Wang, Jingyu Cai, Juan Wu, Jiale Ren, Shuang Zheng, Changhai Ding
AIM: The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA) remains controversial. This study aimed to explore the cross-sectional associations between BMD at the total body, hip and spine and joint structural abnormalities including cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in patients with knee OA. METHOD: One hundred and eight-five subjects with symptomatic knee OA were included in this study. T2-weighted fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess knee cartilage defects and BMLs...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755282/scaphoid-fracture-bone-marrow-edema-detected-with-dual-energy-ct-virtual-non-calcium-images-and-confirmed-with-mri
#8
Nazeer M Dareez, Kristine H Dahlslett, Eirin Engesland, Elisabeth S Lindland
We aimed to determine whether bone marrow edema (BME) in acute traumatic scaphoid fracture could be demonstrated with dual-energy CT (DECT) using MRI as the gold standard. In recent years, virtual non-calcium (VNCa) images have been used to demonstrate BME in trauma cases, for example, in vertebral compression fractures, hip trauma to detect occult fractures and knee fractures. We present three cases of acute scaphoid trauma. Two patients had subtle or invisible fractures on x-ray and conventional CT images, while DECT VNCa images clearly visualized the BME, which was confirmed by MRI...
July 29, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722700/detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-pattern-with-dual-energy-computed-tomography-of-the-pig-mandible-treated-with-radiotherapy-and-surgery-compared-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lucas J Poort, Annika A R Stadler, Johan H B Ludlage, Frank J P Hoebers, Peter A W H Kessler, Alida A Postma
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) compared with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the detection of edema of the mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Göttingen mini pigs received irradiation to the mandible with an equivalent dose of 0, 25, 50, or 70 Gy. Six months after irradiation, all animals underwent DECT and MR imaging of the mandible. Magnetic resonance short tau inversion recovery (STIR) was used for the grading of the bone marrow edema (0-3)...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716499/fracture-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Catalina Poiana, Cristina Capatina
Diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2 (T2DM), is associated with decreased bone strength as well as increased fracture risk. Bone mineral density is decreased in type 1 diabetes but increased in T2DM, compared with controls. This suggests alterations in bone quality are a major player in the pathogenesis of fragility fractures in patients with diabetes. The link between diabetes and bone appears to be mediated by complex pathways, including the insulin-insulin growth factors system, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in bone collagen, microangiopathy, and increased bone marrow fat content...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711207/dual-energy-computed-tomography-applications-for-the-evaluation-of-the-spine
#11
REVIEW
Peter Komlosi, Max Wintermark
Capturing the energy-dependent x-ray attenuation of different tissues, dual-energy computed tomography offers multiple benefits in the imaging of the spine, such as bone and iodinated contrast removal, monosodium urate imaging, and robust reduction of beam-hardening artifacts. The emerging new applications of this technique include bone marrow imaging in acute trauma and myeloinfiltrative disorders, improved bone density determination, and noninvasive assessment of spinal gout.
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693786/skeletal-involvement-in-type-1-gaucher-disease-not-just-bone-mineral-density
#12
M Baldini, G Casirati, F M Ulivieri, E Cassinerio, K Khouri Chalouhi, E Poggiali, L Borin, V Burghignoli, B M Cesana, M D Cappellini
Gaucher disease is characterized by multi-organ infiltration of phospholipid-laden macrophages. Bone involvement is characterized by typical deformities, osteopenia/osteoporosis, pathological fractures, and bone marrow infiltration (avascular osteonecrosis, infarction). Estimation of skeletal disease includes bone quality that contributes substantially to bone strength. We studied 23 type 1 Gaucher patients (median age 22years, range 3-73) on Enzyme Replacement Therapy from 2months to 26years (median 7years); 4 patients had pathological fractures, 10 bone infarctions, 6 avascular osteonecrosis...
June 16, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671635/osteoprotective-effect-of-radix-scutellariae-in-female-hindlimb-suspended-sprague-dawley-rats-and-the-osteogenic-differentiation-effect-of-its-major-constituent
#13
Guangwei Zhang, Chenrui Li, Yinbo Niu, Qi Yu, Yulong Chen, Enqi Liu
A number of medicinal herbs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for the prevention and treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. As a common ingredient in proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, the anti-osteoporosis effects of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE, 50 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a hindlimb suspended rat model. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the micro-architecture observed by MicroCT assay with bone biomechanical properties evaluated by a three-point bending test...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#14
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486441/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#15
Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, Neelam Giri, Maya B Lodish, Ninet Sinaii, James C Reynolds, Sharon A Savage, Constantine A Stratakis, Blanche P Alter
BackgroundPatients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) may have several risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in IBMFS and determine the associated risk factors.MethodsPatients with IBMFS with at least one dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan were evaluated. Diagnosis of each IBMFS, Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome was confirmed by syndrome-specific tests. Data were gathered on age, height, and clinical history...
September 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439052/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-pathophysiology-adiagnosis-and-treatment-of-post-pregnancy-osteoporosis
#16
Takumi Kurabayashi
Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435761/dual-energy-ct-in-head-and-neck-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Elise D Roele, Veronique C M L Timmer, Lauretta A A Vaassen, Anna M J L van Kroonenburgh, A A Postma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explain the technique of Dual-energy CT (DECT) and highlight its applications and advantages in head and neck radiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Using DECT, additional datasets can be created next to conventional images. In head and neck radiology, three material decomposition algorithms can be used for improved lesion detection and delineation of the tumor. Iodine concentration measurements can aid in differentiating malignant from nonmalignant lymph nodes and benign posttreatment changes from tumor recurrence...
2017: Current Radiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405731/reduced-bone-mass-and-preserved-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-long-term-remission
#18
C M Bastos, I M Araújo, M H Nogueira-Barbosa, C E G Salmon, F J A de Paula, L E A Troncon
Bone marrow adipose tissue has not been studied in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease. We found that these patients have preserved marrow adiposity even with low bone mass. Factors involved in bone loss in active disease may have long-lasting effects but do not seem to affect bone marrow adiposity. INTRODUCTION: Reduced bone mass is known to occur at varying prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) because of inflammation, malnutrition, and steroid therapy...
April 12, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384008/high-dietary-alpha-tocopherol-or-mixed-tocotrienols-have-no-effect-on-bone-mass-density-or-turnover-in-male-rats-during-skeletal-maturation
#19
Katherine G Tennant, Scott W Leonard, Carmen P Wong, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Maret G Traber
High levels of alpha-tocopherol, the usual vitamin E supplement, are reported to decrease bone mass in rodents; however, the effects of other vitamin E forms on the skeleton are unknown. To test the hypothesis that high intakes of various vitamin E forms or the vitamin E metabolite, carboxyethyl hydroxy chromanol, were detrimental to bone status, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group, 11-week males) for 18 weeks consumed semipurified diets that contained adequate alpha-tocopherol, high alpha-tocopherol (500 mg/kg diet), or 50% Tocomin (250 mg mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols/kg diet)...
July 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369941/a-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-dira-using-patient-specific-tissue-classification-via-dect-for-improved-quantitative-ct-in-dose-planning
#20
Alexandr Malusek, Maria Magnusson, Michael Sandborg, Gudrun Alm Carlsson
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate-in a proof-of-concept configuration-a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm (DIRA) for quantitative determination of elemental composition of patient tissues for application to brachytherapy with low energy (< 50 keV) photons and proton therapy. METHODS: DIRA was designed as a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm, which uses filtered backprojection, automatic segmentation and multimaterial tissue decomposition. The evaluation was done for a phantom derived from the voxelized ICRP 110 male phantom...
March 30, 2017: Medical Physics
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