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Dual energy bone marrow

Torsten Diekhoff, Michael Scheel, Sandra Hermann, Jürgen Mews, Bernd Hamm, Kay-Geert A Hermann
OBJECTIVE: Dual-energy computed tomography detects tophi in patients with chronic gout. However, other information that can be obtained from the same scan is not the focus of the current research, e.g., the detection of bone marrow edema (BME) using virtual bone marrow imaging (VBMI). The aim of this study was to evaluate if BME in patients with acute arthritis can be detected with VBMI using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 11 patients who underwent both MRI and dual-energy computed tomography (mean interval of 40 days)...
November 21, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Paul I Mallinson, Tyler M Coupal, Patrick D McLaughlin, Savvas Nicolaou, Peter L Munk, Hugue A Ouellette
The principal advantages of dual-energy computed tomography (CT) over conventional CT in the musculoskeletal setting relate to the additional information provided regarding tissue composition, artifact reduction, and image optimization. This article discusses the manifestations of these in clinical practice-urate and bone marrow edema detection, metal artifact reduction, and tendon analysis, with potential in arthrography, bone densitometry, and metastases surveillance. The basic principles of dual-energy CT physics and scanner design will also be discussed...
December 2016: Radiology
Iana M de Araujo, Carlos E G Salmon, Andressa K Nahas, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Jorge Elias Junior, Francisco Ja de Paula
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of bone mass and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) with other fat depots, insulin resistance, bone remodeling markers, adipokines and glucose control in type 2 diabetes and obesity. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study; comprised 24 controls (C), 26 obese (O) and 28 type 2 diabetes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD). Blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. 1H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess MAT in the L3 vertebra and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess intrahepatic lipids, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Gao Ying, Lian Bo, Jiao Yanjun, Wu Lina, Wang Binquan
INTRODUCTION: Local application of bisphosphonates has been proven to be safer than systemic administration to promote implant fixation. The objective of this study was to introduce such a simple, convenient and efficient method to enhance titanium (Ti) implant osseointegration in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats sequentially underwent bilateral ovariectomy and tibia implantation, and injection of 30 µg/implant zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the site of implantation was performed...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Yifat Sarda, Elad Bergman, Inbar Hillel, Itzhak Binderman, Uri Nevo
PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). A preliminary stage of the disease is progressive bone marrow adiposity, caused by imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis in the marrow. Detection of osteoporosis relies on the quantification of BMD with techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. This work aimed to detect bone marrow changes in an experimental model of osteopenia using a low-field tabletop NMR scanner. METHODS: An experiment was performed on 32 female rats, 3 months old, 16 of which were ovariectomized (OVX) and 16 were sham-operated (sham)...
September 30, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Taiki Magome, Jerry Froelich, Yutaka Takahashi, Luke Arentsen, Shernan Holtan, Michael R Verneris, Keenan Brown, Akihiro Haga, Keiichi Nakagawa, Jennifer L Holter Chakrabarty, Sebastian Giebel, Jeffrey Wong, Kathryn Dusenbery, Guy Storme, Susanta K Hui
PURPOSE: To develop an imaging method to characterize and map marrow composition in the entire skeletal system, and to simulate differential targeted marrow irradiation based on marrow composition. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Whole-body dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images of cadavers and leukemia patients were acquired, segmented to separate bone marrow components, namely, bone, red marrow (RM), and yellow marrow (YM). DECT-derived marrow fat fraction was validated using histology of lumbar vertebrae obtained from cadavers...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Guanwu Li, Zheng Xu, Jingzheng Fan, Wei Yuan, Lina Zhang, Lingmi Hou, Dongmei Wu, Shixin Chang, Horea Calimente, Jiani Hu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the differential features of marrow adiposity between osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) in postmenopausal women using water/fat MRI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 97 postmenopausal women (OA [n = 25], OA + osteopenia [n = 27], OA + OP [n = 23], and OP groups [n = 22]). Water/fat MRI, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and biochemical analysis were performed to assess vertebral marrow fat fraction, bone mineral density, and bone biomarkers, respectively...
September 19, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Jamilly G Maciel, Iana M de Araújo, Adriana L Carvalho, Marcelo N Simão, Clara M Bastos, Luiz E A Troncon, Carlos E G Salmon, Francisco J A de Paula, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa
Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between bone marrow adiposity (BMAT) and bone mass. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique able to assess both BMAT quantity and quality. The aim of our study was to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses of BMAT and to investigate its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy nonobese volunteers. Fifty-one healthy volunteers, 21 men and 30 women, underwent 1.5 T (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lumbar spine...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Maira L Mendonça, Sérgio L Batista, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Carlos E G Salmon, Francisco J A de Paula
OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated...
August 2016: Clinics
Guanwu Li, Zheng Xu, Yilei Chen, Shixin Chang, Horea Calimente, Jiani Hu, Dongmei Wu
OBJECTIVE: In this longitudinal pilot study, we aimed to investigate the intra-, interobserver, and scan-rescan reproducibility of marrow fat fraction (FF) measurements using three-point Dixon imaging in osteoporotic rabbits: comparison with histopathology. METHODS: Twenty female rabbits were randomly assigned to sham-operation and ovariectomy in combination with daily methylprednisolone hemisuccinate groups (n = 10 per group). Marrow FF by three-point Dixon technique and bone density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after operation...
December 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
M Biondi, E Vanzi, G De Otto, F Banci Buonamici, G M Belmonte, L N Mazzoni, A Guasti, S F Carbone, M A Mazzei, A La Penna, E Foderà, D Guerreri, A Maiolino, L Volterrani
INTRODUCTION: Many studies aimed at validating the application of Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) in clinical practice where conventional CT is not exhaustive. An example is given by bone marrow oedema detection, in which DECT based on water/calcium (W/Ca) decomposition was applied. In this paper a new DECT approach, based on water/cortical bone (W/CB) decomposition, was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients suffering from marrow oedema were scanned with MRI and DECT...
August 11, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Tobias Weber, Benedikt Bötticher, Michaela A E Arndt, Walter Mier, Max Sauter, Evelyn Exner, Armin Keller, Susanne Krämer, Karin Leotta, Artjom Wischnjow, Ludger Grosse-Hovest, Dirk Strumberg, Dirk Jäger, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Uwe Haberkorn, Gottfried Brem, Jürgen Krauss
Radioimmunotherapy is considered as treatment option in recurrent and/or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). To overcome the dose limiting bone marrow toxicity of IgG-based radioimmunoconjugates (RICs), we modified a humanized diabody with 5-, 10-, or 20-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) for CD22-targeted radioimmunotherapy using the low-energy β-emitter lutetium-177 ((177)Lu). A favorable pharmacokinetic profile was observed for the 10-kDa-PEG-diabody in nude mice being xenografted with subcutaneous human Burkitt lymphoma...
October 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
Melissa Miranda, Ana María Pino, Karen Fuenzalida, Clifford J Rosen, Germán Seitz, J Pablo Rodríguez
Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old)...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
M J Devlin, D J Brooks, C Conlon, M van Vliet, L Louis, C J Rosen, M L Bouxsein
Starvation induces low bone mass and high bone marrow adiposity in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The adipokine leptin falls in starvation, suggesting that hypoleptinemia may be a link between negative energy balance, bone marrow fat accumulation, and impaired skeletal acquisition. In that case, treating mice with leptin during caloric restriction (CR) should reduce marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and improve bone mass. To test this hypothesis, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a 30% CR or normal (N) diet from 5 to 10 weeks of age, with daily injections of vehicle (VEH), 1mg/kg leptin (LEP1), or 2mg/kg leptin (LEP2) (N=6-8/group)...
June 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
M Fuchs, M Putzier, M Pumberger, K G Hermann, T Diekhoff
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is degraded by metal-implant-induced artifacts when used for the diagnostic assessment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with instrumented spinal fusion. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers a promising supplementary imaging tool in these patients. This case report describes an 85-year-old woman who presented with a suspected acute vertebral fracture after long posterior lumbar interbody fusion. This is the first report of a vertebral fracture that showed bone marrow edema on DECT; however, edema was missed by an MRI STIR sequence owing to metal artifacts...
September 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Dong-Mei Liu, Lin Zhao, Ting-Ting Liu, Pei-Lin Jiao, Dian-Dian Zhao, Mei-Shu Shih, Bei Tao, Li-Hao Sun, Hong-Yan Zhao, Jian-Min Liu
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a Ser/Thr kinase conserved through evolution that coordinates extra cellular signals associated with cell growth. Main functions of mTOR present in the form of two complexes, namely mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are distinct in their unique components, raptor and rictor. In the current study, using a Cre/loxp system, we found an anabolic effect of mTORC2 signaling on skeleton. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced, with down-regulation of mTORC2 signaling activity in primary cultures of osteoblasts that did not contain rictor...
September 2016: Bone
F-S Wang, W-S Lian, W-T Weng, Y-C Sun, H-J Ke, Y-S Chen, J-Y Ko
UNLABELLED: Increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression occurred in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic skeleton. NPY knockout mice exhibited a minor response to the glucocorticoid-mediated exacerbation of bone accretion and fatty marrow pathogenesis. NPY deletion restored SITR1 signaling and enhanced PPARγ ubiquitination of bone tissue, an alternative strategy for ameliorating glucocorticoid-induced skeletal deterioration. INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid excess is observed to worsen the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and fatty marrow...
September 2016: Osteoporosis International
Xi Zheng, Sewhan Mun, Sang Gil Lee, Terrence M Vance, Patrice Hubert, Sung I Koo, Sun-Kyeong Lee, Ock K Chun
Although several animal and cell studies have indicated that blackcurrant anthocyanins exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, which could potentially improve bone mass, the effect of blackcurrant on bone health has not been reported yet. Thus, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of blackcurrant anthocyanins on bone mass in an estrogen deficiency mouse model. Fourteen-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n = 54) were ovariectomized or sham operated. The ovariectomized mice were divided into two groups, basal diet (OVX) or basal diet containing 1% anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract (OVX+BC), and sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks...
April 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Amanda Bielanowicz, Rachelle W Johnson, Hoey Goh, Sarah C Moody, Ingrid J Poulton, Nic Croce, Kate L Loveland, Mark P Hedger, Natalie A Sims, Catherine Itman
Phthalate exposure impairs testis development and function; however, whether phthalates affect nonreproductive functions is not well understood. To investigate this, C57BL/6J mice were fed 1-500 mg di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in corn oil, or vehicle only, daily from 4 to 14 days, after which tissues were collected (prepubertal study). Another group was fed 1-500 mg/kg·d DBP from 4 to 21 days and then maintained untreated until 8 weeks for determination of adult consequences of prepubertal exposure. Bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T by RIA...
July 2016: Endocrinology
Lingyan Zhang, Shaolin Li, Shuai Hao, Zhen Yuan
The goal for this study was to investigate if proton MRS (1H-MRS) and out-of-phase and in-phase MRI can quantify the fat deposition in bone marrow within the lumbar vertebra that can be used to distinguish well between osteoporosis patients and healthy control subjects. Sixty-eight subjects participated in this study. The diagnostic results from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry served as the gold standard, which was able to separate the subjects into osteoporosis (38 subjects) and non-osteoporosis group (30 subjects)...
2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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