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Dual energy bone marrow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722700/detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-pattern-with-dual-energy-computed-tomography-of-the-pig-mandible-treated-with-radiotherapy-and-surgery-compared-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Lucas J Poort, Annika A R Stadler, Johan H B Ludlage, Frank J P Hoebers, Peter A W H Kessler, Alida A Postma
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) compared with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the detection of edema of the mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Göttingen mini pigs received irradiation to the mandible with an equivalent dose of 0, 25, 50, or 70 Gy. Six months after irradiation, all animals underwent DECT and MR imaging of the mandible. Magnetic resonance short tau inversion recovery (STIR) was used for the grading of the bone marrow edema (0-3)...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716499/fracture-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Catalina Poiana, Cristina Capatina
Diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2 (T2DM), is associated with decreased bone strength as well as increased fracture risk. Bone mineral density is decreased in type 1 diabetes but increased in T2DM, compared with controls. This suggests alterations in bone quality are a major player in the pathogenesis of fragility fractures in patients with diabetes. The link between diabetes and bone appears to be mediated by complex pathways, including the insulin-insulin growth factors system, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in bone collagen, microangiopathy, and increased bone marrow fat content...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711207/dual-energy-computed-tomography-applications-for-the-evaluation-of-the-spine
#3
REVIEW
Peter Komlosi, Max Wintermark
Capturing the energy-dependent x-ray attenuation of different tissues, dual-energy computed tomography offers multiple benefits in the imaging of the spine, such as bone and iodinated contrast removal, monosodium urate imaging, and robust reduction of beam-hardening artifacts. The emerging new applications of this technique include bone marrow imaging in acute trauma and myeloinfiltrative disorders, improved bone density determination, and noninvasive assessment of spinal gout.
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693786/skeletal-involvement-in-type-1-gaucher-disease-not-just-bone-mineral-density
#4
M Baldini, G Casirati, F M Ulivieri, E Cassinerio, K Khouri Chalouhi, E Poggiali, L Borin, V Burghignoli, B M Cesana, M D Cappellini
Gaucher disease is characterized by multi-organ infiltration of phospholipid-laden macrophages. Bone involvement is characterized by typical deformities, osteopenia/osteoporosis, pathological fractures, and bone marrow infiltration (avascular osteonecrosis, infarction). Estimation of skeletal disease includes bone quality that contributes substantially to bone strength. We studied 23 type 1 Gaucher patients (median age 22years, range 3-73) on Enzyme Replacement Therapy from 2months to 26years (median 7years); 4 patients had pathological fractures, 10 bone infarctions, 6 avascular osteonecrosis...
June 16, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671635/osteoprotective-effect-of-radix-scutellariae-in-female-hindlimb-suspended-sprague-dawley-rats-and-the-osteogenic-differentiation-effect-of-its-major-constituent
#5
Guangwei Zhang, Chenrui Li, Yinbo Niu, Qi Yu, Yulong Chen, Enqi Liu
A number of medicinal herbs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for the prevention and treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. As a common ingredient in proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, the anti-osteoporosis effects of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE, 50 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a hindlimb suspended rat model. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the micro-architecture observed by MicroCT assay with bone biomechanical properties evaluated by a three-point bending test...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#6
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486441/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#7
Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, Neelam Giri, Maya B Lodish, Ninet Sinaii, James C Reynolds, Sharon A Savage, Constantine A Stratakis, Blanche P Alter
BACKGROUNDPatients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) may have several risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in IBMFS and determine associated risk factors.METHODSPatients with IBMFS with at least one Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan were evaluated. Diagnosis of each IBMFS, Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, was confirmed by syndrome-specific tests. Data were gathered on age, height and clinical history...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439052/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-pathophysiology-adiagnosis-and-treatment-of-post-pregnancy-osteoporosis
#8
Takumi Kurabayashi
Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435761/dual-energy-ct-in-head-and-neck-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Elise D Roele, Veronique C M L Timmer, Lauretta A A Vaassen, Anna M J L van Kroonenburgh, A A Postma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explain the technique of Dual-energy CT (DECT) and highlight its applications and advantages in head and neck radiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Using DECT, additional datasets can be created next to conventional images. In head and neck radiology, three material decomposition algorithms can be used for improved lesion detection and delineation of the tumor. Iodine concentration measurements can aid in differentiating malignant from nonmalignant lymph nodes and benign posttreatment changes from tumor recurrence...
2017: Current Radiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405731/reduced-bone-mass-and-preserved-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-long-term-remission
#10
C M Bastos, I M Araújo, M H Nogueira-Barbosa, C E G Salmon, F J A de Paula, L E A Troncon
Bone marrow adipose tissue has not been studied in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease. We found that these patients have preserved marrow adiposity even with low bone mass. Factors involved in bone loss in active disease may have long-lasting effects but do not seem to affect bone marrow adiposity. INTRODUCTION: Reduced bone mass is known to occur at varying prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) because of inflammation, malnutrition, and steroid therapy...
April 12, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384008/high-dietary-alpha-tocopherol-or-mixed-tocotrienols-have-no-effect-on-bone-mass-density-or-turnover-in-male-rats-during-skeletal-maturation
#11
Katherine G Tennant, Scott W Leonard, Carmen P Wong, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Maret G Traber
High levels of alpha-tocopherol, the usual vitamin E supplement, are reported to decrease bone mass in rodents; however, the effects of other vitamin E forms on the skeleton are unknown. To test the hypothesis that high intakes of various vitamin E forms or the vitamin E metabolite, carboxyethyl hydroxy chromanol, were detrimental to bone status, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group, 11-week males) for 18 weeks consumed semipurified diets that contained adequate alpha-tocopherol, high alpha-tocopherol (500 mg/kg diet), or 50% Tocomin (250 mg mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols/kg diet)...
July 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369941/a-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-dira-using-patient-specific-tissue-classification-via-dect-for-improved-quantitative-ct-in-dose-planning
#12
Alexandr Malusek, Maria Magnusson, Michael Sandborg, Gudrun Alm Carlsson
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate-in a proof-of-concept configuration-a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm (DIRA) for quantitative determination of elemental composition of patient tissues for application to brachytherapy with low energy (< 50 keV) photons and proton therapy. METHODS: DIRA was designed as a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm, which uses filtered backprojection, automatic segmentation and multimaterial tissue decomposition. The evaluation was done for a phantom derived from the voxelized ICRP 110 male phantom...
March 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301779/detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-in-nondisplaced-hip-fractures-utility-of-a-virtual-unenhanced-dual-energy-ct-application
#13
Trenton T Kellock, Savvas Nicolaou, Sandra S Y Kim, Sultan Al-Busaidi, Luck J Louis, Tim W O'Connell, Hugue A Ouellette, Patrick D McLaughlin
Purpose To quantify the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium images in the detection of nondisplaced hip fractures and to assess whether obtaining these images as a complement to bone reconstructions alters sensitivity, specificity, or diagnostic confidence. Materials and Methods The clinical research ethics board approved chart review, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively identified 118 patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center emergency department and who underwent dual-energy CT for suspicion of a nondisplaced traumatic hip fracture...
March 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270293/bone-marrow-imaging-by-third-generation-dual-source-dual-energy-ct-using-virtual-noncalcium-technique-for-assessment-of-diffuse-infiltrative-lesions-of-multiple-myeloma
#14
Qin Wang, Zhaoyong Sun, Shuo Li, Haibo Zhang, Jian Li, L U Zhang, Huadan Xue, Zhengyu Jin
Objective To evaluate the value of bone marrow imaging by third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT(DSDECT) using virtual noncalcium(VNCa) technique for the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lesions of multiple myeloma(MM). Methods From December 2015 to June 2016,31 patients with plasma disorders at our center were prospectively recruited and received whole-body imaging with third-generation DSDECT and MRI. CT numbers of vertebrae were measured on VNCa images as well as regular CT images. Correlation between VNCa CT numbers and MRI signal intensities of the vertebrae was evaluated...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242067/denosumab-is-effective-in-the-treatment-of-bone-marrow-oedema-syndrome
#15
Tim Rolvien, Tobias Schmidt, Sebastian Butscheidt, Michael Amling, Florian Barvencik
Bone marrow oedema (BMO) syndrome describes a painful condition with increase of interstitial fluid within bone and is often lately diagnosed due to unspecific symptoms. The underlying causes are diverse while it is widely assumed that in cases of BMO local bone resorption is increased. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and is commonly administered in the treatment of osteoporosis. Besides one previous case report, its clinical effectiveness in the treatment of bone marrow oedema has not been elucidated...
April 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240561/vertebral-compression-fractures-third-generation-dual-energy-ct-for-detection-of-bone-marrow-edema-at-visual-and-quantitative-analyses
#16
Bernhard Petritsch, Aleksander Kosmala, Andreas M Weng, Bernhard Krauss, Anke Heidemeier, Richard Wagner, Timo M Heintel, Tobias Gassenmaier, Thorsten A Bley
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of a third-generation dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium (VNCa) technique for detection of traumatic bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral compression fractures. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Twenty-two consecutive patients with 37 morphologic vertebral fractures were studied between October 2015 and May 2016. All patients underwent dual-energy CT (90 kV and 150 kV with a tin filter) and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
July 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#17
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179169/vertebral-bone-marrow-fat-bone-mineral-density-and-diabetes-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#18
Yahtyng Sheu, Francesca Amati, Ann V Schwartz, Michelle E Danielson, Xiaojuan Li, Robert Boudreau, Jane A Cauley
Elevated vertebral bone marrow fat (BMF) among individuals with osteoporosis has been established in histomorphometric studies. Several studies have found a negative correlation between BMF and bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine in men and women across different age groups. Animal studies have also observed bone loss with increased BMF in mice with induced diabetes. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the association between BMF and BMD varies by diabetic status. We performed a cross-sectional study of 156 men aged 74-96years from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study at the Pittsburgh clinical site...
April 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132908/administration-of-an-activin-receptor-iib-ligand-trap-protects-male-juvenile-rhesus-macaques-from-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-bone-loss
#19
Wen Guo, Karol M Pencina, Karyn O'Connell, Monty Montano, Liming Peng, Susan Westmoreland, Julie Glowacki, Shalender Bhasin
HIV-infected individuals are at an increased risk of osteoporosis despite effective viral suppression. Observations that myostatin null mice have increased bone mass led us to hypothesize that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-associated bone loss may be attenuated by blocking myostatin/TGFβ signaling. In this proof-of-concept study, pair-housed juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239. Four weeks later, animals were treated with vehicle or Fc-conjugated soluble activin receptor IIB (ActR2B·Fc, iv...
January 26, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067882/skeletal-outcome-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-high-risk-neuroblastoma-treated-with-high-dose-therapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-rescue
#20
P Utriainen, A Vatanen, S Toiviainen-Salo, U Saarinen-Pihkala, O Mäkitie, K Jahnukainen
High-dose therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been shown to improve survival rates in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL), but may cause adverse effects on the growing skeleton. We studied skeletal health in a national cohort of long-term survivors of HR-NBL (n=21; age 16-30 years, median 22 years) and in 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. In addition to clinical evaluation and measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we performed spinal magnetic resonance imaging...
January 9, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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