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Dual energy bone marrow

Jeremy R Wortman, Jennifer W Uyeda, Urvi P Fulwadhva, Aaron D Sodickson
Computed tomography (CT) is key to the assessment of hemodynamically stable patients with blunt or penetrating trauma to the abdomen and pelvis. Dual-energy (DE) CT is a technology that allows acquisition of data at both high and low kilovolt peaks, allowing materials that have different x-ray absorption behaviors as a function of kilovolt peak (such as iodine) to be differentiated and quantified. DE CT has a variety of postprocessing applications that may be helpful in abdominal and pelvic trauma, including iodine-selective imaging, virtual monenergetic imaging, and virtual noncalcium imaging...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
T Grieser
CLINICAL ISSUE: Both benign and malignant tumours are encountered in the foot and ankle. Due to their rarity, however, diagnosis is often uncertain. Usual criteria such as tumour size, invasiveness or pain fail to differentiate benign from malignant neoplasias. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Plain radiography and-due to the complex foot anatomy-CT are important in the diagnostic evaluation of primary bone tumours. In the case of soft tissue tumours, ultrasonography is used to identify ganglion cysts...
February 28, 2018: Der Radiologe
Shaojun Li, Hongning Jiang, Bo Wang, Mingjun Gu, Ning Zhang, Wenwen Liang, Yu Wang
OBJECTIVE: Leptin acts to influence bone metabolism through indirect hypothalamic relay and direct peripheral pathways. Leptin enhances the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to the osteoblast rather than the adipocyte lineage, but the in vivo impacts of leptin on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced marrow adiposity are poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to address this question. METHODS: Forty-five female New Zealand rabbits were divided into sham + vehicle, OVX + vehicle, and OVX + leptin for 5 months...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Ghada Issa, Derik Davis, Michael E Mulligan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if dual-energy computed-tomography bone marrow color maps can improve sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and confidence of detection of bone metastases. METHODS: Institutional review board approved this retrospective review of a consecutive series of cancer patients. Two radiologists first evaluated the fused 120 kV computed tomography images and recorded a number of suspicious lesions, confidence level, and Hounsfield units for each lesion...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Claudia Frellesen, Mehrnoush Azadegan, Simon S Martin, Katharina Otani, Tommaso DʼAngelo, Christian Booz, Katrin Eichler, Bita Panahi, Moritz Kaup, Ralf W Bauer, Thomas J Vogl, Julian L Wichmann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of virtual noncalcium (VNCa) dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) reconstructions enabling visualization of bone marrow edema for characterization of incidental thoracolumbar compression fractures in routine thoracoabdominal staging computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 51 oncological patients without suspected fracture or indicative complaints presenting at least 1 thoracolumbar compression fracture on routine thoracoabdominal staging DECT who had been examined between October 2015 and June 2017 using third-generation dual-source CT, had a previous CT within 3 months before, and also had undergone additional magnetic resonance imaging within 14 days, which served as the standard of reference...
February 27, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Ismail T Ali, William D Wong, Teresa Liang, Faisal Khosa, Memoona Mian, Sabeena Jalal, Savvas Nicolaou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for assessing carpal fractures and to obtain an attenuation value cutoff (in Hounsfield units) to identify bone marrow edema due to an acute carpal fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 24 patients who presented with wrist fractures from September 3, 2014, through March 9, 2015, underwent imaging with DECT (80 and 140 kVp). Using the three-material decomposition algorithm specific for virtual noncalcium to construct images, two radiologists identified carpal fractures and associated bone marrow edema...
February 22, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Pei Yang, Guangyao Wu, Xiaodan Chang
PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were searched up to July 2017 for relevant original studies. Data were extracted to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), and areas under summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves for analysis...
February 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Guanwu Li, Zheng Xu, Haiyang Lin, Yilei Chen, Xuefeng Li, Shixin Chang
OBJECTIVE: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on marrow lipid remain elusive. We aimed to explore the effects of anthropometric and biochemical measures, that is, estimates of insulin resistance, on marrow lipid accumulation in nondiabetic postmenopausal women using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. METHODS: The study participants were 91 nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Marrow fat fraction (FF) at the L3 vertebral body by single-voxel MR spectroscopy and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were measured...
January 22, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
William E Palmer, F Joseph Simeone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Radiology
Danmin Wang, Zhiduo Hou, Yao Gong, Subiao Chen, Ling Lin, Zhengyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the relationship between bone marrow edema (BME) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: The study included 333 patients with AS who underwent BMD measurements and axial MRI. Additionally, 106 normal controls were included. The modified New York criteria were used as the classification criteria of AS. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected and analyzed...
2017: PloS One
Lianyong Liu, Lin Zhou, Xiaorong Yang, Qi Liu, Ling Yang, Chao Zheng, Yongling Zhao, Zhenlin Zhang, Xiaohong Luo
The present study aimed to investigate whether 17β‑estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on bone deterioration induced by ovariectomy (OVX) through the ephA2/ephrinA2 signaling pathway in rats. Female rats were subjected to OVX, sham surgeryor OVX+E2 treatment. Levels of biomarkers were measured in serum and urine. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on paraffin‑embedded bone sections. Expression of genes and proteins was analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mou Li, Yali Qu, Bin Song
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) virtual non-calcium (VNC) imaging for the detection of bone marrow edema (BME). METHODS: A systematic literature search up to March 2017 was performed to find relevant original studies. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed literature quality, and extracted data. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and other measures of DECT accuracy for detecting BME were calculated using random effects models...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Sheila Bornstein, Michele Moschetta, Yawara Kawano, Antonio Sacco, Daisy Huynh, Daniel Brooks, Salomon Manier, Heather Fairfield, Carolyne Falank, Aldo M Roccaro, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary Bouxein, Calvin Vary, Irene M Ghobrial, Clifford J Rosen, Michaela R Reagan
Obesity during maturation can affect the growing skeleton directly and indirectly, although these effects and the mechanisms behind them are not fully understood. Our objective was to determine how a high-fat diet with or without metformin treatment affects skeletal development. We also sought to characterize changes that occur in white adipose tissue, circulating metabolites, lipids, and gut microbiota. A diet-induced obesity C57BL/6J mouse model was used to test the effects of obesity and metformin on bone using bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Taiki Magome, Jerry Froelich, Shernan G Holtan, Yutaka Takahashi, Michael R Verneris, Keenan Brown, Kathryn Dusenbery, Jeffrey Wong, Susanta K Hui
This report describes a multimodal whole-body 3'-deoxy-3'[(18)F]-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography (FLT-PET) and dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) method to identify leukemia distribution within the bone marrow environment (BME) and to develop disease- and/or BME-specific radiation strategies. A control participant and a newly diagnosed patient with acute myeloid leukemia prior to induction chemotherapy were scanned with FLT-PET and DECT. The red marrow (RM) and yellow marrow (YM) of the BME were segmented from DECT using a basis material decomposition method...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
Sachin Khanduri, Aakshit Goyal, Bhumika Singh, Mriganki Chaudhary, Tushar Sabharwal, Shreshtha Jain, Hritik Sharma
The objective of this article is to review the mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) over conventional tomography (CT) in musculoskeletal imaging as DECT provides additional information about tissue composition and artifact reduction. This provides clinical utility in detection of urate crystals, bone marrow edema, reduction of beam hardening metallic artifact, and ligament and tendon analysis.
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Markus Fischer, Nicholas A Beckmann, Hans-Georg Simank
OBJECTIVE: Bony ingrowth of short stems is under investigation. METHOD: Over one year bony reactions around the Metha(®) stem were investigated using the DXA method in a standardized zonal system (19 ROIs). Clinical results were documented using the HHS. RESULTS: HHS significantly improved from 46 points to 97 points. After one year bone marrow density (BMD) increased in the lateral distal and lateral proximal areas as well as in the mid medial area...
December 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
Trenton T Kellock, Savvas Nicolaou, Sandra S Y Kim, Sultan Al-Busaidi, Luck J Louis, Tim W O'Connell, Hugue A Ouellette, Patrick D McLaughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Radiology
Aleksander Kosmala, Andreas Max Weng, Anke Heidemeier, Bernhard Krauss, Stefan Knop, Thorsten Alexander Bley, Bernhard Petritsch
Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (CT) for detection of bone marrow (BM) infiltration in patients with multiple myeloma by using a virtual noncalcium (VNCa) technique. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 34 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance sequentially underwent dual-energy CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the axial skeleton. Two independent readers visually evaluated standard CT and color-coded VNCa images for the presence of BM involvement...
August 11, 2017: Radiology
Tiffany Y Kim, Ann V Schwartz, Xiaojuan Li, Kaipin Xu, Dennis M Black, Dimitry M Petrenko, Lygia Stewart, Stanley J Rogers, Andrew M Posselt, Jonathan T Carter, Dolores M Shoback, Anne L Schafer
Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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