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Self-perceived burden to others

Adobea Y Owusu, Amos Laar
As of December 2015 there were 37 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), 70% of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana, which contributes a relatively small number to Africa's HIV burden, has a generalised HIV epidemic. The current national prevalence is 1.47%. Agormanya, one of the HIV sentinel sites in the county and where this study was conducted, has current prevalence of 11.6%. This makes it critical to explore how persons infected with HIV manage their lives, especially in the midst of entrenched stigma and discrimination...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Christine Miaskowski, Steven M Paul, Judy Mastick, Mark Schumacher, Yvette P Conley, Betty Smoot, Gary Abrams, Kord M Kober, Steven Cheung, Jennifer Henderson-Sabes, Margaret Chesney, Melissa Mazor, Margaret Wallhagen, Jon D Levine
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate for differences in demographic, clinical, and pain characteristics, as well as measures of sensation, balance, perceived stress, symptom burden, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors who received neurotoxic chemotherapy (CTX) and who reported only chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN, n = 217), CIN and hearing loss (CIN/HL, n = 69), or CIN, hearing loss, and tinnitus (CIN/HL/TIN, n = 85). We hypothesized that as the number of neurotoxicities increased, survivors would have worse outcomes...
February 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
João Apóstolo, Richard Cooke, Elzbieta Bobrowicz-Campos, Silvina Santana, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten, Federico Germini, Barbara D'Avanzo, Holly Gwyther, Carol Holland
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions for preventing frailty progression in older adults. INTRODUCTION: Frailty is an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Evidence supporting the malleability of frailty, its prevention and treatment, has been presented. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 and over, explicitly identified as pre-frail or frail, who had been undergoing interventions focusing on the prevention of frailty progression...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Kieren J Egan, Ángel C Pinto-Bruno, Irene Bighelli, Marla Berg-Weger, Annemieke van Straten, Emiliano Albanese, Anne-Margriet Pot
INTRODUCTION: Dementia poses a considerable socioeconomic burden to society. On a global scale, family and other unpaid care predominates. Supporting caregivers is crucial, but scalable interventions are currently lacking. Because a growing number of studies have suggested that online training and support programs hold considerable promise for scaling up, we reviewed existing literature. METHODS: We systematically searched 6 databases to identify studies of Internet-based interventions designed to train and support caregivers of people with dementia, and we formally assessed risk of bias...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Jennifer R Pharr, Tamara Bruno, Chad L Cross, Llewellyn J Cornelius, Prosper Okonkwo, Bolanle Oyeledun, Hadiza Khamofu, Ayodotun Olutola, Salome Erekaha, William Nii Ayitey Menson, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) have worse health outcomes than other populations of people living with HIV. Contributing factors include lack of standard and comprehensive procedures for ALHIV transitioning from pediatric to adult care. This has contributed to poor retention at, and following transition, which is problematic especially in high ALHIV-burden, resource-limited settings like Nigeria. METHODS: Using a two-arm cluster randomized control design, the Adolescent Coordinated Transition (ACT) trial will measure the comparative effectiveness of a graduated transition and organized support group intervention against the usual practice of abrupt transfer of Nigerian ALHIV from pediatric to adult care...
December 14, 2017: Trials
Melissa J Bloomer, Alison M Hutchinson, Laura Brooks, Mari Botti
BACKGROUND: Conducting research with dying persons can be controversial and challenging due to concerns for the vulnerability of the dying and the potential burden on those who participate with the possibility of little benefit. AIM: To conduct an integrative review to answer the question 'What are dying persons' perspectives or experiences of participating in research? DESIGN: A structured integrative review of the empirical literature was undertaken...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
Tina Monaghan, Lauren Dinour, Doreen Liou, Melanie Shefchik
The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing hospital nurses' dietary practices during their shifts. Semistructured interviews grounded in the Social Ecological Model focused on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and public policy factors affecting intake. Responses from 20 female nurses were qualitatively coded and categorized based on common themes. Four major themes emerged: occupational characteristics, hesitation to take breaks, influence of unhealthy food, and organizational and industry policies...
December 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
Erin Hoare, Sarah R Dash, Pia Varsamis, Garry L Jennings, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors...
December 7, 2017: Nutrients
Alexander U Brandt, Hanna G Zimmermann, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Justine Isensee, Thomas Müller, Friedemann Paul
Visual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of visual dysfunction and especially color vision loss on PD patients, and to identify retinal and disease factors associated with color vision. Thirty PD patients and thirty-four healthy controls were included. Participants performed the Farnsworth-Munsell Hue-100 test (FMT). Patients answered the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) assessment, and underwent optical coherence tomography with measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), and outer nuclear and photoreceptor layer...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
K A Ettridge, J A Bowden, S K Chambers, D P Smith, M Murphy, S M Evans, D Roder, C L Miller
The purpose of this study was to provide in-depth insight into men's experiences of prostate cancer, specifically: perceived stigma and self-blame, social isolation, unmet need and help-seeking. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 20 men diagnosed with prostate cancer, and thematic analysis was undertaken. Some participants perceived a stigma associated with prostate cancer and cancer in general, which sometimes acted as a barrier to disclosure. Self-blame and internalisation of cause was not a prominent issue...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
Fen Tang, Chuan Chen, Yi Zhu, Chengguo Zuo, Yimin Zhong, Nan Wang, Lijun Zhou, Yuxian Zou, Dan Liang
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the flipped classroom method of teaching has received much attention in health sciences education. However, the application of flipped classrooms in ophthalmology education has not been well investigated. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of the flipped classroom approach to teaching ophthalmology at the clerkship level. DESIGN: Ninety-five fourth year medical students in an ophthalmology clerkship were randomly divided into two groups...
2017: Medical Education Online
Lily Victoria Bonadonna, Matthew James Saunders, Roberto Zegarra, Carlton Evans, Kei Alegria-Flores, Heinner Guio
BACKGROUND: Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis remain major global priorities for tuberculosis control. Few studies have used a qualitative approach to investigate the social determinants contributing to diagnostic delay and none have compared data collected from individual, community, and health-system levels. We aimed to characterize the social determinants that contribute to diagnostic delay among persons diagnosed with tuberculosis living in resource-constrained settings...
2017: PloS One
Marie Eliasen, Torben Jørgensen, Andreas Schröder, Thomas Meinertz Dantoft, Per Fink, Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen, Nanna Borup Johansen, Lene Falgaard Eplov, Sine Skovbjerg, Svend Kreiner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women). The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
Thandi van Heyningen, Simone Honikman, Landon Myer, Michael N Onah, Sally Field, Mark Tomlinson
Anxiety is highly prevalent in many populations; however, the burden of anxiety disorders amongst pregnant women in low-resource settings is not well documented. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of antenatal anxiety disorders amongst low-income women living with psychosocial adversity. Pregnant women were recruited from an urban, primary level clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview diagnostic interview assessed prevalence of anxiety disorders. Four self-report questionnaires measured psychosocial characteristics...
August 29, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Volha Dziadzko, Mikhail A Dziadzko, Margaret M Johnson, Ognjen Gajic, Lioudmila V Karnatovskaia
OBJECTIVE: Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. METHODS: A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
Juan Valdés-Stauber, Alexander Fuchs, Sören Reiner, Susanne Bachthaler
Background Hospital psychosomatic treatment matches care expectations of a modern society. Evidence of its effectiveness through investigation in different settings is of importance because of prominent role of psychotherapy in German Healthcare System. Objective First, to explore whether clinical as well as personal resources could improve significantly due to a hospital psychosomatic treatment. Second, to assess possible associations between outcome variables and other variables from the multidimensional profile of the sample...
August 14, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Sabine D Klein, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Manya J Hendriks, Ruth Baumann-Hölzle, Jürg C Streuli, Thomas M Berger, Jean-Claude Fauchère, On Behalf Of The Swiss Neonatal End-Of-Life Study Group
BACKGROUND: Medical personnel working in intensive care often face difficult ethical dilemmas. These may represent important sources of distress and may lead to a diminished self-perceived quality of care and eventually to burnout. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify work-related sources of distress and to assess symptoms of burnout among physicians and nurses working in Swiss neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: In summer 2015, we conducted an anonymous online survey comprising 140 questions about difficult ethical decisions concerning extremely preterm infants...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Patrick W Sullivan, Vahram Ghushchyan, Prakash Navaratnam, Howard S Friedman, Abhishek Kavati, Benjamin Ortiz, Bob Lanier
BACKGROUND: Poorly controlled asthma has far-reaching effects on school-age children and their parents, but little is known about the national impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: To examine HRQoL associated with asthma and indicators of poorly controlled asthma in the United States. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of HRQoL among school-age children (age range, 6-17 years) with asthma in the nationally representative 2007-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)...
November 11, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Angie S LeRoy, Qian Lu, Michael J Zvolensky, Jeffrey Ramirez, Christopher P Fagundes
Perceived burdensomeness (PB), the perception of being a burden to others, is associated with pain and physical symptoms. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), the fear of arousal-related sensations, arising from beliefs that the sensations may have adverse personal consequences (physical, cognitive, and social), may increase risk for pain responding, particularly in anxiety-provoking (e.g. socially threatening) contexts. Accordingly, individuals high in AS may have a stronger pain response when experiencing PB than those low in AS...
August 9, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Solfrid Sørgjerd Saltnes, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Rønnaug Sæves, Hilde Nordgarden, Amy Østertun Geirdal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess demographics, self-reported signs of ectodermal dysplasia (problems with hair, nails, skin and sweat glands), present teeth, previous dental treatment, psychological distress and QoL in individuals with oligodontia, and to explore the associations between these factors. We also aimed to compare the level of psychological distress and QoL between the study group and normative samples. METHODS: Forty-seven individuals with oligodontia registered at a resource centre in Norway were included in the study...
November 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
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