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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098841/compressed-sensing-techniques-applied-to-ultrasonic-imaging-of-cargo-containers
#1
Yuri Álvarez López, José Ángel Martínez Lorenzo
One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed...
January 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098748/propagation-modeling-and-defending-of-a-mobile-sensor-worm-in-wireless-sensor-and-actuator-networks
#2
Tian Wang, Qun Wu, Sheng Wen, Yiqiao Cai, Hui Tian, Yonghong Chen, Baowei Wang
WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier...
January 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095930/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-the-introduction-of-rabies-into-japan-through-the-importation-of-dogs-and-cats-worldwide
#3
N C L Kwan, K Sugiura, Y Hosoi, A Yamada, E L Snary
Japan has been free from rabies since 1958. A strict import regimen has been adopted since 2004 consisting of identification of an animal with microchip, two-time rabies vaccination, neutralizing antibody titration test and a waiting period of 180 days. The present study aims to quantitatively assess the risk of rabies introduction into Japan through the international importation of dogs and cats and hence provide evidence-based recommendations to strengthen the current rabies prevention system. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed and simulations were run using @RISK...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095851/analytical-method-for-calculation-of-deviations-from-intended-dosages-during-multi-infusion
#4
Maurits K Konings, Roland A Snijder, Joris H Radermacher, Annemoon M Timmerman
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a new method is presented that combines mechanical compliance effects with Poiseuille flow and push-out effects ("dead volume") in one single mathematical framework for calculating dosing errors in multi-infusion set-ups. In contrast to existing numerical methods, our method produces explicit expressions that illustrate the mathematical dependencies of the dosing errors on hardware parameters and pump flow rate settings. METHODS: Our new approach uses the Z-transform to model the contents of the catheter, and after implementation in Mathematica (Wolfram), explicit expressions are produced automatically...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095776/genetic-and-economic-benefits-of-selection-based-on-performance-recording-and-genotyping-in-lower-tiers-of-multi-tiered-sheep-breeding-schemes
#5
Bruno F S Santos, Julius H J van der Werf, John P Gibson, Timothy J Byrne, Peter R Amer
BACKGROUND: Performance recording and genotyping in the multiplier tier of multi-tiered sheep breeding schemes could potentially reduce the difference in the average genetic merit between nucleus and commercial flocks, and create additional economic benefits for the breeding structure. METHODS: The genetic change in a multiple-trait breeding objective was predicted for various selection strategies that included performance recording, parentage testing and genomic selection...
January 17, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095403/a-likelihood-approach-for-real-time-calibration-of-stochastic-compartmental-epidemic-models
#6
Christoph Zimmer, Reza Yaesoubi, Ted Cohen
Stochastic transmission dynamic models are especially useful for studying the early emergence of novel pathogens given the importance of chance events when the number of infectious individuals is small. However, methods for parameter estimation and prediction for these types of stochastic models remain limited. In this manuscript, we describe a calibration and prediction framework for stochastic compartmental transmission models of epidemics. The proposed method, Multiple Shooting for Stochastic systems (MSS), applies a linear noise approximation to describe the size of the fluctuations, and uses each new surveillance observation to update the belief about the true epidemic state...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095191/maximum-pseudolikelihood-estimation-for-model-based-clustering-of-time-series-data
#7
Hien D Nguyen, Geoffrey J McLachlan, Pierre Orban, Pierre Bellec, Andrew L Janke
Mixture of autoregressions (MoAR) models provide a model-based approach to the clustering of time series data. The maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of MoAR models requires evaluating products of large numbers of densities of normal random variables. In practical scenarios, these products converge to zero as the length of the time series increases, and thus the ML estimation of MoAR models becomes infeasible without the use of numerical tricks. We propose a maximum pseudolikelihood (MPL) estimation approach as an alternative to the use of numerical tricks...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093955/anatomically-realistic-simulations-of-liver-ablation-by-irreversible-electroporation
#8
Radwan Qasrawi, Louis Silve, Fernando Burdío, Ziad Abdeen, Antoni Ivorra
Irreversible electroporation is a novel tissue ablation technique which entails delivering intense electrical pulses to target tissue, hence producing fatal defects in the cell membrane. The present study numerically analyzes the potential impact of liver blood vessels on ablation by irreversible electroporation because of their influence on the electric field distribution. An anatomically realistic computer model of the liver and its vasculature within an abdominal section was employed, and blood vessels down to 0...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093068/potential-of-gene-drives-with-genome-editing-to-increase-genetic-gain-in-livestock-breeding-programs
#9
Serap Gonen, Janez Jenko, Gregor Gorjanc, Alan J Mileham, C Bruce A Whitelaw, John M Hickey
BACKGROUND: This paper uses simulation to explore how gene drives can increase genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. Gene drives are naturally occurring phenomena that cause a mutation on one chromosome to copy itself onto its homologous chromosome. METHODS: We simulated nine different breeding and editing scenarios with a common overall structure. Each scenario began with 21 generations of selection, followed by 20 generations of selection based on true breeding values where the breeder used selection alone, selection in combination with genome editing, or selection with genome editing and gene drives...
January 4, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092748/optimizing-selective-cutting-strategies-for-maximum-carbon-stocks-and-yield-of-moso-bamboo-forest-using-biome-bgc-model
#10
Fangjie Mao, Guomo Zhou, Pingheng Li, Huaqiang Du, Xiaojun Xu, Yongjun Shi, Lufeng Mo, Yufeng Zhou, Guoqing Tu
The selective cutting method currently used in Moso bamboo forests has resulted in a reduction of stand productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. Given the time and labor expense involved in addressing this problem manually, simulation using an ecosystem model is the most suitable approach. The BIOME-BGC model was improved to suit managed Moso bamboo forests, which was adapted to include age structure, specific ecological processes and management measures of Moso bamboo forest. A field selective cutting experiment was done in nine plots with three cutting intensities (high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity) during 2010-2013, and biomass of these plots was measured for model validation...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092515/towards-a-run-to-run-adaptive-artificial-pancreas-in-silico-results
#11
Chiara Toffanin, Roberto Visentin, Mirko Messori, Federico Di Palma, Lalo Magni, Claudio Cobelli
: Contemporary and future outpatient long-term artificial pancreas (AP) studies need to cope with the well-known large intra- and inter-day glucose variability occurring in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects. Here we propose an adaptive Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to account for it and test it in silico. METHODS: A Run-to-Run (R2R) approach adapts the subcutaneous basal insulin delivery during the night and the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CR) during the day, based on some performance indices calculated from subcutaneous continuous glucose sensor data...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092010/allocation-and-simulation-study-of-carbon-emission-quotas-among-china-s-provinces-in-2020
#12
Xing Zhou, Xueling Guan, Ming Zhang, Yao Zhou, Meihua Zhou
China will form its carbon market in 2017 to focus on the allocation of regional carbon emission quota in order to cope with global warming. The rationality of the regional allocation has become an important consideration for the government in ensuring stable growth in different regions that are experiencing disparity in resource endowment and economic status. Based on constructing the quota allocation indicator system for carbon emission, the emission quota for each province in different scenarios and schemes in 2020 is simulated by the multifactor hybrid weighted Shannon entropy allocation model...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090643/the-use-of-instructional-design-guidelines-to-increase-effectiveness-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-simulation-training
#13
Brena C P de Melo, Ana R Falbo, Arno M M Muijtjens, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Jeroen J G van Merriënboer
OBJECTIVE: To compare learning outcomes of postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design guidelines or best practice. METHODS: A pretest-post-test non-equivalent groups study was conducted among obstetrics and gynecology residents in Recife, Brazil, from June 8 to August 30, 2013. The instructional design group included 13 teams, whereas the best practice group included seven teams. A standardized task checklist was used for scenario analysis and the proportion of correctly executed tasks compared (post-test minus pretest)...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089763/comparison-of-multi-arm-multi-stage-design-and-adaptive-randomization-in-platform-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Jianchang Lin, Veronica Bunn
Platforms trials are clinical trials that allow for concurrent evaluations of multiple treatments, thus allowing for more efficient and ethical studies compared to traditional two-arm trials. Conventional group-sequential multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) designs use pre-specified stopping boundaries and treatment selection rules to determine if experimental treatments should be dropped. Flexible MAMS designs allow for interim modifications to the design plan without compromising error rates. Bayesian response adaptive randomization (BRAR) designs increase patient allocation to treatment arms that are performing well during the course of the trial...
January 12, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089342/a-simulation-based-cognitive-assessment-of-resident-decision-making-during-complex-urinary-catheterization-scenarios
#15
Jay N Nathwani, Katherine E Law, Anna K Witt, R D Ray, S M DiMarco, C M Pugh
BACKGROUND: This study explores general surgery residents' decision making skills in uncommon, complex urinary catheter scenarios. METHODS: 40 residents were presented with two scenarios. Scenario A was a male with traumatic urethral injury and scenario B was a male with complete urinary blockage. Residents verbalized whether they would catheterize the patient and described the workup and management of suspected pathologies. Residents' decision paths were documented and analyzed...
January 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087087/pediatric-nurse-practitioners-effective-in-teaching-providers-the-asthma-action-plan-using-simulation
#16
Anne Borgmeyer, Patricia M Gyr, Emily Ahmad, Patrick M Ercole, Karen Balakas
Despite traditional education regarding the Asthma Action Plan (AAP), providers in the inpatient setting of a pediatric hospital reported lack of knowledge regarding the AAP and lack of confidence in teaching the AAP to patients and families. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP)-led class incorporating simulation on resident physician knowledge of the AAP and confidence in teaching families the AAP. The study setting was a 250 bed Midwest academic pediatric hospital...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080047/burden-of-disease-from-rising-coal-fired-power-plant-emissions-in-southeast-asia
#17
Shannon N Koplitz, Daniel J Jacob, Melissa P Sulprizio, Lauri Myllyvirta, Colleen Reid
Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079581/assessing-the-impact-of-the-anesthesia-medication-template-on-medication-errors-during-anesthesia-a-prospective-study
#18
Eliot B Grigg, Lizabeth D Martin, Faith J Ross, Axel Roesler, Sally E Rampersad, Charles Haberkern, Daniel K W Low, Kristen Carlin, Lynn D Martin
BACKGROUND: Medication errors continue to be a significant source of patient harm in the operating room with few concrete countermeasures. The organization and identification of medication syringes may have an impact on the commission of medication errors in anesthesia, so a team of physicians and designers at the University of Washington created the Anesthesia Medication Template (AMT) to define a formal way of organizing the anesthesia workspace. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the AMT to reduce perioperative medication errors by anesthesia providers...
January 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079566/retesting-the-hypothesis-of-a-clinical-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-simulation-environment-to-validate-anesthesia-simulation-in-error-research-the-vaser-study
#19
Alan F Merry, Jacqueline A Hannam, Craig S Webster, Kylie-Ellen Edwards, Jane Torrie, Chris Frampton, Daniel W Wheeler, Arun K Gupta, Ravi P Mahajan, Rachel Evley, Jennifer M Weller
BACKGROUND: Simulation has been used to investigate clinical questions in anesthesia, surgery, and related disciplines, but there are few data demonstrating that results apply to clinical settings. We asked "would results of a simulation-based study justify the same principal conclusions as those of a larger clinical study?" METHODS: We compared results from a randomized controlled trial in a simulated environment involving 80 cases at three centers with those from a randomized controlled trial in a clinical environment involving 1,075 cases...
January 12, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079366/the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiacloprid-impacts-upon-bumblebee-colony-development-under-field-conditions
#20
Ciaran Ellis, Kirsty J Park, Penelope Whitehorn, Arthur David, Dave Goulson
The impacts of pesticides, and in particular of neonicotinoids, on bee health remain much debated. Many studies describing negative effects have been criticised as the experimental protocol did not perfectly simulate real-life field scenarios. Here, we placed free-flying bumblebee colonies next to raspberry crops that were either untreated or treated with the neonicotinoid thiacloprid as part of normal farming practice. Colonies were exposed to the raspberry crops for a two week period before being relocated to either a flower-rich or flower-poor site...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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