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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431923/sources-of-racial-disparities-in-hiv-prevalence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-atlanta-ga-usa-a-modelling-study
#1
Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Samuel M Jenness, Nicole Luisi, Sarah E Stansfield, Gregorio A Millett, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: In the USA, men who have sex men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV, and black MSM have a substantially higher prevalence of infection than white MSM. We created a simulation model to assess the strength of existing hypotheses and data that account for these disparities. METHODS: We built a dynamic, stochastic, agent-based network model of black and white MSM aged 18-39 years in Atlanta, GA, USA, that incorporated race-specific individual and dyadic-level prevention and risk behaviours, network attributes, and care patterns...
April 18, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429722/use-of-a-visual-aid-in-addition-to-a-collector-bag-to-evaluate-postpartum-blood-loss-a-prospective-simulation-study
#2
M Brooks, G Legendre, S Brun, P-E Bouet, L Pereira Mendes, B Merlot, L Sentilhes
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the most common causes of mortality in obstetrics worldwide. The accuracy of estimated blood loss is a priority in determining appropriate treatment. Will the additional use of a visual aid improve physicians' accuracy in estimating blood loss compared to the use of a collector bag and baby scale alone? Simulation training sessions created three vaginal delivery scenarios for participants to estimate volumes of blood loss: firstly, using only a collector bag and a baby weight scale and secondly, adding a visual aid depicting known volumes of blood...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429117/a-comparison-of-mcgrath-mac%C3%A2-and-standard-direct-laryngoscopy-in-simulated-immobilized-cervical-spine-pediatric-intubation-a-manikin-study
#3
Marcin Madziala, Jacek Smereka, Marek Dabrowski, Steve Leung, Kurt Ruetzler, Lukasz Szarpak
Emergency airway management in children is generally considered to be challenging, and endotracheal intubation requires a high level of personal skills and experience. Immobilization of the cervical spine is indicated in all patients with the risk of any cervical spine injury but significantly aggravates endotracheal intubation. The best airway device in this setting has not been established yet, although the use of videolaryngoscopes is generally promising. Seventy-five moderately experienced paramedics of the Emergency Medical Service of Poland performed endotracheal intubations in a pediatric manikin in three airway scenarios: (A) normal airway, (B) manual in-line cervical immobilization, and (C) cervical immobilization using a Patriot cervical extrication collar and using two airway techniques: (1) McGrath videolaryngoscope and (2) Macintosh blade in a randomized sequence...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428149/local-control-and-toxicity-of-adaptive-radiotherapy-using-weekly-ct-imaging-results-from-the-lartia-trial-in-stage-iii-nsclc
#4
Sara Ramella, Michele Fiore, Sonia Silipigni, Maria Cristina Zappa, Massimo Jaus, Antonio Maria Alberti, Paolo Matteucci, Elisabetta Molfese, Patrizia Cornacchione, Carlo Greco, Lucio Trodella, Edy Ippolito, Rolando Maria D'Angelillo
INTRODUCTION: Anatomical change of tumor during radiotherapy contributes to target missing. However, in case of tumor shrinkage adaptation of volume could results in an increased incidence of recurrences in the area of target reduction. This study aims to investigate the incidence of failure of adaptive approach and in particular the risk of local recurrence in the area excluded after replanning. METHODS: In this prospective study, LA-NSCLC patients treated with concomitant chemoradiation underwent weekly chest-CT simulation during treatment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426763/individual-based-modelling-of-population-growth-and-diffusion-in-discrete-time
#5
Natalie Tkachenko, John D Weissmann, Wesley P Petersen, George Lake, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Simone Callegari
Individual-based models (IBMs) of human populations capture spatio-temporal dynamics using rules that govern the birth, behavior, and death of individuals. We explore a stochastic IBM of logistic growth-diffusion with constant time steps and independent, simultaneous actions of birth, death, and movement that approaches the Fisher-Kolmogorov model in the continuum limit. This model is well-suited to parallelization on high-performance computers. We explore its emergent properties with analytical approximations and numerical simulations in parameter ranges relevant to human population dynamics and ecology, and reproduce continuous-time results in the limit of small transition probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426225/quantum-design-of-%C3%AF-electron-ring-currents-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-parallel-and-antiparallel-ring-currents-in-naphthalene
#6
Hirobumi Mineo, Yuichi Fujimura
Control of π-electrons in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one of the fundamental issues in optoelectronics for ultrafast optical switching devices. We have proposed an effective scenario for design of the generation of coherent ring currents in naphthalene (D2h), which is the smallest unit of planar PAHs. It has been demonstrated by using quantum chemical calculations and quantum optimal control (QOC) simulations that two types of ring currents, parallel and antiparallel ones, can be generated by resonance excitations by two linearly polarized lasers...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426147/propagation-of-error-from-parameter-constraints-in-quantitative-mri-example-application-of-multiple-spin-echo-t2-mapping
#7
Christopher L Lankford, Mark D Does
PURPOSE: Quantitative MRI may require correcting for nuisance parameters which can or must be constrained to independently measured or assumed values. The noise and/or bias in these constraints propagate to fitted parameters. For example, the case of refocusing pulse flip angle constraint in multiple spin echo T2 mapping is explored. METHODS: An analytical expression for the mean-squared error of a parameter of interest was derived as a function of the accuracy and precision of an independent estimate of a nuisance parameter...
April 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425445/scenario-dependence-of-future-changes-in-climate-extremes-under-1-5%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-and-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-global-warming
#8
Zhili Wang, Lei Lin, Xiaoye Zhang, Hua Zhang, Liangke Liu, Yangyang Xu
The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming below 2 °C and pursue efforts to even limit it to 1.5 °C relative to pre-industrial levels. Decision makers need reliable information on the impacts caused by these warming levels for climate mitigation and adaptation measures. We explore the changes in climate extremes, which are closely tied to economic losses and casualties, under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming and their scenario dependence using three sets of ensemble global climate model simulations...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424804/acute-medicine-finishing-school-preparing-for-the-next-step
#9
Tehmeena Khan, Nicholas Murch
The transition from registrar to consultant in medicine is one that trainees feel ill prepared for and can be extremely stressful. We devised the concept of an Acute Medicine "Finishing School" for senior trainees in London training programmes and ran sessions on CV writing, a simulated consultant interview, consultant job planning, responding to complaints and an out of hospital emergency scenario. Our feedback survey indicated that our delegates' confidence levels in all of the above aspects increased following the sessions...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424754/considerations-of-temperature-in-the-context-of-the-persistence-classification-in-the-eu
#10
Michael Matthies, Sabine Beulke
Simulation degradation studies for industrial chemicals, biocidal products and plant protection products are required in the EU to estimate half-lives in soil, water and sediment for the comparison to persistence criteria for hazard (P/vP) assessment, and for use in exposure assessments. There is a discrepancy between European regulatory approaches regarding the temperature at which degradation half-lives should be (1) measured in simulation degradation testing of environmental compartments, and (2) compared to the P/vP criteria...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#11
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423811/connecting-the-links-narratives-simulations-and-serious-games-in-prehospital-training
#12
Ilona Heldal, Per Backlund, Mikael Johannesson, Mikael Lebram, Lars Lundberg
Due to rapid and substantial changes in the health sector, collaboration and supporting technologies get more into focus. Changes in education and training are also required. Simulations and serious games (SSG) are often advocated as promising technologies supporting training of many and in the same manner, or increasing the skills necessary to deal with new, dangerous, complex or unexpected situations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate and discuss resources needed for planning and performing collaborative contextual training scenarios...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423115/analysis-of-cigarette-demand-in-argentina-the-impact-of-price-changes-on-consumption-and-government-revenues
#13
Germán Rodríguez-Iglesias, Verónica Schoj, Frank Chaloupka, Beatriz Champagne, Martín González-Rozada
Objective: To estimate cigarette demand and to simulate a tax policy targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. Materials and methods: Demand was estimated using a vector error correction model. Simulation exercises present the impact of a tax increase on consumption and revenues. Results: Changes in real income and the real price of cigarettes affect the demand for cigarettes in Argentina. The long term price elasticity is 0.279 (a 10% increase in real prices reduces cigarette consumption by 2...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423003/hacdivsel-two-new-methods-haplotype-based-and-outlier-based-for-the-detection-of-divergent-selection-in-pairs-of-populations
#14
Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
The detection of genomic regions involved in local adaptation is an important topic in current population genetics. There are several detection strategies available depending on the kind of genetic and demographic information at hand. A common drawback is the high risk of false positives. In this study we introduce two complementary methods for the detection of divergent selection from populations connected by migration. Both methods have been developed with the aim of being robust to false positives. The first method combines haplotype information with inter-population differentiation (FST)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422820/comparison-of-the-etview-single-lumen-and-macintosh-laryngoscopes-for-endotracheal-intubation-in-an-airway-manikin-with-immobilized-cervical-spine-by-novice-paramedics-a-randomized-crossover-manikin-trial
#15
Pawel Gawlowski, Jacek Smereka, Marcin Madziala, Barak Cohen, Kurt Ruetzler, Lukasz Szarpak
CONTEXT: Management of the airway of a trauma victim is considered challenging. Various approaches have been described to achieve airway control in this setup; many of them include video-assited viewing of the larynx during intubation. ETView Single Lumen (SL) is a novice single-use endotracheal tube equiped with a video camera and a light source at its distal tip. Its use was previously described in seeral clinical and training setups. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the VivaSight SL compared with classic direct laryngoscopy performed with a Macintosh blade in a manikin-simulated trauma setup presenting various degrees of airway challenge when performed by inexperienced physicians...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422779/the-utility-of-high-fidelity-simulation-for-training-critical-care-fellows-in-the-management-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-emergencies-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Bishoy M Zakhary, Lily M Kam, Brian S Kaufman, Kevin J Felner
OBJECTIVE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Pulmonary/critical care fellows...
April 18, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421745/molecular-approach-of-the-synergistic-effect-on-astringency-elicited-by-mixtures-of-flavanols
#17
Alba M Ramos-Pineda, Ignacio García-Estévez, Natércia Fernandes Brás, Eva M Martin Del Valle, Montserrat Duenas, M Teresa Escribano-Bailon
The interactions between salivary proteins and wine flavanols (catechin, epicatechin and mixtures catechin+epicatechin) have been studied by HPLC-DAD, Isothermal Titration Microcalorimetry and Molecular Dynamics simulations. Chromatographic results suggest that the presence of these flavanol mixtures could facilitate the formation of precipitates to the detriment of soluble aggregates. The comparison between the thermodynamic parameters obtained showed remarkable higher negative values of ΔG in the system containing the mixture of both flavanols in comparison to the systems containing individual flavanols, indicating a more favourable scenario in the mixing system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420391/interactive-open-source-travel-time-scenario-modelling-tools-to-facilitate-participation-in-health-service-access-analysis
#18
Rohan Fisher, Jonatan Lassa
BACKGROUND: Modelling travel time to services has become a common public health tool for planning service provision but the usefulness of these analyses is constrained by the availability of accurate input data and limitations inherent in the assumptions and parameterisation. This is particularly an issue in the developing world where access to basic data is limited and travel is often complex and multi-modal. Improving the accuracy and relevance in this context requires greater accessibility to, and flexibility in, travel time modelling tools to facilitate the incorporation of local knowledge and the rapid exploration of multiple travel scenarios...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420342/impact-of-correlation-of-predictors-on-discrimination-of-risk-models-in-development-and-external-populations
#19
Suman Kundu, Madhu Mazumdar, Bart Ferket
BACKGROUND: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of risk models is known to be influenced by differences in case-mix and effect size of predictors. The impact of heterogeneity in correlation among predictors has however been under investigated. We sought to evaluate how correlation among predictors affects the AUC in development and external populations. METHODS: We simulated hypothetical populations using two different methods based on means, standard deviations, and correlation of two continuous predictors...
April 19, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420102/efficient-actor-recovery-paradigm-for-wireless-sensor-and-actor-networks
#20
Reem K Mahjoub, Khaled Elleithy
The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS)...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
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