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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324961/an-elementary-model-for-exploring-the-pathogenesis-of-depression
#1
D A Irosh P Fernando
A preliminary model for exploring the pathogenesis of depression that involves genetic and environmental factors is described using a system of linear differential equation. The influence of environmental factors essentially involves random life events, which are modelled using a stochastic differential equation. Different scenarios, including the trajectory of the pathogenesis of depression and immunity, are described by model simulation.
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#2
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319727/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-student-nurse-performance-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-simulated-family-witnessed-resuscitation-scenario
#3
Gerard Kenny, Isabelle Bray, David Pontin, Rachel Jefferies, John Albarran
This randomized controlled trial, conducted in a UK University nursing department, compared student nurses' performance during a simulated cardiac arrest. Eighteen teams of four students were randomly assigned to one of three scenarios: 1) no family witness; 2) a "quiet" family witness; and 3) a family witness displaying overt anxiety and distress. Each group was assessed by observers for a range of performance outcomes (e.g. calling for help, timing to starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and simulation manikin data on the depth and timing of three cycles of compressions...
March 14, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319491/breaking-down-the-objective-structured-clinical-examination-an-evaluation-of-the-helping-babies-breathe-osces
#4
Teresa L Seto, Meredith E Tabangin, Kathryn K Taylor, Srirama Josyula, Juan Carlos Vasquez, Beena D Kamath-Rayne
INTRODUCTION: Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) is a simulation-based neonatal resuscitation curriculum designed for low-resource settings. At the completion of the workshop, learners complete the following four assessments: a multiple-choice question (MCQ) test, bag-mask ventilation (BMV) checklist, and two objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Objective structured clinical examinations are clinical performance assessments that evaluate learners' skills in simulated scenarios...
March 18, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319164/modeling-the-potential-impact-on-the-us-blood-supply-of-transfusing-critically-ill-patients-with-fresher-stored-red-blood-cells
#5
Arianna Simonetti, Hussein Ezzeldin, Mikhail Menis, Stephen McKean, Hector Izurieta, Steven A Anderson, Richard A Forshee
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have suggested that transfusion recipients may have better medical outcomes if transfused with red blood cell units stored for a short time, the overall body of evidence shows mixed results. It is important to understand how using fresher stored red blood cell units for certain patient groups may affect blood availability. METHODS: Based on the Stock-and-Flow simulation model of the US blood supply developed by Simonetti et al. 2014, we evaluated a newly implemented allocation method of preferentially transfusing fresher stored red blood cell units to a subset of high-risk group of critically ill patients and its potential impact on supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317324/big-in-the-benthos-future-change-of-seafloor-community-biomass-in-a-global-body-size-resolved-model
#6
Andrew Yool, Adrian P Martin, Thomas R Anderson, Brian J Bett, Daniel O B Jones, Henry A Ruhl
Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317129/towards-robust-adaptive-radiation-therapy-strategies
#7
Michelle Böck, Anders Forsgren, Kjell Eriksson, Björn Hårdemark
PURPOSE: To set up a framework combining robust treatment planning with adaptive reoptimization in order to maintain high treatment quality, to respond to interfractional geometric variations and to identify those patients who will benefit the most from an adaptive fractionation schedule. METHODS: The authors propose robust adaptive strategies based on stochastic minimax optimization for a series of simulated treatments on a one-dimensional patient phantom. The plan applied during the first fractions should be able to handle anticipated systematic and random errors...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316067/fisse-a-simple-non-parametric-test-for-the-effects-of-a-binary-character-on-lineage-diversification-rates
#8
Daniel L Rabosky, Emma E Goldberg
It is widely assumed that phenotypic traits can influence rates of speciation and extinction, and several statistical approaches have been used to test for correlations between character states and lineage diversification. Recent work suggests that model-based tests of state-dependent speciation and extinction are sensitive to model inadequacy and phylogenetic pseudoreplication. We describe a simple non-parametric statistical test ("FiSSE") to assess the effects of a binary character on lineage diversification rates...
March 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315461/single-or-multi-frequency-generators-in-on-going-brain-activity-a-mechanistic-whole-brain-model-of-empirical-meg-data
#9
Gustavo Deco, Joana Cabral, Mark W Woolrich, Angus B A Stevner, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach
During rest, envelopes of band-limited on-going MEG signals co-vary across the brain in consistent patterns, which have been related to resting-state networks measured with fMRI. To investigate the genesis of such envelope correlations, we consider a whole-brain network model assuming two distinct fundamental scenarios: one where each brain area generates oscillations in a single frequency, and a novel one where each brain area can generate oscillations in multiple frequency bands. The models share, as a common generator of damped oscillations, the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation operating at the critical border between the steady state and the oscillatory regime...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314185/nurse-students-learning-acute-care-by-simulation-focus-on-observation-and-debriefing
#10
Anna Abelsson, Birgitta Bisholt
INTRODUCTION: Simulation creates the possibility to experience acute situations during nursing education which cannot easily be achieved in clinical settings. AIM: To describe how nursing students learn acute care of patients through simulation exercises, based on observation and debriefing. DESIGN: The study was designed as an observational study inspired by an ethnographic approach. METHOD: Data was collected through observations and interviews...
March 9, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306308/application-of-a-resource-theory-for-magic-states-to-fault-tolerant-quantum-computing
#11
Mark Howard, Earl Campbell
Motivated by their necessity for most fault-tolerant quantum computation schemes, we formulate a resource theory for magic states. First, we show that robustness of magic is a well-behaved magic monotone that operationally quantifies the classical simulation overhead for a Gottesman-Knill-type scheme using ancillary magic states. Our framework subsequently finds immediate application in the task of synthesizing non-Clifford gates using magic states. When magic states are interspersed with Clifford gates, Pauli measurements, and stabilizer ancillas-the most general synthesis scenario-then the class of synthesizable unitaries is hard to characterize...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306296/stationary-phonon-squeezing-by-optical-polaron-excitation
#12
T Papenkort, V M Axt, T Kuhn
We demonstrate that a stationary squeezed phonon state can be prepared by a pulsed optical excitation of a semiconductor quantum well. Unlike previously discussed scenarios for generating squeezed phonons, the corresponding uncertainties become stationary after the excitation and do not oscillate in time. The effect is caused by two-phonon correlations within the excited polaron. We demonstrate by quantum kinetic simulations and by a perturbation analysis that the energetically lowest polaron state comprises two-phonon correlations which, after the pulse, result in an uncertainty of the lattice momentum that is continuously lower than in the ground state of the semiconductor...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303589/secondary-phenotype-analysis-in-ascertained-family-designs-application-to-the-leiden-longevity-study
#13
Renaud Tissier, Roula Tsonaka, Simon P Mooijaart, Eline Slagboom, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat
The case-control design is often used to test associations between the case-control status and genetic variants. In addition to this primary phenotype, a number of additional traits, known as secondary phenotypes, are routinely recorded, and typically, associations between genetic factors and these secondary traits are studied too. Analysing secondary phenotypes in case-control studies may lead to biased genetic effect estimates, especially when the marker tested is associated with the primary phenotype and when the primary and secondary phenotypes tested are correlated...
March 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303586/estimation-of-treatment-effect-in-two-stage-confirmatory-oncology-trials-of-personalized-medicines
#14
Wen Li, Cong Chen, Xiaoyun Li, Robert A Beckman
A personalized medicine may benefit a subpopulation with certain predictive biomarker signatures or certain disease types. However, there is great uncertainty about drug activity in a subpopulation when designing a confirmatory trial in practice, and it is logical to take a two-stage approach with the study unless credible external information is available for decision-making purpose. The first stage deselects (or prunes) non-performing subpopulations at an interim analysis, and the second stage pools the remaining subpopulations in the final analysis...
March 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303194/timing-of-nest-vegetation-measurement-may-obscure-adaptive-significance-of-nest-site-characteristics-a-simulation-study
#15
Mark D McConnell, Adrian P Monroe, Loren Wes Burger, James A Martin
Advances in understanding avian nesting ecology are hindered by a prevalent lack of agreement between nest-site characteristics and fitness metrics such as nest success. We posit this is a result of inconsistent and improper timing of nest-site vegetation measurements. Therefore, we evaluated how the timing of nest vegetation measurement influences the estimated effects of vegetation structure on nest survival. We simulated phenological changes in nest-site vegetation growth over a typical nesting season and modeled how the timing of measuring that vegetation, relative to nest fate, creates bias in conclusions regarding its influence on nest survival...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302112/automation-bias-in-electronic-prescribing
#16
David Lyell, Farah Magrabi, Magdalena Z Raban, L G Pont, Melissa T Baysari, Richard O Day, Enrico Coiera
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision support (CDS) in e-prescribing can improve safety by alerting potential errors, but introduces new sources of risk. Automation bias (AB) occurs when users over-rely on CDS, reducing vigilance in information seeking and processing. Evidence of AB has been found in other clinical tasks, but has not yet been tested with e-prescribing. This study tests for the presence of AB in e-prescribing and the impact of task complexity and interruptions on AB. METHODS: One hundred and twenty students in the final two years of a medical degree prescribed medicines for nine clinical scenarios using a simulated e-prescribing system...
March 16, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302085/adaptation-of-non-technical-skills-behavioural-markers-for-delivery-room-simulation
#17
Fabrizio Bracco, Michele Masini, Gabriele De Tonetti, Francesca Brogioni, Arianna Amidani, Sara Monichino, Alessandra Maltoni, Andrea Dato, Claudia Grattarola, Massimo Cordone, Giancarlo Torre, Claudio Launo, Carlo Chiorri, Danilo Celleno
BACKGROUND: Simulation in healthcare has proved to be a useful method in improving skills and increasing the safety of clinical operations. The debriefing session, after the simulated scenario, is the core of the simulation, since it allows participants to integrate the experience with the theoretical frameworks and the procedural guidelines. There is consistent evidence for the relevance of non-technical skills (NTS) for the safe and efficient accomplishment of operations. However, the observation, assessment and feedback on these skills is particularly complex, because the process needs expert observers and the feedback is often provided in judgmental and ineffective ways...
March 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302052/standardizing-effect-size-from-linear-regression-models-with-log-transformed-variables-for-meta-analysis
#18
Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Aurelio Tobías, Daniel Redondo, Elena Molina-Portillo, María José Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. METHODS: We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis...
March 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301564/temperature-dependent-phenology-of-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-simulation-and-visualization-of-current-and-future-distributions-along-the-eastern-afromontane
#19
Benignus V Ngowi, Henri E Z Tonnang, Evans M Mwangi, Tino Johansson, Janet Ambale, Paul N Ndegwa, Sevgan Subramanian
There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301484/health-facility-service-availability-and-readiness-for-intrapartum-and-immediate-postpartum-care-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Naoko Kozuki, Lolade Oseni, Angella Mtimuni, Reena Sethi, Tambudzai Rashidi, Fannie Kachale, Barbara Rawlins, Shivam Gupta
This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care...
2017: PloS One
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