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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160928/genotyping-by-sequencing-for-estimating-relatedness-in-non-model-organisms-avoiding-the-trap-of-precise-bias
#1
Catherine R M Attard, Luciano B Beheregaray, Luciana M Möller
There has been remarkably little attention to using the high resolution provided by genotyping-by-sequencing (i.e. RADseq and similar methods) datasets for assessing relatedness in wildlife populations. A major hurdle is the genotyping error, especially allelic dropout, often found in this type of dataset that could lead to downward-biased, yet precise, estimates of relatedness. Here we assess the applicability of genotyping-by-sequencing datasets for relatedness inferences given their relatively high genotyping error rates...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160800/study-and-validation-of-eavesdropping-scenarios-over-a-visible-light-communication-channel
#2
Ignacio Marin-Garcia, Victor Guerra, Rafael Perez-Jimenez
The security and privacy provided by Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies is an area that has been slightly addressed due to the misconception that, since light does not go through solid objects like walls, VLC-based communications cannot be eavesdropped on by outside observers. As an upcoming technology, VLC is expected to be used in multiple environments were, due to radio frequency RF overuse or limitations, RF solutions cannot or should not be employed. In this work, we study the eavesdropping characteristics of a VLC-based communication...
November 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160091/probabilistic-description-of-infant-head-kinematics-in-abusive-head-trauma
#3
T O Lintern, M P Nash, P Kelly, F H Bloomfield, A J Taberner, P M F Nielsen
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse, but the mechanisms by which injury occur are often unclear. To investigate the contention that shaking alone can elicit the injuries observed, effective computational models are necessary. The aim of this study was to develop a probabilistic model describing infant head kinematics in AHT. A deterministic model incorporating an infant's mechanical properties, subjected to different shaking motions, was developed in OpenSim. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to simulate the range of infant kinematics produced as a result of varying both the mechanical properties and the type of shaking motions...
November 21, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159405/management-of-tiny-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-a-comparative-effectiveness-analysis
#4
Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Howard P Forman, Charles C Matouk, Dheeraj Gandhi, Pina Sanelli
Importance: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are relatively common in the general population and are being increasingly diagnosed; a significant proportion are tiny (≤3 mm) aneurysms. There is significant heterogeneity in practice and lack of clear guidelines on the management of incidental, tiny UIAs. It is important to quantify the implications of different management strategies in terms of health benefits to patients. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of routine treatment (aneurysm coiling) vs 3 strategies for imaging surveillance compared with no preventive treatment or routine follow-up of tiny UIAs...
November 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159398/cost-effectiveness-of-publicly-funded-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-california
#5
Emanuel Krebs, Benjamin Enns, Elizabeth Evans, Darren Urada, M Douglas Anglin, Richard A Rawson, Yih-Ing Hser, Bohdan Nosyk
Background: Only 1 in 5 of the nearly 2.4 million Americans with an opioid use disorder received treatment in 2015. Fewer than half of Californians who received treatment in 2014 received opioid agonist treatment (OAT), and regulations for admission to OAT in California are more stringent than federal regulations. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of OAT for all treatment recipients compared with the observed standard of care for patients presenting with opioid use disorder to California's publicly funded treatment facilities...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159000/umbilical-cord-prolapse-in-a-labouring-patient-a-multidisciplinary-and-interprofessional-simulation-scenario
#6
Chandrew Rajakumar, Adam Garber, Purnima M Rao, Genevieve Rousseau, George A Dumitrascu, Glenn D Posner
This case is one of an eight-case multidisciplinary curriculum designed and implemented at the University of Ottawa by simulation educators with specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) and anesthesiology. Consultation from a nurse educator maintained quality and relevance of objectives for nursing participants. The curriculum was prepared to train OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents and nurses to hone crisis resource management skills and to recognize and manage rare/critical medical events in an obstetrical setting...
September 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158972/short-term-effects-of-co2-leakage-on-the-soil-bacterial-community-in-a-simulated-gas-leakage-scenario
#7
Jing Ma, Wangyuan Zhang, Shaoliang Zhang, Qianlin Zhu, Qiyan Feng, Fu Chen
The technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m(-2) day(-1) to 2,000 g m(-2) day(-1)) on soil bacterial communities...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158140/consequences-of-an-uncertain-mass-mortality-regime-triggered-by-climate-variability-on-giant-clam-population-management-in-the-pacific-ocean
#8
Simon Van Wynsberge, Serge Andréfouët, Nabila Gaertner-Mazouni, Georges Remoissenet
Despite actions to manage sustainably tropical Pacific Ocean reef fisheries, managers have faced failures and frustrations because of unpredicted mass mortality events triggered by climate variability. The consequences of these events on the long-term population dynamics of living resources need to be better understood for better management decisions. Here, we use a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) spatially explicit population model to compare the efficiency of several management strategies under various scenarios of natural mortality, including mass mortality due to climatic anomalies...
November 17, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157376/epidemiological-and-partial-budget-analysis-for-treatment-of-subclinical-staphylococcus-aureus-intramammary-infections-considering-microbiological-and-cytological-scenarios
#9
Inge-Marié Petzer, Eric M C Etter, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Joanne Karzis
An innovative method was investigated to aid in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) intramammary infections (IMI) from dairy herds. A stochastic model explore the economic benefit of three-day or eight-day treatment of subclinical IMI in all S. aureus infected cows or in only those with a somatic cell count (SCC) exceeding 200,000 cells/ml. An epidemiological model was developed to run parallel to the economic model that would predict the S. aureus IMI likely to persist, develop new infections and clinical mastitis...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156581/an-enhanced-non-coherent-pre-filter-design-for-tracking-error-estimation-in-gnss-receivers
#10
Zhibin Luo, Jicheng Ding, Lin Zhao, Mouyan Wu
Tracking error estimation is of great importance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Any inaccurate estimation for tracking error will decrease the signal tracking ability of signal tracking loops and the accuracies of position fixing, velocity determination, and timing. Tracking error estimation can be done by traditional discriminator, or Kalman filter-based pre-filter. The pre-filter can be divided into two categories: coherent and non-coherent. This paper focuses on the performance improvements of non-coherent pre-filter...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155897/advances-in-applied-homeostatic-modelling-of-the-relationship-between-thyrotropin-and-free-thyroxine
#11
Rudolf Hoermann, John Edward Maurice Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes Wolfgang Christian Dietrich
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between pituitary TSH and thyroid hormones is central to our understanding of thyroid physiology and thyroid function testing. Here, we generated distribution patterns by using validated tools of thyroid modelling. METHODS: We simulated patterns of individual set points under various conditions, based on a homeostatic model of thyroid feedback control. These were compared with observed data points derived from clinical trials. RESULTS: A random mix of individual set points was reconstructed by simulative modelling with defined structural parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155843/the-relation-between-statistical-power-and-inference-in-fmri
#12
Henk R Cremers, Tor D Wager, Tal Yarkoni
Statistically underpowered studies can result in experimental failure even when all other experimental considerations have been addressed impeccably. In fMRI the combination of a large number of dependent variables, a relatively small number of observations (subjects), and a need to correct for multiple comparisons can decrease statistical power dramatically. This problem has been clearly addressed yet remains controversial-especially in regards to the expected effect sizes in fMRI, and especially for between-subjects effects such as group comparisons and brain-behavior correlations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154012/quantification-of-flood-risk-mitigation-benefits-a-building-scale-damage-assessment-through-the-rasor-platform
#13
Chiara Arrighi, Lauro Rossi, Eva Trasforini, Roberto Rudari, Luca Ferraris, Marcello Brugioni, Serena Franceschini, Fabio Castelli
Flood risk mitigation usually requires a significant investment of public resources and cost-effectiveness should be ensured. The assessment of the benefits of hydraulic works requires the quantification of (i) flood risk in absence of measures, (ii) risk in presence of mitigation works, (iii) investments to achieve acceptable residual risk. In this work a building-scale is adopted to estimate direct tangible flood losses to several building classes (e.g. residential, industrial, commercial, etc.) and respective contents, exploiting various sources of public open data in a GIS environment...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152026/particle-separation-by-phase-modulated-surface-acoustic-waves
#14
Gergely Simon, Marco A B Andrade, Julien Reboud, Jose Marques-Hueso, Marc P Y Desmulliez, Jonathan M Cooper, Mathis O Riehle, Anne L Bernassau
High efficiency isolation of cells or particles from a heterogeneous mixture is a critical processing step in lab-on-a-chip devices. Acoustic techniques offer contactless and label-free manipulation, preserve viability of biological cells, and provide versatility as the applied electrical signal can be adapted to various scenarios. Conventional acoustic separation methods use time-of-flight and achieve separation up to distances of quarter wavelength with limited separation power due to slow gradients in the force...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151883/speciation-history-of-a-species-complex-of-primulina-eburnea-gesneriaceae-from-limestone-karsts-of-southern-china-a-biodiversity-hot-spot
#15
Jing Wang, Bin Ai, Hanghui Kong, Ming Kang
Limestone karsts in southern China are characterized by high edaphic and topographic heterogeneity and host high levels of species richness and endemism. However, the evolutionary mechanisms for generating such biodiversity remain poorly understood. Here, we performed species delimitation, population genetic analyses, simulations of gene flow and analyses of floral morphological traits to infer the geographic history of speciation in a species complex of Primulina eburnea from limestone karsts of southern China...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151865/effect-of-cell-cycle-duration-on-somatic-evolutionary-dynamics
#16
Dominik Wodarz, Ajay Goel, Natalia L Komarova
Cellular checkpoints prevent damage and mutation accumulation in tissue cells. DNA repair is one mechanism that can be triggered by checkpoints and involves temporary cell cycle arrest and thus delayed reproduction. Repair-deficient cells avoid this delay, which has been argued to lead to a selective advantage in the presence of frequent damage. We investigate this hypothesis with stochastic modeling, using mathematical analysis and agent-based computations. We first model competition between two cell types: a cell population that enters temporary cell cycle arrest, corresponding to repair (referred to as arresting cells), and one that does not enter arrest (referred to as nonarresting cells)...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151194/highly-immersive-virtual-reality-laparoscopy-simulation-development-and-future-aspects
#17
Tobias Huber, Tom Wunderling, Markus Paschold, Hauke Lang, Werner Kneist, Christian Hansen
PURPOSE: Virtual reality (VR) applications with head-mounted displays (HMDs) have had an impact on information and multimedia technologies. The current work aimed to describe the process of developing a highly immersive VR simulation for laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: We combined a VR laparoscopy simulator (LapSim) and a VR-HMD to create a user-friendly VR simulation scenario. Continuous clinical feedback was an essential aspect of the development process. We created an artificial VR (AVR) scenario by integrating the simulator video output with VR game components of figures and equipment in an operating room...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150764/projections-for-the-changes-in-growing-season-length-of-tree-ring-formation-on-the-tibetan-plateau-based-on-cmip5-model-simulations
#18
Minhui He, Bao Yang, Vladimir Shishov, Sergio Rossi, Achim Bräuning, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Jussi Grießinger
The response of the growing season to the ongoing global warming has gained considerable attention. In particular, how and to which extent the growing season will change during this century is essential information for the Tibetan Plateau, where the observed warming trend has exceeded the global mean. In this study, the 1960-2014 mean length of the tree-ring growing season (LOS) on the Tibetan Plateau was derived from results of the Vaganov-Shashkin oscilloscope tree growth model, based on 20 composite study sites and more than 3000 trees...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150721/adaptive-snp-set-association-testing-in-generalized-linear-mixed-models-with-application-to-family-studies
#19
Jun Young Park, Chong Wu, Saonli Basu, Matt McGue, Wei Pan
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it has been increasingly recognized that, as a complementary approach to standard single SNP analyses, it may be beneficial to analyze a group of functionally related SNPs together. Among the existent population-based SNP-set association tests, two adaptive tests, the aSPU test and the aSPUpath test, offer a powerful and general approach at the gene- and pathway-levels by data-adaptively combining the results across multiple SNPs (and genes) such that high statistical power can be maintained across a wide range of scenarios...
November 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149748/in-situ-long-term-modeling-of-phenanthrene-dynamics-in-an-aged-contaminated-soil-using-the-vsoil-platform
#20
Khaled Brimo, Patricia Garnier, François Lafolie, Geoffroy Séré, Stéphanie Ouvrard
Management and remediation actions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated sites require an accurate knowledge of the dynamics of these chemicals in situ under real conditions. Here we developed, under the Virtual Soil Platform, a global model for PAH that describes the principal physical and biological processes controlling the dynamics of PAH in soil under real climatic conditions. The model was applied first to simulate the observed dynamics of phenanthrene in situ field experimental plots of industrial contaminated soil...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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