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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351300/empirical-validation-of-an-agent-based-model-of-wood-markets-in-switzerland
#1
Stefan Holm, Lorenz M Hilty, Renato Lemm, Oliver Thees
We present an agent-based model of wood markets and show our efforts to validate this model using empirical data from different sources, including interviews, workshops, experiments, and official statistics. Own surveys closed gaps where data was not available. Our approach to model validation used a variety of techniques, including the replication of historical production amounts, prices, and survey results, as well as a historical case study of a large sawmill entering the market and becoming insolvent only a few years later...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351290/land-use-change-in-oil-palm-dominated-tropical-landscapes-an-agent-based-model-to-explore-ecological-and-socio-economic-trade-offs
#2
Claudia Dislich, Elisabeth Hettig, Jan Salecker, Johannes Heinonen, Jann Lay, Katrin M Meyer, Kerstin Wiegand, Suria Tarigan
Land-use changes have dramatically transformed tropical landscapes. We describe an ecological-economic land-use change model as an integrated, exploratory tool used to analyze how tropical land-use change affects ecological and socio-economic functions. The model analysis seeks to determine what kind of landscape mosaic can improve the ensemble of ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, and economic benefit based on the synergies and trade-offs that we have to account for. More specifically, (1) how do specific ecosystem functions, such as carbon storage, and economic functions, such as household consumption, relate to each other? (2) How do external factors, such as the output prices of crops, affect these relationships? (3) How do these relationships change when production inefficiency differs between smallholder farmers and learning is incorporated? We initialize the ecological-economic model with artificially generated land-use maps parameterized to our study region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350541/using-cell-phone-technology-to-investigate-a-deliberate-bacillus-anthracis-release-scenario
#3
Arik Eisenkraft, Amichay Afriat, Yechiel Hubary, Ron Lev, Hayim Shaul, Ran D Balicer
Unusual biological events and outbreaks require rapid epidemiologic investigation and contact tracing procedures, allowing optimal handling of resources. Currently, these are resource intensive, time consuming, and extremely complex, requiring large teams of trained and prepared personnel. The goal of this study was to determine whether a technological alternative to the classic systems, based on the use of mobile phones and a unique algorithm, could perform a complete epidemiologic investigation in a setting of a bioterrorism scenario...
January 19, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350383/which-position-should-we-take-during-newborn-resuscitation-a-prospective-randomized-multicentre-simulation-trial
#4
Jacek Smereka, Halla Kaminska, Wojciech Wieczorek, Marek Dabrowski, Jerzy Robert Ladny, Kurt Ruetzler, Lukasz Szarpak, Oliver Robak, Michael Frass
BACKGROUND: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest is crucial in the chain of survival. Cardiac arrest in infants is rare but CPR is also performed in severe bradycardia. The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend starting CPR and continuing it until the heart muscle is sufficiently oxygenated and regains sufficient contractility and function. Among the techniques of CPR that can be applied in newborns, the most common and therefore recommended by the ERC and AHA are the two-finger technique and two-thumb technique...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350219/reducing-the-nitrogen-footprint-of-a-small-residential-college
#5
Neil Leary, Elizabeth de la Reguera, Steven Fitzpatrick, Olivia Boggiano-Peterson
The release of reactive nitrogen contributes to its accumulation in the environment, causing a variety of harmful effects. To measure Dickinson College's contribution to nitrogen pollution, and quantify the potential to reduce its contribution, we calculated the college's nitrogen footprint and simulated the effects of selected nitrogen mitigation measures. The analysis was obtained using the Nitrogen Footprint Tool, developed at the University of Virginia. Food production is by far the largest contributor to Dickinson's footprint, followed by heat and power...
April 1, 2017: Sustainability (New Rochelle)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349776/effect-of-palpable-vs-impalpable-cricothyroid-membranes-in-a-simulated-emergency-front-of-neck-access-scenario
#6
C F Pairaudeau, C Mendonca, C Hillermann, I Qazi, P A Baker, R E Hodgson, S Radhakrishna
The Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines recommend and describe in detail a surgical cricothyroidotomy technique for the can't intubate, can't oxygenate (CICO) scenario, but this can be technically challenging for anaesthetists with no surgical training. Following a structured training session, 104 anaesthetists took part individually in a simulated can't intubate, can't oxygenate event using simulation and airway models to evaluate how well they could perform these front-of-neck access techniques. Main outcomes measures were: ability to correctly perform the technical steps; procedural time; and success rate...
January 19, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348468/the-potential-impact-of-invasive-woody-oil-plants-on-protected-areas-in-china-under-future-climate-conditions
#7
Guanghui Dai, Jun Yang, Siran Lu, Conghong Huang, Jing Jin, Peng Jiang, Pengbo Yan
Biodiesel produced from woody oil plants is considered a green substitute for fossil fuels. However, a potential negative impact of growing woody oil plants on a large scale is the introduction of highly invasive species into susceptible regions. In this study, we examined the potential invasion risk of woody oil plants in China's protected areas under future climate conditions. We simulated the current and future potential distributions of three invasive woody oil plants, Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis, and Aleurites moluccana, under two climate change scenarios (RCP2...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347770/viscosity-of-two-dimensional-strongly-coupled-dusty-plasma-modified-by-a-perpendicular-magnetic-field
#8
Yan Feng, Wei Lin, M S Murillo
Transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasmas have been investigated in detail, but never for viscosity with a strong perpendicular magnetic field; here, we examine this scenario using Langevin dynamics simulations of 2D liquids with a binary Yukawa interparticle interaction. The shear viscosity η of 2D liquid dusty plasma is estimated from the simulation data using the Green-Kubo relation, which is the integration of the shear stress autocorrelation function. It is found that, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the shear viscosity of 2D liquid dusty plasma is modified substantially...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347767/sampling-of-temporal-networks-methods-and-biases
#9
Luis E C Rocha, Naoki Masuda, Petter Holme
Temporal networks have been increasingly used to model a diversity of systems that evolve in time; for example, human contact structures over which dynamic processes such as epidemics take place. A fundamental aspect of real-life networks is that they are sampled within temporal and spatial frames. Furthermore, one might wish to subsample networks to reduce their size for better visualization or to perform computationally intensive simulations. The sampling method may affect the network structure and thus caution is necessary to generalize results based on samples...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347592/diffusion-subdiffusion-and-localization-of-active-colloids-in-random-post-lattices
#10
Alexandre Morin, David Lopes Cardozo, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Denis Bartolo
Combining experiments and theory, we address the dynamics of self-propelled particles in crowded environments. We first demonstrate that motile colloids cruising at constant speed through random lattices undergo a smooth transition from diffusive to subdiffusive to localized dynamics upon increasing the obstacle density. We then elucidate the nature of these transitions by performing extensive simulations constructed from a detailed analysis of the colloid-obstacle interactions. We evidence that repulsion at a distance and hard-core interactions both contribute to slowing down the long-time diffusion of the colloids...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347514/pinning-of-a-drop-by-a-junction-on-an-incline
#11
Joël De Coninck, Juan Carlos Fernández Toledano, François Dunlop, Thierry Huillet
The shape of a drop pinned on an inclined substrate is a long-standing problem where the complexity of real surfaces, with heterogeneities and hysteresis, makes it complicated to understand the mechanisms behind the phenomena. Here we consider the simple case of a drop pinned on an incline at the junction between a hydrophilic half plane (the top half) and a hydrophobic one (the bottom half). Relying on the equilibrium equations deriving from the balance of forces, we exhibit three scenarios depending on the way the contact line of the drop on the substrate either simply leans against the junction or overfills (partly or fully) into the hydrophobic side...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347403/influence-of-periodic-external-fields-in-multiagent-models-with-language-dynamics
#12
Filippo Palombi, Stefano Ferriani, Simona Toti
We investigate large-scale effects induced by external fields, phenomenologically interpreted as mass media, in multiagent models evolving with the microscopic dynamics of the binary naming game. In particular, we show that a single external field, broadcasting information at regular time intervals, can reverse the majority opinion of the population, provided the frequency and the effectiveness of the sent messages lie above well-defined thresholds. We study the phase structure of the model in the mean field approximation and in numerical simulations with several network topologies...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347378/interfacial-mixing-in-high-energy-density-matter-with-a-multiphysics-kinetic-model
#13
Jeffrey R Haack, Cory D Hauck, Michael S Murillo
We have extended a recently developed multispecies, multitemperature Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model [Haack et al., J. Stat. Phys. 168, 822 (2017)JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-017-1824-9], to include multiphysics capabilities that enable modeling of a wider range of physical conditions. In terms of geometry, we have extended from the spatially homogeneous setting to one spatial dimension. In terms of the physics, we have included an atomic ionization model, accurate collision physics across coupling regimes, self-consistent electric fields, and degeneracy in the electronic screening...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347334/sequence-selection-by-dynamical-symmetry-breaking-in-an-autocatalytic-binary-polymer-model
#14
Harold Fellermann, Shinpei Tanaka, Steen Rasmussen
Template-directed replication of nucleic acids is at the essence of all living beings and a major milestone for any origin of life scenario. We present an idealized model of prebiotic sequence replication, where binary polymers act as templates for their autocatalytic replication, thereby serving as each others reactants and products in an intertwined molecular ecology. Our model demonstrates how autocatalysis alters the qualitative and quantitative system dynamics in counterintuitive ways. Most notably, numerical simulations reveal a very strong intrinsic selection mechanism that favors the appearance of a few population structures with highly ordered and repetitive sequence patterns when starting from a pool of monomers...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347112/statistics-distillation-and-ordering-emergence-in-a-two-dimensional-stochastic-model-of-particles-in-counterflowing-streams
#15
Eduardo Velasco Stock, Roberto da Silva, H A Fernandes
In this paper, we propose a stochastic model which describes two species of particles moving in counterflow. The model generalizes the theoretical framework that describes the transport in random systems by taking into account two different scenarios: particles can work as mobile obstacles, whereas particles of one species move in the opposite direction to the particles of the other species, or particles of a given species work as fixed obstacles remaining in their places during the time evolution. We conduct a detailed study about the statistics concerning the crossing time of particles, as well as the effects of the lateral transitions on the time required to the system reaches a state of complete geographic separation of species...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347069/adaptive-numerical-algorithms-to-simulate-the-dynamical-casimir-effect-in-a-closed-cavity-with-different-boundary-conditions
#16
Paula I Villar, Alejandro Soba
We present an alternative numerical approach to compute the number of particles created inside a cavity due to time-dependent boundary conditions. The physical model consists of a rectangular cavity, where a wall always remains still while the other wall of the cavity presents a smooth movement in one direction. The method relies on the setting of the boundary conditions (Dirichlet and Neumann) and the following resolution of the corresponding equations of modes. By a further comparison between the ground state before and after the movement of the cavity wall, we finally compute the number of particles created...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346927/topological-inversions-in-coalescing-granular-media-control-fluid-flow-regimes
#17
Fabian B Wadsworth, Jérémie Vasseur, Edward W Llewellin, Katherine J Dobson, Mathieu Colombier, Felix W von Aulock, Julie L Fife, Sebastian Wiesmaier, Kai-Uwe Hess, Bettina Scheu, Yan Lavallée, Donald B Dingwell
Sintering-or coalescence-of viscous droplets is an essential process in many natural and industrial scenarios. Current physical models of the dynamics of sintering are limited by the lack of an explicit account of the evolution of microstructural geometry. Here, we use high-speed time-resolved x-ray tomography to image the evolving geometry of a sintering system of viscous droplets, and use lattice Boltzmann simulations of creeping fluid flow through the reconstructed pore space to determine its permeability...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346670/scoping-analysis-of-material-activation-at-a-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-facility-based-on-the-be-p-xn-reaction-with-30-mev-protons
#18
Bo-Lun Lai, Rong-Jiun Sheu
Material activation assessment of a proposed accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy facility was performed using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to quantify the magnitude of the problem in terms of the isotope inventories, induced activities, and residual dose rates. Two simplified operation scenarios were considered: a 30-min proton bombardment to simulate a typical session of patient treatment and a long-term 1 year continuous operation to estimate the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides. Following the generation and transport of decay radiation, the space- and time-dependent inventories of induced radionuclides in materials and residual dose rates after shutdown were obtained...
January 16, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346295/peri-elastodynamic-simulations-of-guided-ultrasonic-waves-in-plate-like-structure-with-surface-mounted-pzt
#19
Subir Patra, Hossain Ahmed, Sourav Banerjee
Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346222/-to-err-is-human-but-disclosure-must-be-taught-a-simulation-based-assessment-study
#20
Ashley C Crimmins, Ambrose H Wong, James W Bonz, Alina Tsyrulnik, Karen Jubanyik, James D Dziura, Kelly L Dodge, Leigh V Evans
INTRODUCTION: Although error disclosure is critical in promoting safety and patient-centered care, physicians are inconsistently trained in its practice, and few objective methods to assess competence exist. We used an immersive simulation scenario to determine whether providers with varying levels of clinical experience adhere to the disclosure safe practice guidelines when exposed to a serious adverse event simulation scenario. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study with medical students, junior emergency medicine (EM) residents (PGY 1-2), senior EM residents (PGY 3-4), and attending EM physicians participating in a simulated case in which a scripted medication overdose resulted in an adverse event...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
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