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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636971/simulated-long-term-effects-of-varying-tree-retention-on-wood-production-dead-wood-and-carbon-stock-changes
#1
Francesca Santaniello, Line B Djupström, Thomas Ranius, Jan Weslien, Jörgen Rudolphi, Johan Sonesson
Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636811/performance-evaluation-of-gpu-parallelization-space-time-adaptive-algorithms-and-their-combination-for-simulating-cardiac-electrophysiology
#2
Rafael S Oliveira, Bernardo M Rocha, Denise Burgarelli, Wagner Meira, Christakis Constantinides, Rodrigo Weber Dos Santos
The use of computer models as a tool for the study and understanding of the complex phenomena of cardiac electrophysiology has attained increased importance nowadays. At the same time, the increased complexity of the biophysical processes translates into complex computational and mathematical models. In order to speed up cardiac simulations and to allow more precise and realistic uses, two different techniques have been traditionally exploited: parallel computing and sophisticated numerical methods. In this work, we combine a modern parallel computing technique based on multicore and graphics processing units (GPUs), and a sophisticated numerical method based on a new space-time adaptive algorithm...
June 21, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#3
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636338/contributions-of-local-farming-to-urban-sustainability-in-the-northeast-united-states
#4
Benjamin P Goldstein, Michael Z Hauschild, John E Fernández, Morten Birkved
Food consumption is an important contributor to a city's environmental impacts (carbon emissions, land occupation, water use, etc.) Urban farming (UF) has been advocated as a means to increase urban sustainability by reducing food-related transport and tapping into local resources. Taking Boston as an illustrative Northeast U.S. city, we developed a novel method to estimate sub-urban, food-borne carbon and land footprints using multiregion-input-output modeling and nutritional surveys. Computer simulations utilizing primary data explored UF's ability to reduce these footprints using select farming technologies, building on previous city-scale UF assessments which have hitherto been dependent on proxy data for UF...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635678/evaluation-of-classifier-performance-for-multiclass-phenotype-discrimination-in-untargeted-metabolomics
#5
Patrick J Trainor, Andrew P DeFilippis, Shesh N Rai
Statistical classification is a critical component of utilizing metabolomics data for examining the molecular determinants of phenotypes. Despite this, a comprehensive and rigorous evaluation of the accuracy of classification techniques for phenotype discrimination given metabolomics data has not been conducted. We conducted such an evaluation using both simulated and real metabolomics datasets, comparing Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Sparse PLS-DA, Random Forests, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Artificial Neural Network, k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), and Naïve Bayes classification techniques for discrimination...
June 21, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634630/development-and-validation-of-a-tool-for-non-technical-skills-evaluation-in-robotic-surgery-the-icars-system
#6
Nicholas Raison, Thomas Wood, Oliver Brunckhorst, Takashige Abe, Talisa Ross, Ben Challacombe, Mohammed Shamim Khan, Giacomo Novara, Nicolo Buffi, Henk Van Der Poel, Craig McIlhenny, Prokar Dasgupta, Kamran Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Non-technical skills (NTS) are being increasingly recognised as vital for safe surgical practice. Numerous NTS rating systems have been developed to support effective training and assessment. Yet despite the additional challenges posed by robotic surgery, no NTS rating systems have been developed for this unique surgical environment. This study reports the development and validation of the first NTS behavioural rating system for robotic surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive index of all relevant NTS behaviours in robotic surgery was developed through observation of robotic theatre and interviews with robotic surgeons...
June 20, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634404/modelled-responses-of-the-kalahari-desert-to-21-st-century-climate-and-land-use-change
#7
Jerome R Mayaud, Richard M Bailey, Giles F S Wiggs
Drylands are home to over 2 billion people globally, many of whom use the land for agricultural and pastoral activities. These vulnerable livelihoods could be disrupted if desert dunefields become more active in response to climate and land use change. Despite increasing knowledge about the role that wind, moisture availability and vegetation cover play in shaping dryland landscapes, relatively little is known about how drylands might respond to climatic and population pressures over the 21(st) century. Here we use a newly developed numerical model, which fully couples vegetation and sediment-transport dynamics, to simulate potential landscape evolution at three locations in the Kalahari Desert, under two future emissions scenarios: stabilising (RCP 4...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630484/simulated-responses-of-permafrost-distribution-to-climate-change-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#8
Qing Lu, Dongsheng Zhao, Shaohong Wu
Climate warming causes changes in permafrost distribution, which affects the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle and carbon flux in cold regions. In this study, the Surface Frost Number model was applied to examine permafrost distribution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) under the four RCPs (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). The Kappa statistic was used to evaluate model results by comparing simulations of baseline permafrost distribution (1981-2010) with the existing frozen soil maps. The comparison shows that the Surface Frost Number model is suitable for simulating the general characteristics of permafrost distribution on the QTP...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628877/remediation-of-groundwater-contaminated-with-arsenic-through-enhanced-natural-attenuation-batch-and-column-studies
#9
Saeedreza Hafeznezami, Amity G Zimmer-Faust, Dukwoo Jun, Megyn B Rugh, Heather L Haro, Austin Park, Jae Suh, Tina Najm, Matthew D Reynolds, James A Davis, Tarannom Parhizkar, Jennifer A Jay
Batch and column laboratory experiments were conducted on natural sediment and groundwater samples from a contaminated site in Maine, USA with the aim of lowering the dissolved arsenate [As(V)] concentrations through chemical enhancement of natural attenuation capacity. In batch factorial experiments, two levels of treatment for three parameters (pH, Ca, and Fe) were studied at different levels of phosphate to evaluate their impact on As(V) solubility. Results illustrated that lowering pH, adding Ca, and adding Fe significantly increased the sorption capacity of sediments...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627297/a-bayesian-simulation-model-for-breast-cancer-screening-incidence-treatment-and-mortality
#10
Xuelin Huang, Yisheng Li, Juhee Song, Donald A Berry
BACKGROUND: The important but complicated research questions regarding the optimization of mammography screening for the detection of breast cancer are unable to be answered through any single trial or a simple meta-analysis of related trials. The Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) breast groups provide answers using complex statistical models to simulate population dynamics. Among them, the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Model M) takes a unique approach by not making any assumptions on the natural history of breast cancer, such as the distribution of the indolent time before detection, but simulating only the observable part of a woman's disease and life...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626175/characteristics-and-gender-differences-in-the-medical-interview-skills-of-japanese-medical-students
#11
Akiko Sugawara, Kazunobu Ishikawa, Ryo Motoya, Gen Kobayashi, Yoko Moroi, Tetsuhito Fukushima
Objective To examine the characteristics of the communication skills of medical students, we observed their performance during introductory medical interview training with simulated patients (SPs). Methods The subjects of the present study included fifth-year medical students (male, n=180, female, n=99) who were undergoing clinical training in Japan from 2012 to 2014. Each student was assigned to one of four 10-minute clinical scenarios, which was conducted with an SP. Three or four teachers observed and assessed the performance of each of the students...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625281/the-petra-perinatal-emergency-team-response-assessment-scale-a-high-fidelity-simulation-validation-study
#12
Mrinalini Balki, David Hoppe, David Monks, Lynn Sharples, Mary Ellen Cooke, Lawrence Tsen, Rory Windrim
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of a new interdisciplinary teamwork assessment scale, the Perinatal Emergency Team Response Assessment (PETRA), to assess team dynamics during a simulated obstetric crisis. METHODS: This observational cohort study was conducted using high-fidelity simulation and multidisciplinary obstetric teams in order to evaluate the validity and reliability of the previously developed PETRA scale for the assessment of teamwork in the management of obstetric crises...
July 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624886/pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-modified-acetylcysteine-infusion-regimens-used-in-the-treatment-of-paracetamol-poisoning
#13
Anselm Wong, Cornelia Landersdorfer, Andis Graudins
PURPOSE: Paracetamol overdose is common and is treated with acetylcysteine to prevent the development of hepatotoxicity. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) is the toxic metabolite of paracetamol overdose. We aimed to assess the expected acetylcysteine concentration time profiles following delivery of modified acetylcysteine regimens proposed for those at high and low risk of hepatotoxicity. In addition, we will determine acetylcysteine concentrations post-cessation of abbreviated infusions...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623896/with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-cooperation-can-accelerate-the-rate-of-adaptive-valley-crossing
#14
Uri Obolski, Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Eran Even-Tov, Yoav Ram, Lilach Hadany
BACKGROUND: Natural selection favors changes that lead to genotypes possessing high fitness. A conflict arises when several mutations are required for adaptation, but each mutation is separately deleterious. The process of a population evolving from a genotype encoding for a local fitness maximum to a higher fitness genotype is termed an adaptive peak shift. RESULTS: Here we suggest cooperative behavior as a factor that can facilitate adaptive peak shifts. We model cooperation in a public goods scenario, wherein each individual contributes resources that are later equally redistributed among all cooperating individuals...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622669/matching-by-monotonic-tone-mapping
#15
Gyorgy Kovacs
In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations...
June 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622466/dissolved-co2-increases-breakthrough-porosity-in-natural-porous-materials
#16
Yi Yang, Stefan Bruns, Susan Louise Svane Stipp, Henning Osholm Sørensen
When reactive fluids flow through a dissolving porous medium, conductive channels form, leading to fluid breakthrough. This phenomenon is caused by the reactive infiltration instability and is important in geologic carbon storage where the dissolution of CO2 in flowing water increases fluid acidity. Using numerical simulations with high resolution digital models of North Sea chalk, we show that the breakthrough porosity is an important indicator of dissolution pattern. Dissolution patterns reflect the balance between the demand and supply of cumulative surface...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621586/the-cooler-code-a-novel-analytical-approach-to-calculate-subcellular-energy-deposition-by-internal-electron-emitters
#17
Mattia Siragusa, Giorgio Baiocco, Pil M Fredericia, Werner Friedland, Torsten Groesser, Andrea Ottolenghi, Mikael Jensen
COmputation of Local Electron Release (COOLER), a software program designed for dosimetry assessment at the cellular/subcellular scale, with a given distribution of administered low-energy electron-emitting radionuclides in cellular compartments, which remains a critical step in risk/benefit analysis for advancements in internal radiotherapy. The software is intended to overcome the main limitations of the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism for calculations of cellular S-values (i.e., dose to a target region in the cell per decay in a given source region), namely, the use of the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) and the assumption of a spherical cell geometry...
June 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618638/localized-dark-solitons-and-vortices-in-defocusing-media-with-spatially-inhomogeneous-nonlinearity
#18
Jianhua Zeng, Boris A Malomed
Recent studies have demonstrated that defocusing cubic nonlinearity with local strength growing from the center to the periphery faster than r^{D}, in space of dimension D with radial coordinate r, supports a vast variety of robust bright solitons. In the framework of the same model, but with a weaker spatial-growth rate ∼r^{α} with α≤D, we test here the possibility to create stable localized continuous waves (LCWs) in one-dimensional (1D) and 2D geometries, localized dark solitons (LDSs) in one dimension, and localized dark vortices (LDVs) in two dimensions, which are all realized as loosely confined states with a divergent norm...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618561/capturing-brownian-dynamics-with-an-on-lattice-model-of-hard-sphere-diffusion
#19
Claudia Cianci, Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Conventional master equation approaches approximate the diffusion of molecules in continuum space by the process of particles hopping on a spatial lattice. The hopping probability from one voxel (spatial lattice point) to its neighbor is usually considered to be constant throughout space. Such an assumption is only consistent with pointlike molecules and thus neglects volume-exclusion effects due to finite particle size. A few studies have attempted to introduce volume-exclusion effects by choosing the hopping probability from one voxel to a neighboring one to be a linear function of the number density...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618470/fluidization-and-wall-slip-of-soft-glassy-materials-by-controlled-surface-roughness
#20
Ladislav Derzsi, Daniele Filippi, Giampaolo Mistura, Matteo Pierno, Matteo Lulli, Mauro Sbragaglia, Massimo Bernaschi, Piotr Garstecki
We present a comprehensive study of concentrated emulsions flowing in microfluidic channels, one wall of which is patterned with micron-size equally spaced grooves oriented perpendicularly to the flow direction. We find a scaling law describing the roughness-induced fluidization as a function of the density of the grooves, thus fluidization can be predicted and quantitatively regulated. This suggests common scenarios for droplet trapping and release, potentially applicable for other jammed systems as well. Numerical simulations confirm these views and provide a direct link between fluidization and the spatial distribution of plastic rearrangements...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
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