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Rare causes of stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067546/association-of-g-protein-beta3-subunit-gene-c825t-polymorphism-with-cardiac-and-cerebrovascular-events-in-chinese-hypertensive-patients
#2
Weiwei Zhu, Jing Li, Xipeng Sun, Qi Hua
Several recent studies showed that C825T polymorphism is related to cardiovascular diseases in normal population. However, studies on whether 825T allele influences the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in hypertensive patients are rare. In the current study, 729 patients (CC, n = 332; CT, n = 313; TT, n = 84) with essential hypertension were genotyped for C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene and followed 8 years for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) which include stroke, the onset of coronary artery disease (CAD), and all-cause death...
January 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062433/rivaroxaban-lessens-the-number-of-thrombi-in-the-left-atrium-and-right-lower-pulmonary-vein-as-illustrated-by-transoesophageal-echocardiography-but-not-80-mdct
#3
Hidekazu Takeuchi
Stroke is a clinically important problem. A left atrial thrombus is known as a cause of ischaemic stroke. A pulmonary vein thrombus (PVT) is thought to be rare; however, PVT is common in elderly patients. Additionally, images of PVT with transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) following treatment have not been well contrasted with that from either 64 or 80-slice multidetector CT (80-MDCT). The images of such changes depicted by TEE remain unknown. An 87-year-old man with hypertension was examined by 80-MDCT and TEE to check the cardiac thrombus...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062018/atrial-fibrillation-in-a-structurally-normal-heart-during-pregnancy-a-review-of-cases-from-a-registry-and-from-the-literature
#4
Nadine Sauvé, Évelyne Rey, Annabelle Cumyn
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) in a structurally normal heart is rare during pregnancy. We wished to use our experience to expand the literature on the causes and management of this condition. METHODS: All members of Groupe d'Étude en Médecine Obstétricale du Québec (GÉMOQ) were invited to record cases of AF in a structurally normal heart during pregnancy to the group's Registry. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar (1946 to 15 April 2016) for relevant articles using the key words "atrial fibrillation" and "pregnancy...
January 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052941/congenital-anomaly-of-the-posterior-arch-of-the-atlas-a-rare-risk-factor-for-posterior-circulation-stroke
#5
Zhi-Yuan Ouyang, Min-Jian Qiu, Zhe Zhao, Xiao-Bing Wu, Lu-Sha Tong
We report an extremely rare case involving a posterior arch anomaly of the atlas, causing a vertebral artery dissection (VAD) induced posterior circulation stroke. A 16-year-old girl was admitted to hospital because of new onset dizziness. VAD related multiple infarction in the posterior circulation was revealed. The congenital posterior arch anomaly of the atlas, along with instability of the atlantoaxial joint, were discovered accidentally during follow-up. This is the first case of ischemic stroke related to atlantal posterior arch aplasia and atlantoaxial instability...
January 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030893/recent-advances-in-understanding-audiovestibular-loss-of-a-vascular-cause
#6
Hyun-Ah Kim, Hyung Lee
Acute audiovestibular loss is characterized by abrupt onset of prolonged (lasting days) vertigo and hearing loss. Acute ischemic stroke in the distribution of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is known to be the leading cause of acute audiovestibular loss. So far, eight subgroups of AICA territory infarction have been identified according to the patterns of audiovestibular dysfunctions, among which the most common pattern is the combined loss of auditory and vestibular functions. Unlike inner ear dysfunction of a viral cause , which can commonly present as an isolated vestibular (i...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029552/epilepsia-partialis-continua-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
Epilepsia partialis contina (EPC) in a narrow definition is a variant of simple focal motor status epilepticus in which frequent repetitive muscle jerks, usually arrhythmic, continue over prolonged periods of time. In a broader definition (used in this review) it also includes non-motor manifestations otherwise known as aura continua. EPC may occur as a single episode, repetitive episodes, it may be chronic progressive or non-progressive. It appears as an unusual manifestation of epilepsy in which more typical paroxysmal events are partly or entirely replaced by the sustained repetition of seizure fragments in rapid succession...
October 18, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024309/stroke-as-initial-manifestation-of-adenosine-deaminase-2-deficiency
#8
Miriam Elbracht, Michael Mull, Norbert Wagner, Christiane Kuhl, Angela Abicht, Ingo Kurth, Klaus Tenbrock, Martin Häusler
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene causes an autoimmune phenotype with systemic vasculitis affecting the skin, inner organs, and the central nervous system. Typically, stroke has been reported to follow systemic inflammatory disease and predominantly affects posterior and central brain areas. Here, we describe one of the rare patients in whom acute mesencephalic stroke preceded systemic inflammation and presented as initial clinical symptom...
December 26, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017712/incidence-predictors-and-mid-term-outcomes-of-possible-leaflet-thrombosis-after-tavr
#9
Ryo Yanagisawa, Kentaro Hayashida, Yoshitake Yamada, Makoto Tanaka, Fumiaki Yashima, Taku Inohara, Takahide Arai, Takashi Kawakami, Yuichiro Maekawa, Hikaru Tsuruta, Yuji Itabashi, Mitsushige Murata, Motoaki Sano, Kazuma Okamoto, Akihiro Yoshitake, Hideyuki Shimizu, Masahiro Jinzaki, Keiichi Fukuda
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to clarify the incidence and predictors of hypoattenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) and mid-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. BACKGROUND: HALT detected on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning raised concerns about possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis. METHODS: We studied 70 of 100 consecutive patients from a single-center registry who underwent implantation with the Edwards SAPIEN-XT device...
December 8, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004602/posterior-hippocampal-stroke-presenting-with-transient-global-amnesia
#10
Federica Naldi, Simone Baiardi, Maria Guarino, Luca Spinardi, Fabio Cirignotta, Andrea Stracciari
The acute onset of isolated amnesia is an intriguing challenge for neurologist, because the lack of associated signs can be misleading for diagnosis. The most common cause is transient global amnesia (TGA), a benign condition, but rarely it results from abuse of substance/alcohol or cerebrovascular diseases. In the latter, the brain region involved is the hippocampus. We describe a patient with presenting symptoms of TGA, but affected by an ischemic hippocampal stroke. The computed tomography angiography helped the etiologic diagnosis showing an hemodynamic stenosis of the posterior P2P segment...
December 22, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000008/primary-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-adults-etiological-causes-and-prognostic-factors-in-chinese-population
#11
Si Zhang, Bangsheng Jia, Hao Li, Chao You, Daniel F Hanley, Yan Jiang
Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a rare type of hemorrhagic stroke that is poorly understood. We aimed to explore the features of this disease in Chinese population via an institutional prospective study. Adult patients diagnosed with PIVH from January 2013 to January 2016 were enrolled in this study. Data, including clinical variables, radiological features, and yield of angiography, were collected to evaluate the clinical features, etiological causes, and prognostic factors of this disease. A total of 67 patients (73...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995806/etiologies-of-internal-carotid-artery-pseudo-occlusions-in-acute-stroke-patients-what-neurointerventionalists-can-expect
#12
Süha Akpınar, Pınar Gelener, Güliz Yilmaz
In cases of acute stroke, differentiation between an occluded and a patent internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for diagnosis and management. Although computed tomography angiography (CTA) can be highly accurate in defining high-grade stenosis and ICA occlusions, misleading ICA occlusion patterns are not rare in acute stroke patients. We investigated the underlying causes of ICA pseudo-occlusions with CTA with respect to digital subtraction angiography (DSA). 11 out of 72 patients had pseudo-occlusion on CTA...
December 20, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993446/multiple-thromboembolic-cerebral-infarctions-from-the-aorta-in-a-patient-with-churg-strauss-syndrome
#13
Hideo Okada
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a rare complication of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and its pathogenesis has not been well clarified yet. We report a case of cerebral infarction in a patient with CSS due to embolism from a thrombus on the wall of the aorta. CASE: A 39-year-old man had multiple cerebral infarctions with symptoms of mild left hemiparesis and reduced vision. He was clinically diagnosed to have CSS based on remarkable eosinophilia, history of asthma, sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates, and histologically proven extravascular eosinophilic infiltrates in the specimen of gastric mucosa...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992282/mortality-analysis-of-the-life-span-study-lss-cohort-taking-into-account-multiple-causes-of-death-indicated-in-death-certificates
#14
Ayako Takamori, Ikuno Takahashi, Fumiyoshi Kasagi, Akihiko Suyama, Kotaro Ozasa, Takashi Yanagawa
Mortality analyses have been performed using underlying causes of death as reported on death certificates; these are uniquely determined for a deceased person according to the World Health Organization coding system. Comorbidities, the disease conditions other than the underlying cause of death from death certificates recording multiple causes of death, have rarely been explored in Life Span Study subjects. The purpose of this study was to clarify associations between atomic bomb radiation exposure and mortality from combinations of the underlying cause of death and comorbidities...
December 19, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987517/-cerebral-infarction-in-a-patient-with-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
D Yang, L Qiao, L D Zhao
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytes infiltration in the exocrine glands. Central nervous system complications of primary SS are not rare, but ischemic stroke has been rarely reported. Here we report a 43-year-old female with a two-year history of primary SS, presenting with sudden cerebral infarction. Her primary SS was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, high levels of serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies, salivary gland secretion evaluation and positive sublingual gland biopsy results...
December 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982112/usefulness-of-cha2ds2-vasc-scoring-systems-for-predicting-risk-of-perioperative-embolism-in-patients-of-cardiac-myxomas-underwent-surgical-treatment
#16
Liang Yin, Jing Wang, Wei Li, Xinyu Ling, Qian Xue, Yufeng Zhang, Zhinong Wang
Cardiac myxomas are rare but manifested with risk of embolism and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. We retrospectively collected the medical records of patients diagnosed of cardiac myxomas at the cardiac center of our university. Overall 465 patients were included in this study, patients in the embolism group had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores (P = 0.005). In embolic group, stroke was recorded in 110 (77.14%) patients, while embolic events in the limbs were observed in 10 (2.15%) and 9(1...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966186/adult-cor-triatriatum-sinistrum-a%C3%A2-rare-cause-of-ischaemic-stroke
#17
L Baris, A J J C Bogers, E J van den Bos, M J M Kofflard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965905/stroke-as-the-sole-manifestation-of-takayasu-arteritis-in-a-15-year-old-boy-with-latent-tuberculosis
#18
Espen Benjaminsen, Anne Reigstad, Vanja Cengija, Vibke Lilleby, Maria Carlsson
Introduction. Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease affecting the aorta and its main branches, causing arterial claudication and end-organ ischemia, including stroke. The etiology is unknown but is believed to be autoimmune. An association between Takayasu arteritis and tuberculosis has been suggested, but the possible relation is unclear. Case Presentation. A 15-year-old Somali boy was diagnosed with latent tuberculosis. He had a lesion in the right lung, and both the tuberculin skin test by the Mantoux method and Quantiferon GOLD test turned out positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956263/functional-modulation-of-contralateral-bias-in-early-and-object-selective-areas-after-stroke-of-the-occipital-ventral-cortices
#19
Maren Praß, Cathleen Grimsen, Manfred Fahle
Object agnosia is a rare symptom, occurring mainly after bilateral damage of the ventral visual cortex. Most patients suffering from unilateral ventral lesions are clinically non-agnosic. Here, we studied the effect of unilateral occipito-temporal lesions on object categorization and its underlying neural correlates in visual areas. Thirteen non-agnosic stroke patients and twelve control subjects performed an event-related rapid object categorization task in the fMRI scanner where images were presented either to the left or to the right of a fixed point...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924179/ischemic-stroke-and-septic-shock-after-subacute-endocarditis-caused-by-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-case-report
#20
Mayra Goncalves Menegueti, Jaciara Machado-Viana, Gilberto Gambero Gaspar, Edson Antonio Nicolini, Anibal Basile-Filho, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins
Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group, is a rare cause of subacute endocarditis and may lead to ischemic stroke. A 65-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with rheumatic valve disease was submitted to surgical mitral valve repair in 1996. Physical examination did not reveal any murmurs; physical examination of the lungs and abdomen was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital with progressive dyspnea, dry cough, and fever...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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