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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729271/selective-inhibition-of-sarcocystis-neurona-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-1-for-equine-protozoal-myeloencephalitis-therapy
#1
Kayode K Ojo, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Shiv K Verma, Suzanne Scheele, Amy E DeRocher, Michelle Yeargan, Ryan Choi, Tess R Smith, Kasey L Rivas, Matthew A Hulverson, Lynn K Barrett, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Marilyn Parsons, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel K Howe, Wesley C Van Voorhis
Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691941/infectious-disease-and-toxicological-monitoring-of-stranded-pacific-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina-richardsi-in-cook-inlet-as-surrogates-for-monitoring-endangered-belugas-delphinapterus-leucas
#2
Kendra L Bauer, Caroline E C Goertz, Jane A Belovarac, Robert W Walton, J Lawrence Dunn, Pamela Tuomi
  Pacific harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. In recent years, harbor seal populations in Alaska have declined for unknown reasons. As part of its stranding program, the Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC) managed 59 cases of live and dead stranded harbor seals from Cook Inlet between 1997 and 2011...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334814/seroepidemiology-of-sarcocystis-neurona-toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-spp-among-horses-in-the-south-of-the-state-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#3
Manoel Junqueira Maciel Ribeiro, Marina Helena Figueredo Rosa, Fábio Raphael Pascoti Bruhn, Adriana de Mello Garcia, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha, Antônio Marcos Guimarães
The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp...
June 7, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276662/seroepidemiology-of-sarcocystis-neurona-toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-spp-among-horses-in-the-south-of-the-state-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#4
Manoel Junqueira Maciel Ribeiro, Marina Helena Figueredo Rosa, Fábio Raphael Pascoti Bruhn, Adriana de Mello Garcia, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha, Antônio Marcos Guimarães
The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp...
June 7, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198793/pathology-immunohistochemistry-and-ultrastructural-findings-associated-with-neurological-sarcocystosis-in-cattle
#5
J P Dubey, R Calero-Bernal, S K Verma, J D Mowery
Paraffin-embedded blocks of brain of a nine months old bull calf that died of neurological signs in 1982 in Germany were restudied. Numerous schizonts and merozoites were found associated with extensive but focal necrosis and severe meningoencephalitis. Developing stages of schizonts as well as free merozoites were identified. The schizonts were primarily in perivascular areas. Ultrastructurally, schizonts were seen both in capillaries and in extravascular space. Merozoites were often concentrated in adventitial layers of capillaries...
June 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141438/detection-and-characterization-of-diverse-coccidian-protozoa-shed-by-california-sea-lions
#6
Yvette A Girard, Christine K Johnson, Heather M Fritz, Karen Shapiro, Andrea E Packham, Ann C Melli, Daphne Carlson-Bremer, Frances M Gulland, Daniel Rejmanek, Patricia A Conrad
Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina)...
April 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007245/molecular-phylogeny-of-toxoplasmatinae-comparison-between-inferences-based-on-mitochondrial-and-apicoplast-genetic-sequences
#7
Michelle Klein Sercundes, Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas, Lara Borges Keid, Tricia Maria Ferreira Souza Oliveira, Helena Lage Ferreira, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida Vitor, Fábio Gregori, Rodrigo Martins Soares
Phylogenies within Toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. Here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. Partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpC) and beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB), and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome B (cytB) were analyzed. Laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona were investigated, along with Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (strains RH, CTG and PTG), Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondiand two genetically divergent lineages of Hammondia heydorni...
January 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003262/california-mussels-mytilus-californianus-as-sentinels-for-marine-contamination-with-sarcocystis-neurona
#8
Lauren Michaels, Daniel Rejmanek, Beatriz Aguilar, Patricia Conrad, Karen Shapiro
Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S...
May 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982557/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-neospora-spp-and-sarcocystis-neurona-in-donkeys-from-northeastern-brazil
#9
Solange Maria Gennari, Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, David Scott Lindsay, Marcos Gomes Lopes, Herbert Sousa Soares, Aline Diniz Cabral, Sérgio Netto Vitaliano, Marcos Amaku
Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50)...
January 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905780/diversity-of-sarcocystis-spp-shed-by-opossums-in-brazil-inferred-with-phylogenetic-analysis-of-dna-coding-its1-cytochrome-b-and-surface-antigens
#10
Samantha Y O B Valadas, Juliana I G da Silva, Estela Gallucci Lopes, Lara B Keid, Ticiana Zwarg, Alice S de Oliveira, Thaís C Sanches, Adriana M Joppert, Hilda F J Pena, Tricia M F S Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, Rodrigo M Soares
Although few species of Sarcocystis are known to use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive host, an extensive diversity of alleles of surface antigen genes (sag2, sag3, and sag4) has been described in samples of didelphid opossums in Brazil. In this work, we studied 25 samples of Sarcocystis derived from gastrointestinal tract of opossums of the genus Didelphis by accessing the variability of sag2, sag3, sag4, gene encoding cytochrome b (cytB) and first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Reference samples of Sarcocystis neurona (SN138) and Sarcocystis falcatula (SF1) maintained in cell culture were also analyzed...
May 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857902/equine-protozoal-myeloencephalitis-an-updated-consensus-statement-with-a-focus-on-parasite-biology-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#11
REVIEW
S M Reed, M Furr, D K Howe, A L Johnson, R J MacKay, J K Morrow, N Pusterla, S Witonsky
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) remains an important neurologic disease of horses. There are no pathognomonic clinical signs for the disease. Affected horses can have focal or multifocal central nervous system (CNS) disease. EPM can be difficult to diagnose antemortem. It is caused by either of 2 parasites, Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi, with much less known about N. hughesi. Although risk factors such as transport stress and breed and age correlations have been identified, biologic factors such as genetic predispositions of individual animals, and parasite-specific factors such as strain differences in virulence, remain largely undetermined...
March 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801589/chagas-disease-in-a-texan-horse-with-neurologic-deficits
#12
Laura K Bryan, Sarah A Hamer, Sarah Shaw, Rachel Curtis-Robles, Lisa D Auckland, Carolyn L Hodo, Keith Chaffin, Raquel R Rech
A 10-year-old Quarter Horse gelding presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a six month-history of ataxia and lameness in the hind limbs. The horse was treated presumptively for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on clinical signs but was ultimately euthanized after its condition worsened. Gross lesions were limited to a small area of reddening in the gray matter of the thoracic spinal cord. Histologically, trypanosome amastigotes morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, were sporadically detected within segments of the thoracic spinal cord surrounded by mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation...
January 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494610/dual-congenital-transmission-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-sarcocystis-neurona-in-a-late-term-aborted-pup-from-a-chronically-infected-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis
#13
Karen Shapiro, Melissa A Miller, Andrea E Packham, Beatriz Aguilar, Patricia A Conrad, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Michael J Murray
Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis...
March 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26374278/unusual-necrotizing-encephalitis-in-raccoons-and-skunks-concurrently-infected-with-canine-distemper-virus-and-sarcocystis-sp
#14
S V Kubiski, S Sisó, M E Church, A N Cartoceti, B Barr, P A Pesavento
Canine distemper virus commonly infects free-ranging, terrestrial mesopredators throughout the United States. Due to the immunosuppressive effects of the virus, concurrent opportunistic infections are also common. Among these, secondary systemic protozoal infections have been described in a number of species. We report an unusual presentation of necrotizing encephalitis associated withSarcocystissp in four raccoons and one skunk concurrently infected with canine distemper virus. Lesions were characterized by variably sized necrotizing cavitations composed of abundant mineral admixed with inflammatory cells and protozoa...
May 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352981/management-of-acute-renal-failure-with-delayed-hypercalcemia-secondary-to-sarcocystis-neurona-induced-myositis-and-rhabdomyolysis-in-a-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#15
Amy B Alexander, Christopher S Hanley, Mary C Duncan, Kyle Ulmer, Luis R Padilla
A 3-yr-old captive-born California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) developed Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis and rhabdomyolysis that led to acute renal failure. The sea lion was successfully managed with fluid therapy, antiprotozoals, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, antiemetics, gastroprotectants, and diuretics, but developed severe delayed hypercalcemia, a syndrome identified in humans after traumatic or exertion-induced rhabdomyolysis. Treatment with calcitonin was added to the management, and the individual recovered fully...
September 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346260/daily-feeding-of-diclazuril-top-dress-pellets-in-foals-reduces-seroconversion-to-sarcocystis-neurona
#16
Nicola Pusterla, Andrea Packham, Sarah Mackie, Philip H Kass, Laszlo Hunyadi, Patricia A Conrad
Thirty-three foals from a farm with a high exposure rate to Sarcocystis neurona were assigned to either an untreated or a diclazuril-treated group. Treated foals received daily 0.5 mg/kg of diclazuril pellets from 1 to 12 months of age. Monthly blood was tested for IgG against S. neurona using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Following ingestion of colostral antibodies to S. neurona, there was a steady and continuous decline in seroprevalence to S. neurona until foals from both groups reached weaning age...
November 2015: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26303093/molecular-characterization-and-development-of-sarcocystis-speeri-sarcocysts-in-gamma-interferon-gene-knockout-mice
#17
J P Dubey, S K Verma, D Dunams, R Calero-Bernal, B M Rosenthal
The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers...
November 2015: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26138150/detection-of-sarcocystis-spp-infection-in-bobcats-lynx-rufus
#18
S K Verma, R Calero-Bernal, M J Lovallo, A R Sweeny, M E Grigg, J P Dubey
The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056875/survey-for-infectious-disease-in-the-south-american-fur-seal-arctocephalus-australis-population-at-punta-san-juan-peru
#19
Gwen Jankowski, Michael J Adkesson, Jeremiah T Saliki, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Patricia Majluf
The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test)...
June 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054654/sarcocystis-spp-infection-in-two-red-panda-cubs-ailurus-fulgens
#20
W M Zoll, D B Needle, S J French, A Lim, S Bolin, I Langohr, D Agnew
Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp...
August 2015: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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