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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107672/a-computational-model-of-conditioning-inspired-by-drosophila-olfactory-system
#1
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ralf Heinrich, Florentin Wörgötter
Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning...
November 23, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107504/sox10-nano-lantern-reporter-human-ips-cells-a-versatile-tool-for-neural-crest-research
#2
Tomoko Horikiri, Hiromi Ohi, Mitsuaki Shibata, Makoto Ikeya, Morio Ueno, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Takahiko Sato
The neural crest is a source to produce multipotent neural crest stem cells that have a potential to differentiate into diverse cell types. The transcription factor SOX10 is expressed through early neural crest progenitors and stem cells in vertebrates. Here we report the generation of SOX10-Nano-lantern (NL) reporter human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) by using CRISPR/Cas9 systems, that are beneficial to investigate the generation and maintenance of neural crest progenitor cells. SOX10-NL positive cells are produced transiently from hiPS cells by treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB431542 and GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107398/integrated-chronology-flora-and-faunas-and-paleoecology-of-the-alajuela-formation-late-miocene-of-panama
#3
Bruce J MacFadden, Douglas S Jones, Nathan A Jud, Jorge W Moreno-Bernal, Gary S Morgan, Roger W Portell, Victor J Perez, Sean M Moran, Aaron R Wood
The late Miocene was an important time to understand the geological, climatic, and biotic evolution of the ancient New World tropics and the context for the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Despite this importance, upper Miocene deposits containing diverse faunas and floras and their associated geological context are rare in Central America. We present an integrated study of the geological and paleontological context and age of a new locality from Lago Alajuela in northern Panama (Caribbean side) containing late Miocene marine and terrestrial fossils (plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates) from the Alajuela Formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107241/polytrauma-patients-with-associated-spine-fractures-an-assessment-of-surgical-intervention-on-patient-outcome
#4
Steven R Niedermeier, Safdar N Khan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. OBJECTIVE: To examine perioperative characteristics among polytraumatized patients with operative, unstable spine fractures with and without concomitant operative long bone injuries. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Treatment of polytrauma patients has delicate and time-sensitive protocols to ensure successful recovery. The literature defines standards for vertebral injury and surgical intervention...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107240/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-fracture-reduction-achieved-by-inflatable-bone-tamps-under-simulated-physiological-load
#5
Michael Gordon, Walter C Peppelman, William Beutler, Damien OʼHalloran, Suresh R Chinthakunta, Brandon Bucklen
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the fracture reduction achieved by a novel inflatable bone tamp under simulated physiological load. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous biomechanical studies have showed that kyphoplasty allows near-total restoration of lost vertebral height in unloaded conditions and partial height restoration under simulated physiological loads. Clinically, loss of reduction has been observed after bone tamp deflation, before cement injection...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107235/an-experimental-biomechanical-study-on-artificial-atlantoodontoid-joint-replacement-in-dogs
#6
Quanjin Zang, Yanming Liu, Dengfeng Wang, Haopeng Li, Pinglin Yang, Dong Wang, Xijing He
STUDY DESIGN: This study tested the biomechanics of artificial atlantoodontoid joint replacement (AAOJR) in a dog model. Dogs were divided into the artificial AAOJR group (n=10), the decompression group (n=10), and the healthy control group (n=10) using a random number table. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of AAOJR for repair of atlantoaxial instability retains rotation and restores stability. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Atlantoaxial instability is characterized by excessive movement or laxity at the junction between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2)...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106524/the-utility-of-3d-printing-for-surgical-planning-and-patient-specific-implant-design-for-complex-spinal-pathologies-case-report
#7
Ralph J Mobbs, Marc Coughlan, Robert Thompson, Chester E Sutterlin, Kevin Phan
OBJECTIVE There has been a recent renewed interest in the use and potential applications of 3D printing in the assistance of surgical planning and the development of personalized prostheses. There have been few reports on the use of 3D printing for implants designed to be used in complex spinal surgery. METHODS The authors report 2 cases in which 3D printing was used for surgical planning as a preoperative mold, and for a custom-designed titanium prosthesis: one patient with a C-1/C-2 chordoma who underwent tumor resection and vertebral reconstruction, and another patient with a custom-designed titanium anterior fusion cage for an unusual congenital spinal deformity...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106390/tubulin-binding-and-polymerization-promoting-properties-of-tppp-proteins-are-evolutionarily-conserved
#8
Judit Oláh, Tibor Szénási, Adél Szabó, Kinga Kovács, Péter Lőw, Mauro Stifanic, Ferenc Orosz
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Proteins (TPPPs) constitute a new eukaryotic protein family. There are three TPPP paralogs in the human genome; denoted as TPPP1, TPPP2 and TPPP3. TPPP1 and TPPP3 are intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) that bind and polymerize tubulin and stabilize microtubules but TPPP2 does not. Vertebrate TPPPs originated from the ancient invertebrate TPPP by two-round whole-genome-duplication thus it was an open question whether the tubulin/microtubule binding function of TPPP1 and TPPP3 is a newly acquired property or it was present in the invertebrate orthologs (generally one TPPP/species)...
January 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106181/in-vitro-kinetic-study-of-the-squalestatin-tetraketide-synthase-dehydratase-reveals-the-stereochemical-course-of-a-fungal-highly-reducing-polyketide-synthase
#9
Emma Liddle, Alan Scott, Li-Chen Han, David Ivison, Thomas J Simpson, Christine L Willis, Russell J Cox
Six potential diketide substrates for the squalestatin tetraketide synthase (SQTKS) dehydratase (DH) domain were synthesised as N-acetyl cysteamine thiolesters (SNAC) and tested in kinetic assays as substrates with an isolated DH domain. 3R-3-hydroxybutyryl SNAC 3R-16 was turned over by the enzyme, but its enantiomer was not. Of the four 2-methyl substrates only 2R,3R-2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl SNAC 2R,3R-8 was a substrate. Combined with stereochemical information from the isolated SQTKS enoyl reductase (ER) domain, our results provide a near complete stereochemical description of the first cycle of beta-modification reactions of a fungal highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS)...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105919/snoreport-2-0-new-features-and-a-refined-support-vector-machine-to-improve-snorna-identification
#10
João Victor de Araujo Oliveira, Fabrizio Costa, Rolf Backofen, Peter Florian Stadler, Maria Emília Machado Telles Walter, Jana Hertel
BACKGROUND: snoReport uses RNA secondary structure prediction combined with machine learning as the basis to identify the two main classes of small nucleolar RNAs, the box H/ACA snoRNAs and the box C/D snoRNAs. Here, we present snoReport 2.0, which substantially improves and extends in the original method by: extracting new features for both box C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs; developing a more sophisticated technique in the SVM training phase with recent data from vertebrate organisms and a careful choice of the SVM parameters C and γ; and using updated versions of tools and databases used for the construction of the original version of snoReport...
December 15, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105496/cirse-guidelines-on-percutaneous-vertebral-augmentation
#11
Georgia Tsoumakidou, Chow Wei Too, Guillaume Koch, Jean Caudrelier, Roberto Luigi Cazzato, Julien Garnon, Afshin Gangi
Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.
January 19, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105164/mir-219-5p-inhibits-proliferation-and-clonogenicity-in-chordoma-cells-and-is-associated-with-tumor-recurrence
#12
Wei Wei, Qiuhang Zhang, Zhenlin Wang, Bo Yan, Yanjun Feng, Pu Li
Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that is usually localized to the skull base, vertebral column and sacrum. The transcription factor brachyury, which is encoded by the T gene, has a critical role in the development and progression of chordoma, although the mechanisms underlying brachyury regulation remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to identify and characterize microRNAs (miRs) that regulate brachyury expression in chordoma. MicroRNAs that target brachyury were predicted using miRanda and TargetScan...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104745/molecular-evolution-of-two-distinct-dmrt1-promoters-for-germ-and-somatic-cells-in-vertebrate-gonads
#13
EDITORIAL
Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Masato Musashijima, Mikako Wada, Yumi Izutsu, Erina Kurakata, Min Kyun Park, Nobuhiko Takamatsu, Michihiko Ito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104549/mechanisms-of-silver_nanoparticles-induced-hypopigmentation-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#14
Lian Xu, Qin-Han Xu, Xin-Ying Zhou, Li-Yan Yin, Peng-Peng Guan, Ting Zhang, Jing-Xia Liu
Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)...
January 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104539/whole-body-vibration-of-mice-induces-progressive-degeneration-of-intervertebral-discs-associated-with-increased-expression-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-multiple-matrix-degrading-enzymes
#15
Matthew R McCann, Matthew Veras, Cynthia Yeung, Gurkeet Lalli, Priya Patel, Kristyn M Leitch, David W Holdsworth, S Jeffrey Dixon, Cheryle A Séguin
OBJECTIVE: Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a popular fitness trend based on claims of increased muscle mass, weight-loss and reduced joint pain. Following its original implementation as a treatment to increase bone mass in patients with osteoporosis, WBV has been incorporated into clinical practice for musculoskeletal disorders, including back pain. However, our recent studies revealed damaging effects of WBV on joint health in a murine model. In this report, we examined potential mechanisms underlying disc degeneration following exposure of mice to WBV...
January 16, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104509/morphometric-vertebral-fractures-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-adjuvant-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Rebecca Pedersini, Sara Monteverdi, Gherardo Mazziotti, Vito Amoroso, Elisa Roca, Filippo Maffezzoni, Lucia Vassalli, Filippo Rodella, Anna Maria Formenti, Stefano Frara, Roberto Maroldi, Alfredo Berruti, Edda Simoncini, Andrea Giustina
BACKGROUND: The impact of long-term adjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on vertebral fracture (VF) risk is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the prevalence and determinants of VFs in breast cancer (BC) patients before and during AI therapy. Each woman underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and identify VFs by a quantitative morphometric approach. Blood samples were collected to measure serum hormone and calcium levels...
January 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104459/validation-of-the-intervertebral-disc-histological-degeneration-score-in-cervical-intervertebral-discs-and-their-endplates
#17
Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Brandon Michael Henry, Tomasz Gładysz, Roman Głowacki, Jerzy A Walocha, Romana Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Vertebral joints consist of intervertebral discs (IVDs) and cartilaginous endplates (EP) that lie superiorly and inferiorly to the IVDs and separate them from the adjacent vertebral bodies. With ageing, both IVDs and EPs undergo degeneration. The Histologic Degeneration Score (HDS) is a grading system which microscopically evaluates the degree of degeneration in lumbar discs and predicts it with high accuracy basing on several histological markers of IVD and EP. There is currently a lack of validated histologic grading schemes for cervical spine degeneration...
January 16, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104388/the-nedd4-binding-protein-3-is-required-for-anterior-neural-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#18
Lena-Maria Kiem, Petra Dietmann, Alexander Linnemann, Michael J Schmeisser, Susanne J Kühl
The Fezzin family member Nedd4-binding protein 3 (N4BP3) is known to regulate axonal and dendritic branching. Here, we show that n4bp3 is expressed in the neural tissue of the early Xenopus laevis embryo including the eye, the brain and neural crest cells. Knockdown of N4bp3 in the Xenopus anterior neural tissue results in severe developmental impairment of the eye, the brain and neural crest derived cranial cartilage structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that N4bp3 depletion leads to a significant reduction of both eye and brain specific marker genes and reduced neural crest cell migration...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104090/commentary-on-development-and-assessment-of-a-digital-x-ray-software-tool-to-determine-vertebral-rotation-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#19
Deeptee Jain, Sigurd Berven
Eijgenraam SM, Boselie TF, Sieben JM, Bastiaenen CH, Willems PC, Arts JJ, Lataster A. Spine J 2015;September 26. pii: S1529-9430(15)01449-7.
February 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103921/manually-defining-regions-of-interest-when-quantifying-paravertebral-muscles-fatty-infiltration-from-axial-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-proposed-method-for-the-lumbar-spine-with-anatomical-cross-reference
#20
Rebecca J Crawford, Jon Cornwall, Rebecca Abbott, James M Elliott
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in paravertebral muscle composition as a potential prognostic and diagnostic element in lumbar spine health. As a consequence, it is becoming popular to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine muscle volume and fatty infiltration in lumbar paravertebral muscles to assess both age-related change and their clinical relevance in low back pain (LBP). A variety of imaging methods exist for both measuring key variables (fat, muscle) and for defining regions of interest, making pooled comparisons between studies difficult and rendering post-production analysis of MRIs confusing...
January 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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