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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437841/characterizing-the-evolution-of-wide-gauge-features-in-stylopodial-limb-elements-of-titanosauriform-sauropods-via-geometric-morphometrics
#1
Paul V Ullmann, Matthew F Bonnan, Kenneth J Lacovara
Wide-gauge posture of titanosauriform sauropods remains an enigmatic peculiarity among terrestrial vertebrates. Here, two-dimensional geometric morphometrics and thin plate splines analyses were used to quantitatively analyze shape differences among sauropodomorph humeri and femora to identify how these elements may differ according to body gauge. Results demonstrate that titanosauriforms generally possess proportionately gracile humeri in comparison to other sauropods, with relatively more medially oriented humeral heads and proximally located deltopectoral crests...
April 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437683/pink1-and-parkin-emerging-themes-in-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#2
REVIEW
Thomas G McWilliams, Miratul Mk Muqit
The Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated protein kinase, PTEN-induced putative kinase1 (PINK1), and ubiquitin E3 ligase, Parkin function in a common signalling pathway known to regulate mitochondrial network homeostasis and quality control, including mitophagy. The multistep activation of this pathway, as well as an unexpected convergence between the post-translational modifications of ubiquitylation and phosphorylation, has added breadth to our understanding of cellular damage responses during human disease...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437670/a-case-report-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-fungal-osteomyelitis-mimicking-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-recurrence-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-following-transoral-robotic-surgery
#3
Hong Yu Tan, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Elizabeth Roche, Hiang Khoon Tan
INTRODUCTION: Transoral robotic surgery(TORS) for the excision of oropharyngeal tumour is increasingly considered for its lower rates of postoperative complications and better functional outcomes. However, we report a case of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient with previous radiation therapy years ago who underwent TORS recently. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55year old Chinese female with previous radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma diagnosed in 1986 underwent wide excision of a newly diagnosed oropharyngeal carcinoma with TORS...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437583/natural-selection-on-mhc-ii%C3%AE-in-parapatric-lake-and-stream-stickleback-balancing-divergent-both-or-neither
#4
William E Stutz, Daniel I Bolnick
Major histocompatibility (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a central role in vertebrates' adaptive immunity to parasites. MHC loci are among the most polymorphic in vertebrates' genomes, inspiring many studies to identify evolutionary processes driving MHC polymorphism within populations, and divergence between populations. Leading hypotheses include balancing selection favoring rare alleles within populations, and spatially divergent selection. These hypotheses do not always produce diagnosably distinct predictions, causing many studies of MHC to yield inconsistent or ambiguous results...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437357/the-effect-of-concomitant-rib-deformity-in-congenital-scoliosis-on-spinal-curve-correction-after-segmental-pedicle-screw-instrumentation
#5
Ebrahim Ameri, Daniel F Fouladi, Mir Bahram Safari, Hossein Vahid Tari, Hassan Ghandhari
STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, prospective study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of rib anomaly on surgical curve correction outcome in congenital scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The presence of rib anomalies may complicate surgical correction of congenital scoliosis. The outcome of surgical correction, however, has not been documented in scoliotic patients with and without rib deformity. METHODS: Percent Cobb angle decrease (CAD) after operation was calculated in 94 patients with congenital scoliosis...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437354/complete-spondylectomy-using-orthogonal-spinal-fixation-and-combined-anterior-and-posterior-approaches-for-thoracolumbar-spinal-reconstruction-technical-nuances-and-clinical-results
#6
Hasan A Zaidi, Al-Wala Awad, Curtis A Dickman
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacy of 2-stage total en bloc spondylectomy (TES). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: TES is a well-described technique to achieve tumor-free margins, but it is a highly destabilizing procedure that necessitates spinal reconstruction. A 2-stage anterior/posterior approach for tumor resection and instrumentation has been shown to be biomechanically superior to the single-stage approach in achieving rigid fixation, but few clinical studies with long-term outcomes exist...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437351/one-stage-posterior-spinal-osteotomy-in-severe-spinal-deformities-a-total-of-147-cases
#7
Lei Xia, Ning Li, Dan Wang, Ming Liu, Jun-Wei Li, De-Ming Bao, Peng Li
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: The treatment of severe spinal deformities is still a difficult surgical challenge. It is generally significant to identify the related complications performed to a consecutive series of patients with severe spinal deformity and managed by 1-stage posterior spinal osteotomy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: We investigated data from 147 consecutive patients (75 males and 72 females) with severe deformity and managed by Smith-Petersen osteotomy, pedicle subtraction osteotomy, or vertebral column resection between years 2006 and 2012 with >2-year follow-up...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437344/comparison-of-the-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-with-the-expandable-cage-versus-the-nonexpandable-cage-in-thoracolumbar-angular-kyphosis
#8
Jung-Hee Lee, Hyun-Seok Oh, Jeong-Gyu Choi
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the radiographic and clinical results of anterior support with nonexpandable cage with those of expandable cage. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The goals of surgical treatment in patients with thoracolumbar angular kyphosis are to improve the neurological deficit through neural decompression, to restore the normal alignment by correction of deformity, and to stabilize the spinal column by arthrodesis...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437339/a-multicenter-evaluation-of-clinical-and-radiographic-outcomes-following-high-grade-spondylolisthesis-reduction-and-fusion
#9
Gurpreet S Gandhoke, Manish K Kasliwal, Justin S Smith, JoAnne Nieto, David Ibrahimi, Paul Park, Frank Lamarca, Christopher Shaffrey, David O Okonkwo, Adam S Kanter
OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic outcomes from a multicenter study of surgical treatment for high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) in adults. The objective was to assess the safety of surgical reduction, its ability to correct regional deformity, and its clinical effectiveness. METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter review of adults (age above 18 y) with lumbosacral HGS (Meyerding grade 3-5) treated surgically with open decompression, attempted reduction, posterior instrumentation, and interbody fusion...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437337/axial-plane-deformity-of-the-shoulder-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#10
Venugopal K Menon, Naveen Tahasildar, Haroon M Pillay, Anbuselvam M
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: To study axial plane deformation of the shoulder in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and try to correlate it with curve type and surgical correction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: It is established that AIS is a 3-dimensional deformity. The rib hump is the most common manifestation of axial plane deformations; the least common manifestation seems to be upper trunk and shoulder rotation, which has been hitherto undescribed...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#11
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436958/local-clearance-of-senescent-cells-attenuates-the-development-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-and-creates-a-pro-regenerative-environment
#12
Ok Hee Jeon, Chaekyu Kim, Remi-Martin Laberge, Marco Demaria, Sona Rathod, Alain P Vasserot, Jae Wook Chung, Do Hun Kim, Yan Poon, Nathaniel David, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen, Judith Campisi, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Senescent cells (SnCs) accumulate in many vertebrate tissues with age and contribute to age-related pathologies, presumably through their secretion of factors contributing to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Removal of SnCs delays several pathologies and increases healthy lifespan. Aging and trauma are risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic disease characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage leading to pain and physical disability. Senescent chondrocytes are found in cartilage tissue isolated from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery, yet their role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
April 24, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436536/early-vertebrate-origin-and-diversification-of-small-transmembrane-regulators-of-cellular-ion-transport
#13
Sergej Pirkmajer, Henriette Kirchner, Leonidas Lundell, Pavel V Zelenin, Juleen R Zierath, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Alexander V Chibalin
Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these proteins are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin, and DWORF, which regulate the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436378/outcomes-of-corpectomy-in-patients-with-metastatic-cancer
#14
Grzegorz Guzik
BACKGROUND: The objective of surgical management of spinal metastases is to reduce pain and improve the patient's quality of life. The operation should restore spinal stability and decompress neural structures. One surgical technique is corpectomy followed by vertebral body reconstruction and stabilisation of the spine. The procedure may be performed in patients in overall good health and a good survival prognosis. The aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of surgical management of spinal metastases in patients who underwent corpectomy followed by vertebral body reconstruction and stabilisation of the spine...
January 26, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435925/distal-junctional-failure-secondary-to-l5-vertebral-fracture-a-report-of-two-rare-cases
#15
Jiong Hao Tan, Kimberly-Anne Tan, Hwee Weng Dennis Hey, Hee-Kit Wong
Distal junctional failure (DJF) with fracture at the last instrumented vertebra is a rare occurrence. In this case report, we present two patients with L5 vertebral fracture post-instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. The first patient is a 78-year-old female who had multi-level degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis and degenerative scoliosis involving levels T12 to L5. She underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) from T12 to L5, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) at L2/3 and L4/5...
March 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435922/spontaneous-corpectomy-and-anterior-arthrodesis-in-lumbar-spine-how-ankylosing-spondylitis-can-resolve-a-vertebral-fracture
#16
Daniele Vanni, Andrea Pantalone, Stefano Di Carlo, Vincenzo Magliani, Pedro Berjano, Vincenzo Salini
Between the 80% and 90% of vertebral fractures in over 65 years people are due to osteoporosis. Over the 30% of patients affected by vertebral osteoporosis fractures needs of surgical treatment and the 12% presents complications requiring an invasive surgical approach. We report an unusual case of spontaneous corpectomy and anterior arthrodesis occurred in a patient suffering from Ankylosing Spondylitis. This event invites us to reflect about the magnitude of the biological power of the bone healing, even in adverse conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435906/low-back-pain-in-older-adults-risk-factors-management-options-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Arnold Yl Wong, Jaro Karppinen, Dino Samartzis
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the major disabling health conditions among older adults aged 60 years or older. While most causes of LBP among older adults are non-specific and self-limiting, seniors are prone to develop certain LBP pathologies and/or chronic LBP given their age-related physical and psychosocial changes. Unfortunately, no review has previously summarized/discussed various factors that may affect the effective LBP management among older adults. Accordingly, the objectives of the current narrative review were to comprehensively summarize common causes and risk factors (modifiable and non-modifiable) of developing severe/chronic LBP in older adults, to highlight specific issues in assessing and treating seniors with LBP, and to discuss future research directions...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435875/mandrills-use-olfaction-to-socially-avoid-parasitized-conspecifics
#18
Clémence Poirotte, François Massol, Anaïs Herbert, Eric Willaume, Pacelle M Bomo, Peter M Kappeler, Marie J E Charpentier
The evolutionary transition from a solitary to a social lifestyle entails an elevated parasite cost because the social proximity associated with group living favors parasite transmission. Despite this cost, sociality is widespread in a large range of taxonomic groups. In this context, hosts would be expected to have evolved behavioral mechanisms to reduce the risk of parasite infection. Few empirical studies have focused on the influence of pathogen-mediated selection on the evolution of antiparasitic behavior in wild vertebrates...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435861/origin-of-an-ancient-hormone-receptor-couple-revealed-by-resurrection-of-an-ancestral-estrogen
#19
Gabriel V Markov, Juliana Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Delphine Pitrat, Isabelle M L Billas, François Bonneton, Dino Moras, Jens Hasserodt, Guillaume Lecointre, Vincent Laudet
The origin of ancient ligand/receptor couples is often analyzed via reconstruction of ancient receptors and, when ligands are products of metabolic pathways, they are not supposed to evolve. However, because metabolic pathways are inherited by descent with modification, their structure can be compared using cladistic analysis. Using this approach, we studied the evolution of steroid hormones. We show that side-chain cleavage is common to most vertebrate steroids, whereas aromatization was co-opted for estrogen synthesis from a more ancient pathway...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435632/anatomical-considerations-for-insertion-of-pedicular-screw-in-cervicothoracic-junction
#20
Morteza Faghih-Jouibari, Keisan Moazzeni, Amir Amini-Navai, Sara Hanaei, Sina Abdollahzadeh, Ramin Khanmohammadi
Background: This study aimed to investigate the pedicle dimension and angulation in cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) using the findings of computed tomographic (CT) to help accurate insertion of pedicular screw. Methods: Forty three patients with high quality CT images of CTJ were evaluated. Pedicle width (PW), pedicle height (PH), pedicle axis length (PAL), transverse angle (TA) and sagittal angle (SA) were measured bilaterally from C6 to T2. Results: Mean PW was 5.3 mm at C6, 6.2 mm at C7, 8.1 mm at T1 and 6...
October 7, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
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