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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778989/involvement-of-serotonin-in-crayfish-hematopoiesis
#1
Chadanat Noonin
Serotonin (5-HT) is a conserved monoamine neurotransmitter that has several physiological functions both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to its well-known function in the central nervous system, 5-HT also participates in peripheral system. However, in crustaceans, the knowledge about peripheral functions of 5-HT is limited. In this study, a role of 5-HT in hematopoiesis in crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, was investigated. The presence of 5-HT in crayfish plasma and the effect of 5-HT injection on hemocyte number were examined...
May 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778904/c-lysozyme-contributes-to-antiviral-immunity-in-bombyx-mori-against-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#2
Ting-Ting Chen, Li-Rong Tan, Nan Hu, Zhan-Qi Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Ya-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Lysozymes is a ubiquitous immune effector that is widely distributed in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previous reports have shown that lysozymes significantly inhibit viral infections in vertebrates. However, the antiviral effects of lysozymes in invertebrates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of lysozymes in Bombyx mori (B. mori) response to viral infection by overexpressing B. mori C-lysozyme (BmC-LZM) in larvae and cells. We found that BmC-LZM was up-regulated in cells in response to viral infection...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778801/injury-and-stress-responses-of-adult-neural-crest-derived-cells
#3
REVIEW
Vadims Parfejevs, Ana T Antunes, Lukas Sommer
Multipotent neural crest cells can self-renew and give rise to a plethora of neural and non-neural cell types in the vertebrate embryo. Intriguingly, cells reminiscent of such neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) have also been isolated from various postnatal and adult neural crest (NC)-derived structures. However, it has been debated whether NCSC-like cells in the adult correspond to 'in vitro artefacts' emerging upon isolation or fulfil a physiological role in vivo. Here, we discuss recent findings indicating that in different adult NC derivatives, injury or stress responses induce a NCSC-like state, presumably by reprogramming of differentiated cells such as Schwann cells...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778799/physiological-vagility-affects-population-genetic-structure-and-dispersal-and-enables-migratory-capacity-in-vertebrates
#4
Thomas V Hancock, Michael S Hedrick
Vagility is defined as the relative capacity for movement. We developed previously a quantitative metric in vertebrates for physiological vagility (PV), the speed at which an animal can move sustainably, incorporating aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and transport costs, allowing quantitative tests of whether PV can explain variation in interclass population genetic structure and behaviors involved in dispersal. We found that PV increased with body mass, correlated with maximal dispersal distances, and was inversely related to genetic structure in multiple vertebrate groups...
May 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778767/molecular-morphological-and-experimental-assessment-of-the-life-cycle-of-posthodiplostomum-nanum-trematoda-diplostomidae-from-brazil-with-phylogenetic-evidence-of-the-paraphyly-of-the-genus-posthodiplostomum-dubois-1936
#5
Danimar López-Hernández, Sean A Locke, Alan Lane de Melo, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo, Hudson Alves Pinto
Species of the genus Posthodiplostomum are intestinal parasites of piscivorous birds with worldwide distribution. Recent molecular surveys have focused on developmental stages from vertebrate hosts, with few sequences from larvae found in molluscs. Moreover, most published molecular data are from collections in North America, Europe and Asia, and there are no data for South American species. In the present study, cercariae found in the freshwater limpet Gundlachia ticaga from Brazil were used for morphological, experimental and molecular studies...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778716/the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-what-s-so-special-about-bone
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin J Frisch
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) require a supportive microenvironment to regulate their function and produce sufficient hematopoietic cells over the lifetime of an individual. With the exception of fish, all vertebrates, including mammals, maintain HSCs in a complex niche within the bone marrow. Several bone specific cellular populations have been implicated as components of the HSC niche and are part of a complex network that regulates HSC functions. However, the full extent of interactions within the HSC niche, and the role of individual cell populations remain to be fully elucidated...
May 17, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778701/natural-history-of-avian-papillomaviruses
#7
REVIEW
Daniel A Truchado, Richard A J Williams, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species...
May 17, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778611/traumatic-aorto-cisterna-chlyi-fistula-with-treatment-of-aortic-pseudoaneurysm-with-ct-guided-thrombin-injection
#8
Brian M Freeman, Benjamin C Powell, A Michael Devane, Allyson L Hale, Sagar S Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Only 3 cases of aorto-cisterna chyli fistula have been described in the literature but none with a resulting pseudoaneurysm (PSA). CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old man presented following a motor vehicle collision. Imaging revealed a retroperitoneal hematoma with enhancement of the cisterna chyli, representing aortic to cisterna chyli fistula. Three days later CTA showed resolution of the fistula, but revealed a PSA. The patient underwent arteriography that confirmed the PSA, and then a CT-guided thrombin injection was performed...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778442/developmental-profiles-of-progesterone-receptor-transcripts-and-molecular-responses-to-gestagen-exposure-during-silurana-tropicalis-early-development
#9
Paisley Thomson, Valerie S Langlois
Environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that have been recently measured in surface water and can interfere with reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Gestagens include endogenous progestogens, such as progesterone (P4), which bind P4-receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology and reproduction. Gestagens also include synthetic progestins, which are components of human and veterinary drugs, such as melengestrol acetate (MGA). Endogenous progestogens are essential in the regulation of reproduction in mammalian species, but the role of P4 in amphibian larval development remains unclear...
May 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778229/a-novel-portable-filtration-system-for-sampling-and-concentration-of-microorganisms-demonstration-on-marine-microalgae-with-subsequent-quantification-using-ic-nasba
#10
Christos-Moritz Loukas, Matthew C Mowlem, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Nicolas G Green
This paper presents a novel portable sample filtration/concentration system, designed for use on samples of microorganisms with very low cell concentrations and large volumes, such as water-borne parasites, pathogens associated with faecal matter, or toxic phytoplankton. The example application used for demonstration was the in-field collection and concentration of microalgae from seawater samples. This type of organism is responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an example of which is commonly referred to as "red tides", which are typically the result of rapid proliferation and high biomass accumulation of harmful microalgal species in the water column or at the sea surface...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777897/robot-assisted-radiofrequency-ablation-of-a-sacral-s1-s2-aggressive-hemangioma
#11
A Kaoudi, C Capel, L Chenin, J Peltier, M Lefranc
Aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are rare tumors of the spine. The treatment management strategy usually consists of vertebroplasty, radiation therapy or in rare cases of surgical strategy. We present a case of a bulging sacral S1-S2 hemangioma in the spinal canal that could not be managed in the usual manner. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of radiofrequency ablation technique as an alternative treatment as well as robotic assistance for optimal placement of the ablation probe within the lesion.
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777243/comparison-of-formulae-for-orotracheal-intubation-depth-in-the-paediatric-population
#12
Jen Heng Pek, Elizabeth Mj Tan, Ying Hao, Gene Yk Ong
INTRODUCTION: Multiple formulae have been proposed for calculating orotracheal depth for paediatric intubation. However, literature on the validation of these formulae in the emergency department setting is limited. Three methods described in the local Advanced Paediatric Life Support curriculum include the Broselow tape, endotracheal tube (ETT) size x 3, and the age-based formula of age divided by 2, add 12. We aimed to determine their accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with intubation performed in the Children's Emergency from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 were included in this retrospective observational study...
April 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777162/hiv-and-vertebral-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-metanalysis
#13
Thales A S H Ilha, Fabio V Comim, Rafaela M Copes, Juliet E Compston, Melissa O Premaor
The survival of HIV-infected patients has increased with the advent of antiretroviral therapy with the emergence of new comorbidities. Vertebral fracture is a manifestation of reduced bone strength and osteoporosis. This study aims to assess the frequency of spine fractures in HIV-positive men and women aged over 18 years. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. Studies that evaluated morphometric and/or clinical vertebral fracture were included...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777059/sequence-diversity-of-tubulin-isotypes-in-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-voltage-dependent-anion-channel
#14
Tatiana K Rostovtseva, Philip A Gurnev, David P Hoogerheide, Amandine Rovini, Minhajuddin Sirajuddin, Sergey M Bezrukov
The microtubule protein tubulin is a heterodimer comprising α/β subunits, in which each subunit features multiple isotypes in vertebrates. For example, seven α-tubulin and eight β-tubulin isotypes in the human tubulin gene family vary mostly in the length and primary sequence of the disordered anionic C-terminal tails (CTTs). The biological reason for such sequence diversity remains a topic of vigorous enquiry. Here, we demonstrate that it may be a key feature of tubulin's role in regulation of the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776970/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-mib-1-is-necessary-to-form-the-nuclear-halo-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-sperm
#15
Leslie A Herrera, Daniel A Starr
Unlike the classical nuclear envelope with two membranes found in other eukaryotic cells, most nematode sperm nuclei are not encapsulated by membranes. Instead, they are surrounded by a nuclear halo of unknown composition. How the halo is formed and regulated is unknown. We used forward genetics to identify molecular lesions behind three classical fer (fertilization defective) mutations that disrupt the ultrastructure of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm nuclear halo. We found fer-2 and fer-4 alleles to be nonsense mutations in mib-1...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776969/identifying-genetic-players-in-cell-sheet-morphogenesis-using-a-drosophila-deficiency-screen-for-genes-on-chromosome-2r-involved-in-dorsal-closure
#16
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776756/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-is-a-biomarker-associated-with-nonvertebral-fracture-in-men-on-dialysis-therapy
#17
Jasna Aleksova, Phillip Wong, Robert McLachlan, Kay Weng Choy, Peter R Ebeling, Frances Milat, Grahame J Elder
Gonadal hormones impact bone health and higher values of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been independently associated with fracture risk in men without chronic kidney disease. People with chronic kidney disease have a greatly increased fracture risk, and gonadal dysfunction is common in men receiving dialysis treatment. Nevertheless, in these men the effect of gonadal steroids and SHBG on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk is unknown. Here we investigate relationships between gonadal steroids, SHBG, BMD and fracture in men on long-term dialysis therapy, awaiting kidney or simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation...
May 15, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775770/treatment-of-ruptured-vertebral-artery-dissection-and-abdominal-hemorrhage-associated-with-segmental-arterial-mediolysis-using-endovascular-coil-embolization-va-dissection-associated-with-sam
#18
Taiki Isaji, Tomotaka Ohshima, Sigeru Miyachi, Naoki Matsuo, Reo Kawaguchi, Masakazu Takayasu
BACKGROUND: Segmental arterial mediolysis is a rare disease characterized by idiopathic noninflammatory vasculopathy involving small to medium arteries. Here, we report a case of ruptured cerebral and abdominal aneurysms, which were successfully treated using emergency endovascular coil embolization. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year-old male suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of the right vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm, which was treated using emergency endovascular coiling...
May 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775766/miyazaki-syndrome-due-to-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-treatment-a-case-report
#19
Anita Kovács, Tamás Németh, Angéla Csomor, Tímea Novák, Ferenc Kövér, Erika Vörös
The signs and pathomechanism of Miyazaki syndrome is presented through the case of a young female patient. The patient underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt with a pressure-adjustable valve for communicating hydrocephalus years before presenting to our department with the complaints of constant headache and unsteady gait. On the basis of the clinical picture and her history, plain and contrast-enhanced cranial and whole spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) examinations were performed, with the scans revealing signs indicative of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension typical of Miyazaki syndrome...
May 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775142/aspirin-for-primary-prevention-of-stroke-in-traumatic-cerebrovascular-injury-association-with-increased-risk-of-transfusion
#20
Russell L Griffin, Stephanie R Falatko, Stella Aslibekyan, Virginia Strickland, Mark R Harrigan
OBJECTIVE Blunt traumatic extracranial carotid or vertebral artery injury (i.e., traumatic cerebrovascular injury [TCVI]) occurs in 1%-2% of all blunt trauma admissions, carries a 10% risk of thromboembolic ischemic stroke, and accounts for up to 9600 strokes annually in the US. Screening CT angiograms (CTAs) of patients with trauma has become ubiquitous in recent years, and patients with initially asymptomatic TCVI are commonly treated with antiplatelet agents to prevent stroke. Prophylaxis with antiplatelets is thought to be safer than anticoagulation, which carries a significant risk of hemorrhage in patients with trauma...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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