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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#1
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214875/a-developmental-study-of-the-cerebellar-nucleus-in-the-catshark-a-basal-gnathostome
#2
Sol Pose-Méndez, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan, Ramón Anadón
The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214856/the-central-nervous-system-of-jawless-vertebrates-encephalization-in-lampreys-and-hagfishes
#3
Carlos A Salas, Kara E Yopak, Thomas J Lisney, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole surviving representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution, which has previously been regarded as the least encephalized group of all vertebrates. Very little is known, however, about the extent of interspecific variation in relative brain size in these fishes, as previous studies have focused on only a few species, even though lampreys exhibit a variety of life history traits. While some species are parasitic as adults, with varying feeding behaviors, others (nonparasitic species) do not feed after completing their macrophagous freshwater larval phase...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214553/mimicking-oxygen-delivery-and-waste-removal-functions-of-blood
#4
Huaifa Zhang, Jake E Barralet
In addition to immunological and wound healing cell and platelet delivery, ion stasis and nutrient supply, blood delivers oxygen to cells and tissues and removes metabolic wastes. For decades researchers have been trying to develop approaches that mimic these two immediately vital functions of blood. Oxygen is crucial for the long-term survival of tissues and cells in vertebrates. Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and even at times anoxia (absence of oxygen) can occur during organ preservation, organ and cell transplantation, wound healing, in tumors and engineering of tissues...
February 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213971/mass-turnover-and-recovery-dynamics-of-a-diverse-australian-continental-radiation
#5
Ian G Brennan, Paul M Oliver
Trends in global and local climate history have been linked to observed macroevolutionary patterns across a variety of organisms. These climatic pressures may unilaterally or asymmetrically influence the evolutionary trajectory of clades. To test and compare signatures of changing global (Eocene-Oligocene boundary cooling) and continental (Miocene aridification) environments on a continental fauna, we investigated the macroevolutionary dynamics of one of Australia's most diverse endemic radiations, pygopodoid geckos...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213934/transverse-process-anatomy-as-a-guide-to-vertebral-artery-exposure-during-anterior-cervical-spine-approach-a-cadaveric-study
#6
Ali Nourbakhsh, Jinping Yang, Howard McMahan, Kim Garges
INTRODUCTION: Safe exposure of the vertebral artery (VA) is needed during resection of tumors close to the artery and during repair of lacerations. We defined the anatomy of the anterior root of each transverse process (TP) from C3 to C6 for identification and exposure of the VA during the anterior approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the anatomy of the TP and assessed two approaches for safe identification of the VA, lateral to medial and medial to lateral dissection of the TP, in 20 cadavers...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213865/location-of-vertebral-fractures-is-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-and-history-of-traumatic-injury
#7
Jennifer Watt, Richard Crilly
The upper and lower thoracolumbar spine have been associated with different biomechanical outcomes. This concept, as it applies to osteoporotic fracture risk, has not been well documented. This was a case-control study of 120 patients seen in an osteoporosis clinic. Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral radiographs using Genant's semi-quantitative assessment method. An association between bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores and vertebral fracture location was assessed. In an additional analysis, the association between a history of any traumatic injury and possible predictor variables was also explored...
February 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213538/colonization-and-transmission-of-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-through-development
#8
Yin Wang, Daniel E Rozen
Carrion beetles in the genus Nicrophorus rear their offspring on decomposing carcasses where larvae are exposed to a diverse community of decomposer bacteria. Parents coat the carcass with antimicrobial secretions prior to egg hatch (defined as Pre-Hatch care) and also feed regurgitated food, and potentially bacteria, to larvae throughout development (defined as Full care). Here we partition the roles of pre- and post-hatch parental care in the transmission and persistence of culturable symbiotic bacteria to larvae...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213523/identification-of-regions-in-the-spt5-subunit-of-dsif-that-are-involved-in-promoter-proximal-pausing
#9
Yijun Qiu, David S Gilmour
DRB-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF(2), or Spt4/5) is a conserved transcription elongation factor that both inhibits and stimulates transcription elongation in metazoans. In Drosophila and vertebrates, DSIF together with negative elongation factor (NELF) associates with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early elongation and causes Pol II to pause in the promoter proximal region of genes. The mechanism of how DSIF establishes pausing is not known. We constructed Spt5 mutant forms of DSIF and tested their capacity to restore promoter proximal pausing to DSIF-depleted Drosophila nuclear extracts...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213464/cilia-in-left-right-symmetry-breaking
#10
Kyosuke Shinohara, Hiroshi Hamada
Visceral organs of vertebrates show left-right (L-R) asymmetry with regard to their position and morphology. Cilia play essential role in generating L-R asymmetry. A number of genes required for L-R asymmetry have now been identified in vertebrates, including human, many of which contribute to the formation and motility of cilia. In the mouse embryo, breaking of L-R symmetry occurs in the ventral node, where two types of cilia (motile and immotile) are present. Motile cilia are located at the central region of the node, and generate a leftward fluid flow...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213447/the-drosophila-postsynaptic-deg-enac-channel-ppk29-contributes-to-excitatory-neurotransmission
#11
Alexis Hill, Xingguo Zheng, Xiling Li, Ross McKinney, Dion Dickman, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
The protein family of Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channels (DEG/ENaC) is comprised of diverse animal-specific, non-voltage-gated ion channels that play important roles in regulating cationic gradients across epithelial barriers. Some family members are also enriched in neural tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific neurophysiological functions of most DEG/ENaC-encoding genes remain poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for deciphering the functions of DEG/ENaC genes because its genome encodes an exceptionally large number of DEG/ENaC subunits termed pickpocket (ppk) 1-31 Here we demonstrate that ppk29 contributes specifically to the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213193/anterior-surgical-fixation-for-cervical-spine-flexion-distraction-injuries
#12
Andrew Jack, Godefroy Hardy-St-Pierre, Mitchell Wilson, Godwin Choy, Richard Fox, Andrew Nataraj
BACKGROUND: Optimal surgical management for flexion-distraction cervical spine injuries remains controversial with current guidelines recommending anterior, posterior, and circumferential approaches. Here, we determined the incidence of and examined risk factors for clinical and radiographic failure in patients with one segment cervical distraction injuries having undergone anterior surgical fixation. METHODS: A retrospective review of 57 consecutive patients undergoing anterior fixation for subaxial flexion-distraction cervical injuries between 2008-2012 at our institution was performed...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212932/purification-and-characterisation-of-a-pronase-inducible-lectin-isolated-from-human-serum
#13
Beulaja Manikandan, Manikandan Ramar, Thiagarajan Raman, Mullainadhan Periasamy, Arumugam Munusamy
A new lectin was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from pronase treated human serum by a single-step of affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. The isolated lectin agglutinated five types of vertebrate RBC, with highest titer against hen RBC. This activity was independent of divalent cations, insensitive to EDTA and specific to mannosamine, glucosamine as well as galactosamine. This lectin gave a single symmetrical peak in its native form with a molecular mass estimate of 6kDa in FPLC analysis and 6...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212469/-evidence-and-recommendation-of-empirical-antimicrobial-treatment-in-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis-systematic-review
#14
David Agustín Cordero-Delgado, Alfredo Javier Moheno-Gallardo, Rubén Torres-González, Argenis Mata-Hernández, Eulalio Elizalde-Martínez, José Manuel Pérez-Atanasio
BACKGROUND: Pyogenic spondylodiscitis is the infectious process that affects the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. It has an incidence between 2 and 7%. To prescribe antibiotic treatment, it is required to identify the causative organism on the basis of the epidemiology of the etiologic agent, as well as the ability of the antibiotic to penetrate the bone tissue and the intervertebral disc. The objective was to identify the level of evidence and the grade of recommendation for the empiric initial treatment...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212457/papillomaviruses-a-systematic-review
#15
Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi, Suely Muro Reis Assaf, Rodrigo Franco de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha de Carvalho, Jacqueline Mazzuchelli de Souza, Roberta Fiusa Magnelli, Diego Grando Módolo, Franco Peppino Roperto, Rita de Cassia Stocco, Willy Beçak
In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) that have led to drastic hazards to the herds...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212410/a-high-throughput-genetic-screen-identifies-previously-uncharacterized-borrelia-burgdorferi-genes-important-for-resistance-against-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species
#16
Meghan E Ramsey, Jenny A Hyde, Diana N Medina-Perez, Tao Lin, Lihui Gao, Maureen E Lundt, Xin Li, Steven J Norris, Jon T Skare, Linden T Hu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. burgdorferi against ROS or RNS exposure. Here, we use transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) to conduct an unbiased search for genes involved in resistance to nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211945/ip3-receptor-mutations-and-brain-diseases-in-human-and-rodents
#17
REVIEW
Chihiro Hisatsune, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) is a huge Ca(2+) channel that is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The IP3 R releases Ca(2+) from the ER upon binding to IP3 , which is produced by various extracellular stimuli through phospholipase C activation. All vertebrate organisms have three subtypes of IP3 R genes, which have distinct properties of IP3 -binding and Ca(2+) sensitivity, and are differently regulated by phosphorylation and by their associated proteins. Each cell type expresses the three subtypes of IP3 R in a distinct proportion, which is important for creating and maintaining spatially and temporally appropriate intracellular Ca(2+) level patterns for the regulation of specific physiological phenomena...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211896/profound-seasonal-shrinking-and-regrowth-of-the-ossified-braincase-in-phylogenetically-distant-mammals-with-similar-life-histories
#18
Dina K N Dechmann, Scott LaPoint, Christian Dullin, Moritz Hertel, Jan R E Taylor, Karol Zub, Martin Wikelski
Ontogenetic changes in skull shape and size are ubiquitous in altricial vertebrates, but typically unidirectional and minimal in full-grown animals. Red-toothed shrews exhibit a rare exception, where the shape, mass and size of the skull, brain, and several major organs, show significant bidirectional seasonal changes. We now show a similar but male-biased shrinking (16%) and regrowth (8%) in the standardized braincase depth of least weasels (Mustela nivalis). Juvenile weasels also exhibit a growth overshoot, followed by a shrinkage period lasting until the end of their first winter...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211869/non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-animal-development
#19
REVIEW
Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in the development of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis, a form of PCD characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasm compaction, and molecularly by the activation of caspase proteases, has been extensively investigated. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mice, and the developing chick have revealed, however, that developmental PCD also occurs through other mechanisms, morphologically and molecularly distinct from apoptosis...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211522/structure-and-polymorphisms-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-the-oriental-stork-ciconia-boyciana
#20
Hiroki Tsuji, Yukio Taniguchi, Shintaro Ishizuka, Hirokazu Matsuda, Takahisa Yamada, Kazuaki Naito, Hiroaki Iwaisaki
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is highly polymorphic and plays a central role in the vertebrate immune system. Despite its functional consistency, the MHC genomic structure differs substantially among organisms. In birds, the MHCs of Galliformes and the Japanese crested ibis (Pelecaniformes) are well-characterized, but information about other avian MHCs remains scarce. The Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana, order Ciconiiformes) is a large endangered migrant. The current Japanese population of this bird originates from a few founders; thus, understanding the genetic diversity among them is critical for effective population management...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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