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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918538/genetic-manipulation-of-borrelia-spp
#1
Dan Drecktrah, D Scott Samuels
The spirochetes Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, respectively, cycle in nature between an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host. They have extraordinarily unusual genomes that are highly segmented and predominantly linear. The genetic analyses of Lyme disease spirochetes have become increasingly more sophisticated, while the age of genetic investigation in the relapsing fever spirochetes is just dawning. Molecular tools available for B...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918493/study-of-lesions-of-the-lumbar-endplate-based-on-the-stage-of-maturation-of-the-lumbar-vertebral-body-the-relationship-between-skeletal-maturity-and-chronological-age
#2
Hideyuki Uraoka, Kosaku Higashino, Masatoshi Morimoto, Kazuta Yamashita, Fumitake Tezuka, Yoichiro Takata, Toshinori Sakai, Akihiro Nagamachi, Masaaki Murase, Koichi Sairyo
The lesion of the lumbar endplate is sometimes identified in the vertebrae of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare between skeletal maturity and chronological age. The second purpose of this study is to clarify the lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the maturation of the lumbar vertebral body. Six hundred and thirty-two (485 men and 147 women) consecutive patients were included. The mean age at the first medical examination was 13.8 years. Their skeletal maturity was evaluated based on the appearances of the secondary ossification center of L3...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918252/a-pdgf-vegf-homologue-provides-new-insights-into-the-nucleus-grafting-operation-and-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#3
Xian-De Huang, Hua Zhang, Mao-Xian He
The platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF, PVF) family of proteins have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions in vertebrates, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, neural development and especially angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. In this study, a PVF gene, belonging to the PDGF/VEGF family, was cloned and characterized from Pinctada fucata. It contained an ORF of 1110bp encoding a putative protein of 369 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the typical structural features of PDGF family members and the N-terminal signal peptide for secretion...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918251/hmg-box-factor-soxd-sox15-and-homeodomain-containing-factor-xanf1-hesx1-directly-interact-and-regulate-the-expression-of-xanf1-hesx1-during-early-forebrain-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Natalia Y Martynova, Fedor M Eroshkin, Eugeny E Оrlov, Andrey G Zaraisky
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Anf (also known as Rpx/Hesx1 in mammals) plays an important role during the forebrain development in vertebrates. Here we demonstrate the ability of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf1/Hesx1, to directly bind SRY-related HMG-box-containing transcription factor SoxD/Sox15 and to cooperate with the latter during regulating of the expression of Xanf1/Hesx1 own gene. As we have shown by GST pull-down, EMSA and the luciferase reporter assays, Xanf1/Hesx1 and SoxD/Sox15 bind the Xanf1/Hesx1 promoter region counteracting the inhibitory effect of Xanf1/Hesx1 alone...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917942/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-testing-of-native-%C3%AE-conotoxins-from-the-injected-venom-of-conus-purpurascens
#5
REVIEW
Mickelene F Hoggard, Alena M Rodriguez, Herminsul Cano, Evan Clark, Han-Shen Tae, David J Adams, Tanja A Godenschwege, Frank Marí
α-Conotoxins inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used as probes to study cholinergic pathways in vertebrates. Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, express nAChRs in their CNS that are suitable to investigate the neuropharmacology of α-conotoxins in vivo. Here we report the paired nanoinjection of native α-conotoxin PIA and two novel α-conotoxins, PIC and PIC[O7], from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens and electrophysiological recordings of their effects on the giant fiber system (GFS) of D...
September 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917701/paleoecological-insights-from-fossil-freshwater-mollusks-of-the-kanapoi-formation-omo-turkana-basin-kenya
#6
Bert Van Bocxlaer
The Early Pliocene Kanapoi Formation of the Omo-Turkana Basin consists of two fluvial/deltaic sedimentary sequences with an intermediate lacustrine sequence that was deposited in Paleolake Lonyumun, the earliest large lake in the basin. Overall, the geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Kanapoi Formation are well studied, but its freshwater mollusks, despite being a major component of the benthic ecosystem, have not been subjected to in-depth study. Here I present the first treatment of these mollusks, which have been retrieved mainly from the lacustrine but also from the upper fluvial sediments, with a focus on paleoecological implications...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917310/screening-of-a-small-well-curated-natural-product-based-library-identifies-two-rotenoids-with-potent-nematocidal-activity-against-haemonchus-contortus
#7
H M P Dilrukshi Herath, Sarah Preston, Andreas Hofmann, Rohan A Davis, Anson V Koehler, Bill C H Chang, Abdul Jabbar, Robin B Gasser
The control of parasitic roundworms (nematodes) is heavily reliant on the use of a limited number of anthelmintic drugs. However, drug resistance is now very widespread and no vaccines are available, such that the discovery of new chemical entities is crucial. Within this context, we screened a library of pure natural products (n=400) against exsheathed third-stage (xL3) larvae of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus using a whole-organism screening method. We identified two plant-derived rotenoids, deguelin and rotenone, with inhibitory activity on xL3 motility...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917127/differential-expression-of-ten-candidate-genes-regulating-prostaglandin-action-in-reproductive-tissues-of-buffalo-during-estrous-cycle-and-pregnancy
#8
Ankita Dillipkumar Verma, Manjit Panigrahi, Naseer Ahmad Baba, Sourabh Sulabh, Abdul Sadam, Subhashree Parida, Krishnaswamy Narayanan, Arvind A Sonwane, Bharat Bhushan
Prostaglandins (PGs) are the key mediators of several female reproductive functions, including luteolysis, ovulation, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, and parturition. The present study was conducted in buffalo endometrial and luteal tissues between nonpregnant and two stages of pregnancy (29-38 days of pregnancy, 48-56 days of pregnancy) tissue samples. The genes involved from synthesis upto receptor level effect of PGs (PGF2α and PGE2) were studied for their relative mRNA expression. We have collected the endometrial and luteal tissues from slaughtered animals and confirmed the stages by external examination and crown vertebral rump length measurement of the foetus...
September 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916914/the-effects-of-protein-and-fiber-content-on-gut-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#9
Samantha C Leigh, Bao-Quang Nguyen-Phuc, Donovan P German
Chemical reactor theory (CRT) suggests that the digestive tract functions as a chemical reactor for processing food. Presumably, gut structure and function should match diet to ensure adequate nutrient and energy uptake to maintain performance. Within CRT, dietary biochemical composition is the most important factor affecting gut structure and function in vertebrates. We fed Danio rerio (zebrafish) diets ranging from high- to moderate- to low-quality (i.e., ranging from high-protein, low-fiber to low-protein, high-fiber), and observed how gut length and surface area, as well as the activity levels of digestive enzymes (amylase, maltase, trypsin, aminopeptidase, and lipase) shifted in response to these dietary changes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916840/a-novel-col1a2-c-propeptide-cleavage-site-mutation-causing-high-bone-mass-osteogenesis-imperfecta-with-a-regional-distribution-pattern
#10
T Rolvien, U Kornak, J Stürznickel, T Schinke, M Amling, S Mundlos, R Oheim
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is typically characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility caused by heterozygous mutations in the type I procollagen genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). We report two cases of a 56-year-old woman and her 80-year-old mother who suffered from multiple vertebral and non-vertebral fractures with onset in early childhood. A full osteologic assessment including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and serum analyses pointed to a high bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip (DXA Z-score + 3...
September 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#11
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916755/protein-o-fucosylation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-ensures-efficient-infection-of-mosquito-and-vertebrate-hosts
#12
Sash Lopaticki, Annie S P Yang, Alan John, Nichollas E Scott, James P Lingford, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Nicole C McKenzie, Charlie Jennison, Lachlan W Whitehead, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Justin A Boddey
O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916626/contextual-fear-conditioning-in-zebrafish
#13
Justin W Kenney, Ian C Scott, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916380/roles-of-amino-acid-residues-h66-and-d326-in-the-creatine-kinase-activity-and-structural-stability
#14
Qing-Yun Wu, Fang Wei, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Yu-Xue Tong, Jiang Cao, Ping Zhou, Zhen-Yu Li, Ling-Yu Zeng, Feng Li, Xiao-Yun Wang, Kai-Lin Xu
Creatine kinase (CK) is a key enzyme for cellular energy metabolism, catalyzing the reversible phosphoryl transfer from phosphocreatine to ADP in vertebrates. CK contains a pair of highly conserved amino acids (H66 and D326) which might play an important role in sustaining the compact structure of CK by linking its N- and C- terminal domains; however the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, spectroscopic, structural modeling and protein folding experiments suggested that D326A, H66P and H66P/D326A mutations led to disruption of the hydrogen bond between those two amino acid residues and form the partially unfolded state which made it easier to be inactivated and unfolded under environmental stresses, and more prone to form insoluble aggregates...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916270/understanding-taurine-cns-activity-using-alternative-zebrafish-models
#15
REVIEW
Nathana J Mezzomo, Barbara D Fontana, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Denis B Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant "amino acid" in the brain. Despite the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915975/corrigendum-to-estimation-of-the-minimum-mrna-splicing-error-rate-in-vertebrates-mutat-res-2016-784-34-38
#16
A Skandalis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915882/blind-free-living-kiwi-offer-a-unique-window-into-the-ecology-and-evolution-of-vertebrate-vision
#17
Bret A Moore, Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Alan J D Tennyson, Christopher J Murphy
The first report of multiple, blind, wild birds in good health suggests vision is not necessary for the survival of kiwi.
September 15, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915712/formation-function-and-exhaustion-of-notochordal-cytoplasmic-vacuoles-within-intervertebral-disc-current-understanding-and-speculation
#18
REVIEW
Feng Wang, Zeng-Xin Gao, Feng Cai, Arjun Sinkemani, Zhi-Yang Xie, Rui Shi, Ji-Nan Wei, Xiao-Tao Wu
Notochord nucleus pulposus cells are characteristic of containing abundant and giant cytoplasmic vacuoles. This review explores the embryonic formation, biological function, and postnatal exhaustion of notochord vacuoles, aiming to characterize the signal network transforming the vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells into the vacuole-less chondrocytic cells. Embryonically, the cytoplasmic vacuoles within vertebrate notochord originate from an evolutionarily conserved vacuolation process during neurulation, which may continue to provide mechanical and signal support in constructing a mammalian intervertebral disc...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914617/distribution-patterns-of-the-vulnerable-vessels-around-cervical-nerve-roots-a-computed-tomography-based-study
#19
Donghwi Park
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of vulnerable vessels around the target of cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the C3-C7 cervical nerve root levels in a clinical setting. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted. PARTICIPANTS: Patients complaining of neck or arm pain with no previous surgical history and who had undergone both precontrast and contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography were included retrospectively...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914463/burrowing-with-a-kinetic-snout-in-a-snake-elapidae-aspidelaps-scutatus
#20
Alexandra Deufel
Of the few elongate, fossorial vertebrates that have been examined for their burrowing mechanics, all were found to use an akinetic, reinforced skull to push into the soil, powered mostly by trunk muscles. Reinforced skulls were considered essential for head-first burrowing. In contrast, I found that the skull of the fossorial shield-nosed cobra (Aspidelaps scutatus) is not reinforced and retains the kinetic potential typical of many non-fossorial snakes. Aspidelaps scutatus burrows using a greatly enlarged rostral scale that is attached to a kinetic snout that is independently mobile with respect to the rest of the skull...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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