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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531932/in-reply-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-restoration-of-anterior-vertebral-height-by-short-segment-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-screwing-of-fractured-vertebra-for-the-treatment-of-unstable-thoracolumbar-fractures
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531931/a-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-restoration-of-anterior-vertebral-height-by-short-segment-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-screwing-of-fractured-vertebra-for-the-treatment-of-unstable-thoracolumbar-fractures
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530782/multiple-thoracic-vertebral-fractures-as-a-complication-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-case-report
#3
Tae Seok Jeong, Sang Gu Lee
A 50-year-old man experienced cardiac arrest. The patient underwent standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures for approximately 20 minutes before spontaneous circulation returned. He was diagnosed with variant angina, and subsequent imaging for evaluation of upper back pain revealed fractures of the fifth through eighth thoracic vertebrae. Multiple thoracic vertebral fractures are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multiple thoracic vertebral fractures as a complication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530663/a-cerebellum-like-circuit-in-the-auditory-system-cancels-responses-to-self-generated-sounds
#4
Shobhit Singla, Conor Dempsey, Richard Warren, Armen G Enikolopov, Nathaniel B Sawtell
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory nerve input with a diverse array of sensory and motor signals processed in circuitry similar to that of the cerebellum. Yet how the DCN contributes to early auditory processing has been a longstanding puzzle. Using electrophysiological recordings in mice during licking behavior, we show that DCN neurons are largely unaffected by self-generated sounds while remaining sensitive to external acoustic stimuli. Recordings in deafened mice, together with neural activity manipulations, indicate that self-generated sounds are cancelled by non-auditory signals conveyed by mossy fibers...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530549/a-genetic-basis-for-molecular-asymmetry-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#5
Adam C Miller, Alex C Whitebirch, Arish N Shah, Kurt C Marsden, Michael Granato, John O'Brien, Cecilia B Moens
Neural network function is based upon the patterns and types of connections made between neurons. Neuronal synapses are adhesions specialized for communication and they come in two types, chemical and electrical. Communication at chemical synapses occurs via neurotransmitter release whereas electrical synapses utilize gap junctions for direct ionic and metabolic coupling. Electrical synapses are often viewed as symmetrical structures, with the same components making both sides of the gap junction. By contrast, we show that a broad set of electrical synapses in zebrafish, Danio rerio, require two gap-junction-forming Connexins for formation and function...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530472/telomerase-expression-in-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-pharyngeal-teeth
#6
W H Tan, P E Witten, C Winkler, D W T Au, A Huysseune
Nonmammalian vertebrates have the capacity of lifelong tooth replacement. In all vertebrates, tooth formation requires contact and interaction between the oral or pharyngeal epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. To secure lifelong replacement, the presence of odontogenic stem cells has been postulated, particularly in the epithelial compartment. This study uses an advanced teleost fish species, the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, a close relative to Oryzias latipes, to examine the expression and distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert), the catalytic unit of telomerase, in developing pharyngeal teeth and to relate these data to the proliferative activity of the cells...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530467/osteoporotic-fractures-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
B Le, J L Waller, R Radhakrishnan, S J Oh, M F Kheda, N S Nahman, L Carbone
Background The incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rising. However, the relationship between osteoporotic fractures and SLE in the setting of ESRD remains uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of incident osteoporotic fractures in patients with ESRD with and without SLE, to identify risk factors for fractures in patients with SLE and ESRD, and to examine the contribution of these fractures to mortality. Methods Retrospective cohort study of patients with SLE ( n = 716) and a 5% random sample of controls without SLE ( n = 4176) in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from years 2006-2008 enrolled in Medicare Part D...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530240/controlling-for-the-species-area-effect-supports-constrained-long-term-mesozoic-terrestrial-vertebrate-diversification
#8
Roger A Close, Roger B J Benson, Paul Upchurch, Richard J Butler
Variation in the geographic spread of fossil localities strongly biases inferences about the evolution of biodiversity, due to the ubiquitous scaling of species richness with area. This obscures answers to key questions, such as how tetrapods attained their tremendous extant diversity. Here, we address this problem by applying sampling standardization methods to spatial regions of equal size, within a global Mesozoic-early Palaeogene data set of non-flying terrestrial tetrapods. We recover no significant increase in species richness between the Late Triassic and the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary, strongly supporting bounded diversification in Mesozoic tetrapods...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530134/effect-of-intraoperative-positioning-on-the-diameter-of-the-vertebral-canal-in-cats-during-perineal-urethrostomy-cadaveric-study
#9
Pavel Slunsky, Mathias Brunnberg, Shenja Lodersted, Leo Brunnberg
Objectives The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in the diameter of the vertebral canal in the lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal column (L6-Co2) in cats in dorsal and ventral recumbency, simulating real body positioning during a perineal urethrostomy. Methods Twenty-one male feline cadavers were enrolled in the study. All feline cadavers were evaluated by CT. Examinations were performed with the cadaver in a neutral position and dorsal and ventral recumbency. Sagittal vertebral canal diameters (VCDs) were obtained by measuring the distance between the ventral and dorsal aspects of the vertebral canal in the middle of the intervertebral space...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529974/a-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-carbonic-anhydrase-related-protein-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-rhoptry-biogenesis-and-virulence
#10
Nathan M Chasen, Beejan Asady, Leandro Lemgruber, Rossiane C Vommaro, Jessica C Kissinger, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno
Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529724/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#11
REVIEW
Seiji Fukumoto, Toshio Matsumoto
There has been substantial progress in the management of patients with osteoporosis and the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Currently available strong anti-resorptive agents are bisphosphonates and an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody, denosumab. Although bisphosphonates and denosumab both inhibit bone resorption and prevent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, their mechanisms of action are different. Whereas bisphosphonates' effects on bone mineral density and fracture peak around 3 to 5 years and become plateaued, those of denosumab are maintained for up to 10 years...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529346/wartime-scars-or-reservoirs-of-biodiversity-the-value-of-bomb-crater-ponds-in-aquatic-conservation
#12
Csaba F Vad, Attila L Péntek, Nastasia J Cozma, Angéla Földi, Adrienn Tóth, Bence Tóth, NóraA Böde, Arnold Móra, Robert Ptacnik, Éva Ács, Katalin Zsuga, Zsófia Horváth
Considering the ongoing loss of aquatic habitats, anthropogenic ponds are gaining importance as substitute habitats. It is therefore important to assess their functioning in comparison to their natural precursors. Here we assess the biodiversity value of sodic bomb crater ponds by comparing their gamma diversity to that of natural reference habitats, astatic soda pans, and assess their importance on the landscape level by studying alpha and beta diversity. We studied aquatic organisms ranging from algae to vertebrates in a dense cluster of 54 sodic bomb crater ponds in Central Europe...
May 2017: Biological Conservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529276/association-between-the-risk-of-falls-and-osteoporotic-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Maki Yokomoto-Umakoshi, Ippei Kanazawa, Shiori Kondo, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of falls, which increases the incidence of osteoporotic fractures and accordingly decreases quality of life. However, the association between fall risk and diabetic complications is not completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between fall risk and osteoporotic fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We enrolled 194 Japanese patients with T2DM and assessed their fall risk using a brief interview form that included five items covering physical and social aspects of functioning and environmental factors...
May 19, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529085/variations-in-native-protein-glycation-and-plasma-antioxidants-in-several-birds-of-prey
#14
Tana Ingram, Jessica Zuck, Chad R Borges, Patrick Redig, Karen L Sweazea
Birds are an anomaly among vertebrates as they are remarkably long-lived despite having naturally high blood glucose and metabolic rates. For mammals, hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and protein glycation. In contrast, many studies have shown that domestic and wild birds are relatively resistant to these glucose-mediated pathologies. Surprisingly very little research has examined protein glycation in birds of prey, which by nature consume a diet high in protein and fat that promotes gluconeogenesis...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528950/effects-of-cataract-causing-mutations-w59c-and-w151c-on-%C3%AE-b2-crystallin-structure-stability-and-folding
#15
Wei-Jie Zhao, Jia Xu, Xiang-Jun Chen, Hui-Hui Liu, Ke Yao, Yong-Bin Yan
β/γ-Crystallins, the predominant structural proteins in vertebrate lens with lifelong stability to maintain lens transparency, share a high similarity in their primary sequences and tertiary structures. Four conserved Trp residues have been shown to be important to γ-crystallin structure, stability and protection against UV irradiation, whereas their roles in β-crystallins remain elusive. Herein we found that two congenital cataract-causing mutations, W59C and W151C, dramatically decreased βB2-crystallin solubility and stability against thermal and guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528897/lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion-at-the-lumbosacral-junction
#16
Timothy L T Siu, Kainu Lin
Due to the obstruction of the iliac crest and the retroperitoneal vessels, lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is generally considered contraindicated at the lumbosacral junction (LSJ). In particular the 'rise' of the psoas from the vertebral column in the lower lumbar segments has been associated with significant overlap of the lumbar plexus with the vertebral body and exclusion of a safe transpsoas entry. However in selected individuals anatomical variations may help circumvent the difficulties and the anatomical corridor posterior to the lumbar plexus may provide an alternative to the conventional anterior approach...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528478/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-a-vertebral-artery-loop-causing-cervical-radiculopathy
#17
L Wood, M Czyz, S Forster, Bronek M Boszczyk
BACKGROUND: Cervical radiculopathies are rarely caused by vertebral artery loop formation, which is estimated to be present in less than 3% of patients. It is uncertain what causes the loop formation: some propose an association with spondylotic changes or trauma, whilst others suggest hypertension and atherosclerosis may be responsible. CASE REPORT 1: A 35-year-old male patient presented with signs and symptoms of cervical radiculopathy that was not improved with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery performed 2 years beforehand...
May 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528410/comparison-of-toxicities-of-metal-pyrithiones-including-their-degradation-compounds-and-organotin-antifouling-biocides-to-the-japanese-killifish-oryzias-latipes
#18
Madoka Ohji, Hiroya Harino
Japanese killifish Oryzias latipes were exposed to three levels (0, 1, and 10 µg l(-1)) of copper pyrithione (CuPT2), zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2), six of their degradation products, and the organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) for 48 h at 20 °C. All individual fish exposed to 1 and 10 µg l(-1) of CuPT2 or 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 were dead within 12 h, respectively, and at 24 h the survival rate of the fish exposed to 1 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 was 50%. All fish exposed to 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 showed morphological abnormalities in the form of vertebral deformity...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528177/tetrodotoxin-in-asian-newts-salamandridae
#19
Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Stefan W Toennes, Dietrich Mebs
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues occur in a wide range of marine animals but also in terrestrial vertebrates such as frogs, toads and newts. Despite numerous studies on TTX in New World newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Taricha spp.), few data only exist for Asian newts. Methanolic extracts of newts from China (Cynops orientalis, Pachytriton labiatus, Paramesotriton chinensis), Vietnam (Paramesotriton deloustali, P. guangxiensis), and Laos (Laotriton laoensis) were analyzed by liquid-chromatography-fluorescent detection (LC-FLD) and mass-spectrometry (LC-MS)...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527698/non-diaphanous-formin-delphilin-acts-as-a-barbed-end-capping-protein
#20
Priyanka Dutta, Swagata Das, Sankar Maiti
Formins are multi domain protein present ubiquitously in all eukaryotes from lower fungi to higher vertebrates. Formins are characterized by the presence of formin homology domain-2 (FH2) and formin homology domain-1 (FH1). There are fifteen different formins present in mouse and human. Among these metazoan formins Delphilin is a unique formin having two PDZ domains at the N-terminal and FH1, FH2 domain at the C-terminus respectively. In this study we observed that Delphilin binds to actin filaments, and Delphilin inhibits actin filament elongation like barbed end capping protein CapZ...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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