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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971715/regulation-of-cell-polarity-determinants-by-the-retinoblastoma-tumor-suppressor-protein
#1
Sandhya Payankaulam, Kelvin Yeung, Helen McNeill, R William Henry, David N Arnosti
In addition to their canonical roles in the cell cycle, RB family proteins regulate numerous developmental pathways, although the mechanisms remain obscure. We found that Drosophila Rbf1 associates with genes encoding components of the highly conserved apical-basal and planar cell polarity pathways, suggesting a possible regulatory role. Here, we show that depletion of Rbf1 in Drosophila tissues is indeed associated with polarity defects in the wing and eye. Key polarity genes aPKC, par6, vang, pk, and fmi are upregulated, and an aPKC mutation suppresses the Rbf1-induced phenotypes...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616331/alternative-splicing-of-drosophila-nmnat-functions-as-a-switch-to-enhance-neuroprotection-under-stress
#2
Kai Ruan, Yi Zhu, Chong Li, Jennifer M Brazill, R Grace Zhai
Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) is a conserved enzyme in the NAD synthetic pathway. It has also been identified as an effective and versatile neuroprotective factor. However, it remains unclear how healthy neurons regulate the dual functions of NMNAT and achieve self-protection under stress. Here we show that Drosophila Nmnat (DmNmnat) is alternatively spliced into two mRNA variants, RA and RB, which translate to protein isoforms with divergent neuroprotective capacities against spinocerebellar ataxia 1-induced neurodegeneration...
November 30, 2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474522/identification-of-the-retinoblastoma-rb-gene-and-expression-in-response-to-environmental-stressors-in-the-intertidal-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#3
Bo-Mi Kim, Chang-Bum Jeong, Min Chul Lee, Jae-Sung Rhee, Jae-Seong Lee
There have been no reports thus far on the structure or molecular characterization of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene of aquatic animals. Herein we describe the identification of the Rb gene of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In silico analyses revealed the conserved Rb domains of T. japonicus with those of protostomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologs of Rb gene were evolved by an ancient split event in deuterostomes, while only a single Rb gene was conserved in protostomes except for Drosophila...
December 2015: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470275/marking-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-with-rubidium-or-15n
#4
J Klick, W Q Yang, D J Bruck
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions...
June 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26208635/the-drosophila-retinoblastoma-protein-rbf1-induces-a-debcl-and-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-apoptosis
#5
Amandine Clavier, Vincent Ruby, Aurore Rincheval-Arnold, Bernard Mignotte, Isabelle Guénal
In accordance with its tumor suppressor role, the retinoblastoma protein pRb can ensure pro-apoptotic functions. Rbf1, the Drosophila homolog of Rb, also displays a pro-apoptotic activity in proliferative cells. We have previously shown that the Rbf1 pro-apoptotic activity depends on its ability to decrease the level of anti-apoptotic proteins such as the Bcl-2 family protein Buffy. Buffy often acts in an opposite manner to Debcl, the other Drosophila Bcl-2-family protein. Both proteins can localize at the mitochondrion, but the way they control apoptosis still remains unclear...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26027742/nontoxic-singlet-oxygen-generator-as-a-therapeutic-candidate-for-treating-tauopathies
#6
Sahabudeen Sheik Mohideen, Yasutoyo Yamasaki, Yasuhiro Omata, Leo Tsuda, Yuji Yoshiike
Methylene blue (MB) inhibits the aggregation of tau, a main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles. However, MB's mode of action in vivo is not fully understood. MB treatment reduced the amount of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in Drosophila that express human wild-type tau. MB concurrently ameliorated the climbing deficits of transgenic tau flies to a limited extent and diminished the climbing activity of wild-type flies. MB also decreased the survival rate of wild-type flies. Based on its photosensitive efficacies, we surmised that singlet oxygen generated through MB under light might contribute to both the beneficial and toxic effects of MB in vivo...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999584/genome-wide-analysis-of-drosophila-rbf2-protein-highlights-the-diversity-of-rb-family-targets-and-possible-role-in-regulation-of-ribosome-biosynthesis
#7
Yiliang Wei, Shamba S Mondal, Rima Mouawad, Bartek Wilczyński, R William Henry, David N Arnosti
RBf2 is a recently evolved retinoblastoma family member in Drosophila that differs from RBf1, especially in the C-terminus. To investigate whether the unique features of RBf2 contribute to diverse roles in gene regulation, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing for both RBf2 and RBf1 in embryos. A previous model for RB-E2F interactions suggested that RBf1 binds dE2F1 or dE2F2, whereas RBf2 is restricted to binding to dE2F2; however, we found that RBf2 targets approximately twice as many genes as RBf1...
July 2015: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25928155/co-expressed-cyclin-d-variants-cooperate-to-regulate-proliferation-of-germline-nuclei-in-a-syncytium
#8
Gunasekaran Subramaniam, Coen Campsteijn, Eric M Thompson
The role of the G1-phase Cyclin D-CDK 4/6 regulatory module in linking germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation to nutrition is evolutionarily variable. In invertebrate Drosophila and C. elegans GSC models, G1 is nearly absent and Cyclin E is expressed throughout the cell cycle, whereas vertebrate spermatogonial stem cells have a distinct G1 and Cyclin D1 plays an important role in GSC renewal. In the invertebrate, chordate, Oikopleura, where germline nuclei proliferate asynchronously in a syncytium, we show a distinct G1-phase in which 2 Cyclin D variants are co-expressed...
2015: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25616580/the-cell-cycle-regulator-ecdysoneless-cooperates-with-h-ras-to-promote-oncogenic-transformation-of-human-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
Aditya Bele, Sameer Mirza, Ying Zhang, Riyaz Ahmad Mir, Simon Lin, Jun Hyun Kim, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju Gurumurthy, William West, Fang Qiu, Hamid Band, Vimla Band
The mammalian ortholog of Drosophila ecdysoneless (Ecd) gene product regulates Rb-E2F interaction and is required for cell cycle progression. Ecd is overexpressed in breast cancer and its overexpression predicts shorter survival in patients with ErbB2-positive tumors. Here, we demonstrate Ecd knock down (KD) in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) induces growth arrest, similar to the impact of Ecd Knock out (KO) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, whole-genome mRNA expression analysis of control vs...
2015: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25509107/-drosophila-melanogaster-imaginal-discs-mitotic-anomalies-induced-by-tumor-supressor-dlg-silencing-construction
#10
L I Lebedeva, T D Dubatolova, L V Omel'ianchuk
Mitosis, cytokinesis and nuclear texture of wing imaginal discs cells silenced by UAS-RNAi-dlg construct induced by 1096-Ga 14 driver were studied. The silencing construct contains coding region of dlg gene and the complementary region. Further, this RNA hairpin (Dietzl et al., 2007) is processed by endogenous protein Dicer and the resulting RNA fragments silence mRNA dlg. Tumor suppressor gene dlg is encoding for 21 transcripts. The construct UAS-RNAi-dlg inactivates 14 transcripts--RE, RH, RQ, RS, RG, RD, RL, RB, RK, RR, RT, RN, RA, RP--and does not silenced the other 7 (RO, RF, RI, RU, RJ, RC, RM)...
2013: Tsitologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25497380/why-should-cancer-biologists-care-about-trnas-trna-synthesis-mrna-translation-and-the-control-of-growth
#11
REVIEW
Savraj S Grewal
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for mRNA translation. They are transcribed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase III and undergo many modifications before contributing to cytoplasmic protein synthesis. In this review I highlight our understanding of how tRNA biology may be linked to the regulation of mRNA translation, growth and tumorigenesis. First, I review how oncogenes and tumour suppressor signalling pathways, such as the PI3 kinase/TORC1, Ras/ERK, Myc, p53 and Rb pathways, regulate Pol III and tRNA synthesis...
July 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25496208/role-of-drosophila-retinoblastoma-protein-instability-element-in-cell-growth-and-proliferation
#12
Jared S Elenbaas, Rima Mouawad, R William Henry, David N Arnosti, Sandhya Payankaulam
The RB tumor suppressor, a regulator of the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence, and differentiation, is frequently mutated in human cancers. We recently described an evolutionarily conserved C-terminal "instability element" (IE) of the Drosophila Rbf1 retinoblastoma protein that regulates its turnover. Misexpression of wild-type or non-phosphorylatable forms of the Rbf1 protein leads to repression of cell cycle genes. In contrast, overexpression of a defective form of Rbf1 lacking the IE (ΔIE), a stabilized but transcriptionally less active form of the protein, induced ectopic S phase in cell culture...
2015: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480974/bmaly-is-an-important-factor-in-meiotic-progression-and-spermatid-differentiation-in-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-bombycidae
#13
Pengjie Zhang, Jinfeng Zhong, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The Drosophila melanogaster "always early" gene (Dmaly), which is required for G2/M cell-cycle control and spermatid differentiation, is one of the meiotic arrest genes. To study the Bombyx mori aly gene (Bmaly), the cDNA of Bmaly was cloned and sequenced, and the results showed that the open reading frame of Bmaly is 1,713 bp in length, encoding 570 amino acid residues, in which a domain in an Rb-related pathway was found. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of conserved regions showed that Aly from different insects gathered together, except for DmAly and Culex quinquefasciatus Aly, which were not clustered to a subgroup according to insect order...
2014: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25213357/mitochondrial-ferritin-a-new-target-for-inhibiting-neuronal-tumor-cell-proliferation
#14
Zhen-Hua Shi, Fang-Fang Shi, Yue-Qi Wang, Alex D Sheftel, Guangjun Nie, Ya-Shuo Zhao, Lin-Hao You, Yu-Jing Gou, Xiang-Lin Duan, Bao-Lu Zhao, Hong-Meng Xu, Chun-Yan Li, Yan-Zhong Chang
Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) has a significant effect on the regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial iron levels. However, because of the deficiency of iron regulatory elements (IRE) in FtMt's gene sequence, the exact function of FtMt remains unclear. In the present study, we found that FtMt dramatically inhibited SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and tumor growth in nude mice. Interestingly, excess FtMt did not adversely affect the development of drosophila. Additionally, we found that the expression of FtMt in human normal brain tissue was significantly higher than that of neuroblastoma, but not higher than that of neurospongioma...
March 2015: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25188515/the-pro-apoptotic-activity-of-drosophila-rbf1-involves-de2f2-dependent-downregulation-of-diap1-and-buffy-mrna
#15
A Clavier, A Baillet, A Rincheval-Arnold, A Coléno-Costes, C Lasbleiz, B Mignotte, I Guénal
The retinoblastoma gene, rb, ensures at least its tumor suppressor function by inhibiting cell proliferation. Its role in apoptosis is more complex and less described than its role in cell cycle regulation. Rbf1, the Drosophila homolog of Rb, has been found to be pro-apoptotic in proliferative tissue. However, the way it induces apoptosis at the molecular level is still unknown. To decipher this mechanism, we induced rbf1 expression in wing proliferative tissue. We found that Rbf1-induced apoptosis depends on dE2F2/dDP heterodimer, whereas dE2F1 transcriptional activity is not required...
2014: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25058496/an-intronic-microrna-links-rb-e2f-and-egfr-signaling
#16
Mary Truscott, Abul B M M K Islam, James Lightfoot, Núria López-Bigas, Maxim V Frolov
The importance of microRNAs in the regulation of various aspects of biology and disease is well recognized. However, what remains largely unappreciated is that a significant number of miRNAs are embedded within and are often co-expressed with protein-coding host genes. Such a configuration raises the possibility of a functional interaction between a miRNA and the gene it resides in. This is exemplified by the Drosophila melanogaster dE2f1 gene that harbors two miRNAs, mir-11 and mir-998, within its last intron...
July 2014: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25049232/integrated-stability-and-activity-control-of-the-drosophila-rbf1-retinoblastoma-protein
#17
Liang Zhang, Yiliang Wei, Irina Pushel, Karolin Heinze, Jared Elenbaas, R William Henry, David N Arnosti
The retinoblastoma (RB) family transcriptional corepressors regulate diverse cellular events including cell cycle, senescence, and differentiation. The activity and stability of these proteins are mediated by post-translational modifications; however, we lack a general understanding of how distinct modifications coordinately impact both of these properties. Previously, we showed that protein turnover and activity are tightly linked through an evolutionarily conserved C-terminal instability element (IE) in the Drosophila RB-related protein Rbf1; surprisingly, mutant proteins with enhanced stability were less, not more active...
September 5, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24809668/hyperactivated-wnt-signaling-induces-synthetic-lethal-interaction-with-rb-inactivation-by-elevating-torc1-activities
#18
Tianyi Zhang, Yang Liao, Fu-Ning Hsu, Robin Zhang, Jennifer S Searle, Xun Pei, Xuan Li, Hyung Don Ryoo, Jun-Yuan Ji, Wei Du
Inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor can lead to increased cell proliferation or cell death depending on specific cellular context. Therefore, identification of the interacting pathways that modulate the effect of Rb loss will provide novel insights into the roles of Rb in cancer development and promote new therapeutic strategies. Here, we identify a novel synthetic lethal interaction between Rb inactivation and deregulated Wg/Wnt signaling through unbiased genetic screens. We show that a weak allele of axin, which deregulates Wg signaling and increases cell proliferation without obvious effects on cell fate specification, significantly alters metabolic gene expression, causes hypersensitivity to metabolic stress induced by fasting, and induces synergistic apoptosis with mutation of fly Rb ortholog, rbf...
May 2014: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24673933/a-biophysical-analysis-of-mitochondrial-movement-differences-between-transport-in-neuronal-cell-bodies-versus-processes
#19
Babu Reddy Janakaloti Narayanareddy, Suvi Vartiainen, Neema Hariri, Diane K O'Dowd, Steven P Gross
There is an increasing interest in factors that can impede cargo transport by molecular motors inside the cell. Although potentially relevant (Yi JY, Ori-McKenney KM, McKenney RJ, Vershinin M, Gross SP, Vallee RB. High-resolution imaging reveals indirect coordination of opposite motors and a role for LIS1 in high-load axonal transport. J Cell Biol 2011;195:193-201), the importance of cargo size and subcellular location has received relatively little attention. Here we address these questions taking advantage of the fact that mitochondria - a common cargo - in Drosophila neurons exhibit a wide distribution of sizes...
July 2014: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24027329/white-spot-syndrome-virus-ie1-and-wsv056-modulate-the-g1-s-transition-by-binding-to-the-host-retinoblastoma-protein
#20
Xiaozhuo Ran, Xiaofang Bian, Yongchang Ji, Xiumin Yan, Feng Yang, Fang Li
DNA viruses often target cellular proteins to modulate host cell cycles and facilitate viral genome replication. However, whether proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) requires regulation of the host cell cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we show that two WSSV paralogs, IE1 and WSV056, can interact with Litopenaeus vannamei retinoblastoma (Rb)-like protein (lv-RBL) through the conserved LxCxE motif. Further investigation revealed that IE1 and WSV056 could also bind to Drosophila retinoblastoma family protein 1 (RBF1) in a manner similar to how they bind to lv-RBL...
December 2013: Journal of Virology
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