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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719584/-drosophila-pebp1-inhibits-intestinal-stem-cell-aging-via-suppression-of-erk-pathway
#1
Jung-Hoon Pyo, Ho-Jun Jeon, Joung-Sun Park, Jae-Sun Lee, Hae-Young Chung, Mi-Ae Yoo
The intestine is a high cellular turnover tissue largely dependent on the regenerative function of stem cell throughout life, and a signaling center for the health and viability of organisms. Therefore, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) regenerative potential is essential for the possible intervention of aging process and age-related diseases. Drosophila midgut is a well-established model system for studying the mechanisms underlying ISC regenerative potential during aging...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578365/the-capicua-tumor-suppressor-a-gatekeeper-of-ras-signaling-in-development-and-cancer
#2
Lucía Simón-Carrasco, Gerardo Jiménez, Mariano Barbacid, Matthias Drosten
The transcriptional repressor Capicua (CIC) has emerged as an important rheostat of cell growth regulated by RAS/MAPK signaling. Cic was originally discovered in Drosophila, where it was shown to be inactivated by MAPK signaling downstream of the RTKs Torso and EGFR, which results in signal-dependent responses that are required for normal cell fate specification, proliferation and survival of developing and adult tissues. CIC is highly conserved in mammals, where it is also negatively regulated by MAPK signaling...
March 26, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567672/origin-and-specification-of-type-ii-neuroblasts-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#3
José-Andrés Álvarez, Fernando J Díaz-Benjumea
In Drosophila , neural stem cells or neuroblasts (NBs) acquire different identities according to their site of origin in the embryonic neuroectoderm. Their identity determines the number of times they will divide and the types of daughter cells they will generate. All NBs divide asymmetrically, with type-I NBs undergoing self-renewal and generating another cell that will divide only once more. By contrast, a small set of NBs in the larval brain, type-II NBs, divide differently, undergoing self-renewal and generating an intermediate neural progenitor (INP) that continues to divide asymmetrically several more times, generating larger lineages...
March 22, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540498/the-mir-279-996-cluster-represses-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-to-determine-cell-fates-in-the-drosophila-eye
#4
Hong Duan, Luis F de Navas, Fuqu Hu, Kailiang Sun, Yannis E Mavromatakis, Kayla Viets, Cyrus Zhou, Joshua Kavaler, Robert J Johnston, Andrew Tomlinson, Eric C Lai
Photoreceptors in the crystalline Drosophila eye are recruited by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signaling mediated by Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the Sevenless (Sev) receptor. Analyses of an allelic deletion series of the mir-279/996 locus, along with a panel of modified genomic rescue transgenes, show that Drosophila eye patterning depends on both miRNAs. Transcriptional reporter and activity sensor transgenes reveal expression and function of miR-279/996 in non-neural cells of the developing eye...
April 9, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453546/a-drosophila-model-to-decipher-the-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-taken-through-oral-routes
#5
S Aurosman Pappus, Monalisa Mishra
In recent era, nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in food, medicine and body implants. Besides it's wide use being a foreign particle it may have some noxious effect on the body. To understand the mechanistic role of NPs toxicity, Drosophila appeared to be a superior model organism. Toxicity of several nanoparticles were accessed using Drosophila. The NPs, after oral route of exposure enter into the gut, crosses the barrier of peritrophic membrane and induces apoptosis. The toxicity of NPs within gut resulted in developmental delay, with decrease in pupa count, fly hatching along with weight loss...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403026/impaired-wnt-signaling-in-dopamine-containing-neurons-is-associated-with-pathogenesis-in-a-rotenone-triggered-drosophila-parkinson-s-disease-model
#6
Flora Stephano, Stella Nolte, Julia Hoffmann, Samar El-Kholy, Jakob von Frieling, Iris Bruchhaus, Christine Fink, Thomas Roeder
Parkinson's disease, which is the one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine containing neurons. The mechanisms underlying disease initiation and development are not well understood and causative therapies are currently not available. To elucidate the molecular processes during early stages of Parkinson's disease, we utilized a Drosophila model. To induce Parkinson's disease-like phenotypes, we treated flies with the pesticide rotenone and isolated dopamine producing neurons of animals that were at an early disease stage...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318543/a-simple-cell-based-assay-for-the-detection-of-surface-protein-shedding-by-rhomboid-proteases
#7
Angela Moncada-Pazos, Adam Graham Grieve
Rhomboids are intramembrane serine proteases that cleave their substrates within or immediately adjacent to their transmembrane domains, a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis. In eukaryotes, two main types of rhomboid proteases can be distinguished based on their subcellular localization: mitochondrial rhomboids and secretase-type rhomboids that target the secretory pathway. The latter class can cleave and release the extracellular domain of all epidermal growth factor-like proteins in Drosophila and can liberate epidermal growth factor (EGF) in mammals, in a process known as ectodomain shedding...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240764/selection-for-long-and-short-sleep-duration-in-drosophila-melanogaster-reveals-the-complex-genetic-network-underlying-natural-variation-in-sleep
#8
Susan T Harbison, Yazmin L Serrano Negron, Nancy F Hansen, Amanda S Lobell
Why do some individuals need more sleep than others? Forward mutagenesis screens in flies using engineered mutations have established a clear genetic component to sleep duration, revealing mutants that convey very long or short sleep. Whether such extreme long or short sleep could exist in natural populations was unknown. We applied artificial selection for high and low night sleep duration to an outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster for 13 generations. At the end of the selection procedure, night sleep duration diverged by 9...
December 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157562/erk-regulates-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-in-fission-deficient-drosophila-follicle-cells-during-differentiation
#9
Darshika Tomer, Rohan Chippalkatti, Kasturi Mitra, Richa Rikhy
Mitochondrial morphology regulatory proteins interact with signaling pathways involved in differentiation. In Drosophila oogenesis, EGFR signaling regulates mitochondrial fragmentation in posterior follicle cells (PFCs). EGFR driven oocyte patterning and Notch signaling mediated differentiation are abrogated when PFCs are deficient for the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. It is not known whether fused mitochondrial morphology in drp1 mutant PFCs exerts its effects on these signaling pathways through a change in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102770/overexpression-of-djmj-differentially-affects-intestinal-stem-cells-and-differentiated-enterocytes
#10
Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Kouhei Shimaji, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Joung-Sun Park, Hideki Yoshida, Mi-Ae Yoo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Jumonji (Jmj)/Jarid2 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor mediated via histone methylation. Nevertheless, the well-known function of Jmj is as a scaffold for the recruitment of various complexes including Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and required for mouse embryonic stem cell development. However, PRC2 independent function is suggested for Drosophila Jumonji (dJmj). To clarify the function of dJmj during cell differentiation, we used Drosophila adult intestinal stem cell system that allows to follow stem cell behaviors in vivo...
January 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091025/reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-toll-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-the-drosophila-hematopoietic-niche-confers-resistance-to-wasp-parasitism
#11
Isabelle Louradour, Anurag Sharma, Ismael Morin-Poulard, Manon Letourneau, Alain Vincent, Michèle Crozatier, Nathalie Vanzo
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the adult mammalian bone marrow ensure blood cell renewal. Their cellular microenvironment, called 'niche', regulates hematopoiesis both under homeostatic and immune stress conditions. In the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, the posterior signaling center (PSC) acts as a niche to regulate the hematopoietic response to immune stress such as wasp parasitism. This response relies on the differentiation of lamellocytes, a cryptic cell type, dedicated to pathogen encapsulation and killing...
November 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993397/graf-regulates-hematopoiesis-through-geec-endocytosis-of-egfr
#12
Sungdae Kim, Minyeop Nahm, Najin Kim, Yumi Kwon, Joohyung Kim, Sukwoo Choi, Eun Young Choi, Jiwon Shim, Cheolju Lee, Seungbok Lee
GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase 1 (GRAF1) is an essential component of the GPI-enriched endocytic compartment (GEEC) endocytosis pathway. Mutations in the human GRAF1 gene are associated with acute myeloid leukemia, but its normal role in myeloid cell development remains unclear. We show that Graf, the Drosophila ortholog of GRAF1, is expressed and specifically localizes to GEEC endocytic membranes in macrophage-like plasmatocytes. We also find that loss of Graf impairs GEEC endocytosis, enhances EGFR signaling and induces a plasmatocyte overproliferation phenotype that requires the EGFR signaling cascade...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956382/-identification-and-characterization-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-ligands-in-bombyx-mori
#13
Fei Wang, Shifeng Dong, Liang Song, Qingyou Xia
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a multi-functional receptor distributed throughout the metazoa. Study on its ligands so far remained mainly on mammals, including how ligands are processed into active forms, their interaction with EGFR, and the signaling pathway they induce. However, in invertebrates, ligands are more divergent among species. Currently, except for Drosophila, less is known about the insect EGFR ligands. Here, we identified two EGFR ligands in Bombyx mori by homology search, domain prediction, analysis of the potential translation initiation sequence and construction of phylogenetic tree, termed as BmEGF-1 and BmEGF-2...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#14
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877471/kif5b-ret-oncoprotein-signals-through-a-multi-kinase-signaling-hub
#15
Tirtha Kamal Das, Ross Leigh Cagan
Gene fusions are increasingly recognized as important cancer drivers. The KIF5B-RET gene has been identified as a primary driver in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas. Targeting human KIF5B-RET to epithelia in Drosophila directed multiple aspects of transformation, including hyperproliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and extension of striking invadopodia-like processes. The KIF5B-RET-transformed human bronchial cell line showed similar aspects of transformation, including invadopodia-like processes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847000/feedback-regulation-of-steady-state-epithelial-turnover-and-organ-size
#16
Jackson Liang, Shruthi Balachandra, Sang Ngo, Lucy Erin O'Brien
Epithelial organs undergo steady-state turnover throughout adult life, with old cells being continually replaced by the progeny of stem cell divisions. To avoid hyperplasia or atrophy, organ turnover demands strict equilibration of cell production and loss. However, the mechanistic basis of this equilibrium is unknown. Here we show that robustly precise turnover of the adult Drosophila intestine arises through a coupling mechanism in which enterocyte apoptosis breaks feedback inhibition of stem cell division...
August 31, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791646/studying-nonproliferative-roles-for-egfr-signaling-in-tissue-morphogenesis-using-dorsal-closure-of-the-drosophila-embryo
#17
Bruce Reed, Nicholas Harden
For several decades, genetic analysis in Drosophila has made important contributions to the understanding of signaling by Egfr. Egfr has been well characterized with regard to its oncogenic potential but is also being studied for its roles in organismal development. We have recently developed dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo as a system for characterizing Egfr regulation of events that do not involve proliferation, as no cell divisions occur during this process. Dorsal closure is essentially a developmental wound healing event with parallels to vertebrate developmental epithelial fusions such as neural tube closure and palate fusion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791632/new-insights-from-drosophila-into-the-regulation-of-egfr-signaling
#18
Nicholas Harden
Genetic analysis of Egfr signaling in Drosophila has a long-standing track record of making important contributions to our understanding of the Egfr pathway. While the central Ras/MAPK pathway has long been well defined, there is much to learn with regard to its cross talk with other pathways and how it is regulated. A better understanding of the regulation of Egfr signaling is of particular interest with regard to the participation of misregulated Egfr signaling in tumorigenesis. Recent studies in the fly have led to some surprising results, identifying regulators of Egfr acting in unexpected ways...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754838/the-chromatin-remodeling-bap-complex-limits-tumor-promoting-activity-of-the-hippo-pathway-effector-yki-to-prevent-neoplastic-transformation-in-drosophila-epithelia
#19
Shilin Song, Héctor Herranz, Stephen M Cohen
Switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes are mutated in many human cancers. In this article, we make use of a Drosophila genetic model for epithelial tumor formation to explore the tumor suppressive role of SWI/SNF complex proteins. Members of the BAP complex exhibit tumor suppressor activity in tissue overexpressing the Yorkie (Yki) proto-oncogene, but not in tissue overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The Brahma-associated protein (BAP) complex has been reported to serve as a Yki-binding cofactor to support Yki target expression...
October 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701658/drosophila-dock-family-protein-zizimin-involves-in-pigment-cell-differentiation-in-pupal-retinae
#20
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
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